Vision in dim light
Accommodation for near vision
olfactory receptor cells
retinal bipolar cells
retinal ganglion cells
auditory outer and inner hair cells
External acoustic meatus
Go to the superior colliculus only
Pass posteriorly without crossing over the chiasma
Divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing
Cross over to the opposire side at the chiasma
Is not a living tissue
Has no nerve supply
has no blood supply
Does not contain connective tissue
External acoustic meatus
Lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
Outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
Outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
Inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
Inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium
In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic
The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli
Complete adaption occurs in about one to five minutes.
All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation
In fungiform papillae
In filiform papillae
In circumvallate papillae
Lining the buccal cavity
Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.
Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.
Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.
Ciliary gland secretions
Tarsal gland secretions
Sweetorganic substances such as sugar and some lead salts
Umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine
Bone in the center of a semicircular canal
Bone around the cochlea
A bone pillar in the center of the cochlea
A bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves
The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes
Visual pigment content is reduced in both rods and cones.
The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function
Is much faster than light adaptation
Results in inhibition of rod function
Involves improvement of acuity and color vision
Involves accumulation of rhodopsin
Occipital lobe of the cortex
Lateral geniculate body
Primary visual cortex
Lateral geniculate body
Brain stem reflex centers
Respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins
Respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs
Result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem
Result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
The fetus cannot see and therefore visual cortical connections are not made
The fetus can see only light and shadow, but not forms, so partial visual connections are made
Despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established
Scanty visual connections are made that proliferate greatly during infancy
Often use only one eye at a time
See in tones of red and green only
Cry with copious tears
More rods than cones are found
The macula lutea is located
Only cones occur
The optic nerve leaves the eye
Quality: frequency number
Amplitude: sound intensity
Frequency: wavelength number
Substances in solution
Stretching of the receptor cells
The movement of otoliths
Movement of a cupula
Rods and cones
The sensitivity of the retina decreases
The rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated
Rhodopsin accumulates in the rods
The cones are activated
They are ciliated
They are unipolar neurons
They are chemoreceptors.
They have a short life span of about 60 days
Spiral organ (of Corti)
Human photoreceptors respond to light in the 100-300 nm range.
When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for the color being experienced
Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that slows down as it enters a medium of relatively less density
The greater the incident angle of light striking a refractive surface, the less the amount of light bending.
Is composed of connective tissue surrounding a thin cartilage plate
Is connected to the superior rectus muscle
Is connected to the levator palpebrae
Assists in the act of winking
Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.
In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.
Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.
If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the color perceived is black.
The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the maculae is responsible for static equilibrium
Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
Hair cells of both types of equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in an increased rate of impulse transmission.
Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body continues at a constant rate
Vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
Cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
Cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor
Aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor
It requires processing at the cortical level.
It requires input from both ears.
It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.
It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline.
Middle ear infection
Cochlear nerve degeneration
X rays and UV
Gamma rays and infrared
Microwaves and radio waves
UV and infrared
Saliva glands found at the base of the tongue
Modified apocrine sweat glands
Glands found in the lateral corners of your eye
Modified taste buds