The Special Senses

54 Questions
The Special Senses

Sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch are the five basic senses that are in the human body. How well do you understand these senses? Find out how conversant you are with these senses below.

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
    • A. 

      Depth perception

    • B. 

      Color vision

    • C. 

      Vision in dim light

    • D. 

      Accommodation for near vision

  • 2. 
    2) What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
    • A. 

      Aqueous humor

    • B. 

      Lens

    • C. 

      Cornea

    • D. 

      Iris

  • 3. 
    Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.
    • A. 

      Cochlea

    • B. 

      Semicircular canals

    • C. 

      Tympanic membrane

    • D. 

      Vestibule

  • 4. 
    Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?
    • A. 

      olfactory receptor cells

    • B. 

      retinal bipolar cells

    • C. 

      retinal ganglion cells

    • D. 

      auditory outer and inner hair cells

  • 5. 
    The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.
    • A. 

      Lacrimal glands

    • B. 

      Ciliary glands

    • C. 

      Conjunctiva

    • D. 

      Tarsal glands

  • 6. 
    The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
    • A. 

      Semicircular canals

    • B. 

      Macula

    • C. 

      Utricle

    • D. 

      Cochlear duct

  • 7. 
    Farsightedness is more properly called ________.
    • A. 

      Myopia

    • B. 

      Hypopia

    • C. 

      Hyperopia

    • D. 

      Presbyopia

  • 8. 
    Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.
    • A. 

      Eye

    • B. 

      Ears

    • C. 

      Skin

    • D. 

      Nose

  • 9. 
    Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
    • A. 

      Pinna

    • B. 

      External acoustic meatus

    • C. 

      Tympanic membrane

    • D. 

      Pharyngotympanic tube

  • 10. 
    Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.
    • A. 

      Go to the superior colliculus only

    • B. 

      Pass posteriorly without crossing over the chiasma

    • C. 

      Divide at the chiasma, with some crossing and some not crossing

    • D. 

      Cross over to the opposire side at the chiasma

  • 11. 
    Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.
    • A. 

      Is not a living tissue

    • B. 

      Has no nerve supply

    • C. 

      has no blood supply

    • D. 

      Does not contain connective tissue

  • 12. 
    The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?
    • A. 

      Scala vestibuli

    • B. 

      External acoustic meatus

    • C. 

      Pharyngotympanic tube

    • D. 

      Scala tympani

  • 13. 
    There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?
    • A. 

      Bipolar cells

    • B. 

      Ganglion cells

    • C. 

      Cone cells

    • D. 

      Rod cells

  • 14. 
    The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partial crossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.
    • A. 

      Superior colliculi

    • B. 

      Lateral geniculate body of the thalamus

    • C. 

      Visual cortex

    • D. 

      Temporal lobe

  • 15. 
    As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.
    • A. 

      Outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

    • B. 

      Outer hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium

    • C. 

      Inner hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane

    • D. 

      Inner hair cells bend the cilia away from the kinocilium

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?
    • A. 

      In order for a chemical to be sensed, it must be hydrophobic

    • B. 

      The receptors generate an action potential in response to chemical stimuli

    • C. 

      Complete adaption occurs in about one to five minutes.

    • D. 

      All gustatory receptors have the same threshold for activation

  • 17. 
    Taste buds are not found ________.
    • A. 

      In fungiform papillae

    • B. 

      In filiform papillae

    • C. 

      In circumvallate papillae

    • D. 

      Lining the buccal cavity

  • 18. 
    Select the correct statement about olfaction.
    • A. 

      Olfactory receptors have a high degree of specificity toward a single type of chemical.

    • B. 

      Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.

    • C. 

      Substances must be volatile and hydrophobic in order to activate olfactory receptors.

    • D. 

      Olfactory adaptation is only due to fading of receptor cell response.

  • 19. 
    What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?
    • A. 

      Lacrimal fluid

    • B. 

      Ciliary gland secretions

    • C. 

      Tarsal gland secretions

    • D. 

      Conjunctival fluid

  • 20. 
    hich of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it?
    • A. 

      Sweetorganic substances such as sugar and some lead salts

    • B. 

      Souracids

    • C. 

      Saltymetal ions

    • D. 

      Bitteralkaloids

    • E. 

      Umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine

  • 21. 
    U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.
    • A. 

      100

    • B. 

      90

    • C. 

      80

    • D. 

      70

  • 22. 
    What is a modiolus?
    • A. 

      Bone in the center of a semicircular canal

    • B. 

      Bone around the cochlea

    • C. 

      A bone pillar in the center of the cochlea

    • D. 

      A bony area around the junction of the facial, vestibular, and cochlear nerves

  • 23. 
    Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?
    • A. 

      The most common cause is vitamin D deficiency.

    • B. 

      Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes

    • C. 

      Visual pigment content is reduced in both rods and cones.

    • D. 

      The impaired vision is caused by reduced cone function

  • 24. 
    Dark adaptation ________.
    • A. 

      Is much faster than light adaptation

    • B. 

      Results in inhibition of rod function

    • C. 

      Involves improvement of acuity and color vision

    • D. 

      Involves accumulation of rhodopsin

  • 25. 
    Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.
    • A. 

      Thalamus

    • B. 

      Occipital lobe of the cortex

    • C. 

      Chiasma

    • D. 

      Superior calliculus

  • 26. 
    In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________.
    • A. 

      Medial retina

    • B. 

      Lateral geniculate body

    • C. 

      Primary visual cortex

    • D. 

      Optic chiasma

  • 27. 
    Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.
    • A. 

      Pretectal nuclei

    • B. 

      Lateral geniculate body

    • C. 

      Superior colliculi

    • D. 

      Suprachiasmatic nucleus

  • 28. 
    Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.
    • A. 

      Motor cortex

    • B. 

      Visual cortex

    • C. 

      Brain stem reflex centers

    • D. 

      Back muscles

  • 29. 
    Motion sickness seems to ________.
    • A. 

      Respond best to medication taken after salivation and pallor begins

    • B. 

      Respond best to medication that "boosts" vestibular inputs

    • C. 

      Result from activation of nausea centers in the brain stem

    • D. 

      Result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs

  • 30. 
    In the uterus ________.
    • A. 

      The fetus cannot see and therefore visual cortical connections are not made

    • B. 

      The fetus can see only light and shadow, but not forms, so partial visual connections are made

    • C. 

      Despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established

    • D. 

      Scanty visual connections are made that proliferate greatly during infancy

  • 31. 
    Most newborns ________.
    • A. 

      Are myopic

    • B. 

      Often use only one eye at a time

    • C. 

      See in tones of red and green only

    • D. 

      Cry with copious tears

  • 32. 
    The blind spot of the eye is where ________.
    • A. 

      More rods than cones are found

    • B. 

      The macula lutea is located

    • C. 

      Only cones occur

    • D. 

      The optic nerve leaves the eye

  • 33. 
    The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.
    • A. 

      Mesenchyme

    • B. 

      Optic discs

    • C. 

      Optic vesicles

    • D. 

      Optic cups

  • 34. 
    Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?
    • A. 

      Frequency: loudness

    • B. 

      Quality: frequency number

    • C. 

      Amplitude: sound intensity

    • D. 

      Frequency: wavelength number

  • 35. 
    Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.
    • A. 

      Substances in solution

    • B. 

      Stretching of the receptor cells

    • C. 

      The movement of otoliths

    • D. 

      Movement of a cupula

  • 36. 
    Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?
    • A. 

      Macula lutea

    • B. 

      Optic chiasma

    • C. 

      Fovea centralis

    • D. 

      Optic disc

  • 37. 
    The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.
    • A. 

      Rods and cones

    • B. 

      Bipolar cells

    • C. 

      Ganglion cells

    • D. 

      Amacrine cells

  • 38. 
     During dark adaptation ________.
    • A. 

      The sensitivity of the retina decreases

    • B. 

      The rate of rhodopsin breakdown is accelerated

    • C. 

      Rhodopsin accumulates in the rods

    • D. 

      The cones are activated

  • 39. 
    Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.
    • A. 

      Ménière's syndrome

    • B. 

      Conjunctivitis

    • C. 

      Strabismus

    • D. 

      Motion sickness

  • 40. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?
    • A. 

      They are ciliated

    • B. 

      They are unipolar neurons

    • C. 

      They are chemoreceptors.

    • D. 

      They have a short life span of about 60 days

  • 41. 
    An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.
    • A. 

      Spiral organ (of Corti)

    • B. 

      Cupula

    • C. 

      Scala media

    • D. 

      Otoliths

  • 42. 
    Which of the following is true about light and vision?
    • A. 

      Human photoreceptors respond to light in the 100-300 nm range.

    • B. 

      When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for the color being experienced

    • C. 

      Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that slows down as it enters a medium of relatively less density

    • D. 

      The greater the incident angle of light striking a refractive surface, the less the amount of light bending.

  • 43. 
    The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.
    • A. 

      Is composed of connective tissue surrounding a thin cartilage plate

    • B. 

      Is connected to the superior rectus muscle

    • C. 

      Is connected to the levator palpebrae

    • D. 

      Assists in the act of winking

  • 44. 
    Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?
    • A. 

      Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.

    • B. 

      In dim light, images are focused directly on the rods in the fovea centralis.

    • C. 

      Three types of color-sensitive photoreceptors exist: red, green, and yellow.

    • D. 

      If all cones are stimulated equally, all colors are absorbed by the cones and the color perceived is black.

  • 45. 
    Select the correct statement about equilibrium.
    • A. 

      The weight of the endolymph contained within the semicircular canals against the maculae is responsible for static equilibrium

    • B. 

      Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.

    • C. 

      Hair cells of both types of equilibrium hyperpolarize only, resulting in an increased rate of impulse transmission.

    • D. 

      Due to dynamic equilibrium, movement can be perceived if rotation of the body continues at a constant rate

  • 46. 
    The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.
    • A. 

      Lateral rectus

    • B. 

      Superior oblique

    • C. 

      Inferior oblique

    • D. 

      Medial rectus

  • 47. 
    The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.
    • A. 

      Basal cells

    • B. 

      Gustatory hairs

    • C. 

      Fungiform papillae

    • D. 

      Taste buds

  • 48. 
    Light passes through the following structures in which order?
    • A. 

      Vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea

    • B. 

      Cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

    • C. 

      Cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor

    • D. 

      Aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor

  • 49. 
    Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.
    • A. 

      Refraction

    • B. 

      Accommodation

    • C. 

      Convergence

    • D. 

      Pupil constriction

  • 50. 
    Which statement about sound localization is not true?
    • A. 

      It requires processing at the cortical level.

    • B. 

      It requires input from both ears.

    • C. 

      It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.

    • D. 

      It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline.

  • 51. 
    Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?
    • A. 

      Impacted cerumen

    • B. 

      Middle ear infection

    • C. 

      Cochlear nerve degeneration

    • D. 

      Otosclerosis

  • 52. 
    Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.
    • A. 

      Depth perception

    • B. 

      High-acuity vision

    • C. 

      Night vision

    • D. 

      Movement perception

  • 53. 
    Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.
    • A. 

      X rays and UV

    • B. 

      Gamma rays and infrared

    • C. 

      Microwaves and radio waves

    • D. 

      UV and infrared

  • 54. 
    Ceruminous glands are ________.
    • A. 

      Saliva glands found at the base of the tongue

    • B. 

      Modified apocrine sweat glands

    • C. 

      Glands found in the lateral corners of your eye

    • D. 

      Modified taste buds