# Science 7 - 1st Quarter Test

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1st Quarter Test for Science 7. Chapter 1 - The Four Forces of Flight & Chapter 2 - The Structure of the Earth

• 1.

### The four forces of flight are lift, weight, ________, and thrust.

• A.

Drag

• B.

Gravity

• C.

Flaps

• D.

Wind

A. Drag
Explanation
Drag is the force that opposes the motion of an aircraft through the air. It is caused by the resistance of the air on the aircraft's surfaces and components. Drag is an important force to consider in flight because it affects the aircraft's speed, fuel efficiency, and overall performance. It is one of the four forces of flight, along with lift, weight, and thrust.

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• 2.

### ________ is the key to flight.

• A.

A pilot

• B.

Lift

• C.

Pitch

• D.

The fuselage

• E.

None of the above

B. Lift
Explanation
Lift is the force that enables an aircraft to overcome gravity and stay in the air. It is generated by the wings or other lifting surfaces of the aircraft as it moves through the air. Without lift, an aircraft would not be able to achieve flight. A pilot, pitch, and the fuselage are all important components of an aircraft, but they are not the key to flight. Therefore, the correct answer is lift.

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• 3.

### Which of the following is NOT part of an airplane?

• A.

Empennage

• B.

Cockpit

• C.

Elevator

• D.

Yaw

• E.

Vertical stabilizer

A. Empennage
D. Yaw
Explanation
The empennage and yaw are both part of an airplane. The empennage refers to the tail section of the aircraft, which includes the vertical stabilizer and horizontal stabilizer. Yaw, on the other hand, is one of the three primary movements of an aircraft, along with pitch and roll. Yaw refers to the side-to-side movement of the aircraft's nose. Therefore, the correct answer is empennage.

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• 4.

### What is located between the inner core and the mantle?

• A.

Plates

• B.

The atmospHere

• C.

The crust

• D.

The outer core

• E.

Both b and d

D. The outer core
Explanation
The correct answer is the outer core. The outer core is located between the inner core and the mantle. It is a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the solid inner core. The outer core is responsible for generating Earth's magnetic field through the movement of its liquid metal.

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• 5.

### Igenous rock come from the fire of a/an _____________. It starts out hot and liquid and then cools and becomes ______________.

• A.

Inner core / obsidian

• B.

Outer core / solid

• C.

Volcano / metamorpHic

• D.

Volcano / solid

• E.

Sedimentary rock / granite

D. Volcano / solid
Explanation
Igneous rocks are formed from the fire of a volcano. When a volcano erupts, molten lava flows out and cools down, eventually solidifying into igneous rock. The answer choice "volcano / solid" accurately describes this process.

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• 6.

### What is cartography?

• A.

The study of the structure of the earth

• B.

The study of rocks

• C.

Map making

• D.

Airplane building

C. Map making
Explanation
Cartography is the science and art of making maps. It involves the study and practice of creating accurate and detailed representations of the Earth's surface, including its physical features, political boundaries, and other relevant information. Cartographers use various techniques and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret geographic data, which they then use to create maps that are used for navigation, planning, and understanding spatial relationships. Therefore, "map making" is the correct answer as it accurately describes the field of cartography.

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• 7.

### ____________ rocks are rocks which have been changed.  They start out as ____________ rock and now have been changed into another type of rock.

• A.

MetamorpHic / igneous

• B.

Igneous / sedimentary

• C.

MetamorpHic / sedimentary

• D.

Sedimentary / MetamorpHic

• E.

Sedimentary / igneous

C. MetamorpHic / sedimentary
Explanation
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have been changed from their original form. They start out as sedimentary rock and have been transformed into another type of rock through heat and pressure. Sedimentary rocks, on the other hand, are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediments. Therefore, the correct answer is "Metamorphic / sedimentary."

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• 8.

### _______________ rock is made by matter being dropped by water into a lake bottom, river bottom, or a stream bed.  An example of this type of rock is __________________.

• A.

Igneous / granite

• B.

Sedimentary / sandstone

• C.

MetamorpHic / marble

• D.

Igneous / sandstone

• E.

MetamorpHic / granite

B. Sedimentary / sandstone
Explanation
Sedimentary rock is formed when matter is dropped by water into a lake bottom, river bottom, or a stream bed. Sandstone is an example of sedimentary rock.

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• 9.

### An example of ________________ rock is _________________.

• A.

Igneous / pumice

• B.

Igneous / diamond

• C.

MetamorpHic / obsidian

• D.

MetamorpHic / limestone

• E.

Sedimentary / slate

A. Igneous / pumice
Explanation
Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material, such as lava or magma. Pumice is a type of igneous rock that is formed from volcanic activity. It has a unique porous texture and is very lightweight, often floating on water. Therefore, the given answer "Igneous / pumice" is correct as pumice is an example of an igneous rock.

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• 10.

### Which of the following statements is NOT true?

• A.

Limestone is an example of sedimentary rock.

• B.

Marble is an example of metamorpHic rock.

• C.

Granite is an example of igneous rock.

• D.

Diamond is an example of igneous rock.

• E.

Chalk is an example of sedimentary rock.

D. Diamond is an example of igneous rock.
Explanation
Diamond is not an example of igneous rock. Diamonds are formed deep within the Earth's mantle under high pressure and temperature. They are then brought to the surface through volcanic eruptions. However, diamonds are not classified as igneous rocks because they are not formed from the cooling and solidification of molten rock. Instead, diamonds are classified as minerals.

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• 11.

### Which of the following is true?

• A.

Sandstone is an example of metamorpHic rock.

• B.

Chalk is an example of igneous rock.

• C.

Obsidian is an example of metamorpHic rock.

• D.

Basalt is an example of sedimentary rock.

• E.

Granite is an example of igneous rock.

E. Granite is an example of igneous rock.
Explanation
Granite is an example of igneous rock because it is formed from the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. It is composed mainly of quartz, feldspar, and mica minerals. Its coarse-grained texture and interlocking mineral crystals are characteristic of igneous rocks.

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• 12.

### ________________ are people who study the Earth and its rocks.

• A.

Rockologists

• B.

Aeronautical engineers

• C.

GeograpHers

• D.

Geologists

• E.

CartograpHers

D. Geologists
Explanation
Geologists are individuals who study the Earth and its rocks. They analyze the composition, structure, and history of the Earth's crust, as well as the processes that shape the planet over time. By studying rocks, geologists can gain insights into past geological events, such as volcanic eruptions or the formation of mountains. They also play a crucial role in identifying and assessing natural resources like minerals, oil, and water. Geographers, on the other hand, focus on the study of the Earth's physical features, climate, and human populations, while cartographers specialize in creating maps. Aeronautical engineers deal with the design and development of aircraft and spacecraft. Rockologists is not a recognized term or profession related to the study of the Earth and its rocks.

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• 13.

### True or False.  The center of the earth provides our magnetic field which protects us from the harmful rays of the sun.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The center of the Earth does not provide our magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic field is generated by the movement of molten iron in its outer core. This magnetic field acts as a shield, protecting us from the harmful solar radiation and charged particles emitted by the sun. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 14.

### Which layer of the Earth do we live on?

• A.

Inner Core

• B.

Outer Core

• C.

Mantle

• D.

Crust

• E.

None of the above

D. Crust
Explanation
The crust is the correct answer because it is the outermost layer of the Earth where we live. It is the thinnest layer, making up only about 1% of the Earth's volume. The crust is composed of solid rock and is divided into continental crust and oceanic crust. The continental crust is thicker and less dense than the oceanic crust. It is on the crust that we find landforms such as mountains, valleys, and plains, as well as bodies of water like oceans and lakes.

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• 15.

### Which of the following are types of Earth movements?

• A.

Earthquakes, subsidence and thrust

• B.

Drag, folding, faulting and erosion

• C.

Mountains, plains, valleys and lakes

• D.

Subsidence, erosion, earthquakes and folding

• E.

Uplift, erosion, thrust and earthquakes

D. Subsidence, erosion, earthquakes and folding
Explanation
The correct answer is subsidence, erosion, earthquakes, and folding. Subsidence refers to the sinking or settling of the Earth's surface. Erosion is the process of wearing away or removal of soil, rock, or sediment by natural elements like water, wind, or ice. Earthquakes are the result of sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust, causing shaking and displacement of the ground. Folding occurs when layers of rock are bent or curved due to tectonic forces.

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• 16.

### You can identify rocks and minerals by their characteristics.  Some of these characteristics are:

• A.

Hardness, luster, streak, fracture and magnetism

• B.

Color, magnetism, softness, streak and shine

• C.

Luster, fracture, reflection, cleavage and metallic

• D.

Talc, gypsum, calcite, flourite and apatite

• E.

Magnetism, calcite, luster, quartz and orthoclase

A. Hardness, luster, streak, fracture and magnetism
• 17.

### _______________ maps give you information about the _______________ of the land.

• A.

Flat distance / folding

• B.

TopograpHical / contours

• C.

SpHerical / oceans

• D.

Contour / geology

• E.

CartograpHy / elevation

B. TopograpHical / contours
Explanation
Topographical maps give you information about the contours of the land. Contours on a map represent the shape and elevation of the land, allowing users to understand the terrain and its features. These maps are commonly used in various fields such as geography, geology, and outdoor activities like hiking and mountaineering. By studying the contours on a topographical map, one can determine the steepness of slopes, identify valleys and ridges, and plan routes accordingly.

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• 18.

### The ____ number is the way we measure __________.

• A.

AR / alkaline

• B.

HP / acidity

• C.

pH / acidity

• D.

RA / alkaline

C. pH / acidity
Explanation
The pH number is the way we measure acidity. The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, indicating how acidic or basic it is. A pH value below 7 indicates acidity, while a value above 7 indicates alkalinity. Therefore, the correct answer is pH / acidity.

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• 19.

### ____________ forms many of the land forms we see on the Earth.  It is the wearing away of _________ by rain, water flowing downhill, water freezing, and the action of gravity.

• A.

Acid rain / rock

• B.

Subsidence / coal

• C.

Uplift / beaches

• D.

Erosion / rock

• E.

Folding / mountains

D. Erosion / rock
Explanation
Erosion is the process by which the Earth's surface is gradually worn away by various natural forces such as rain, water flow, freezing, and gravity. This process is responsible for shaping and forming many of the landforms we observe on Earth. The correct answer, "Erosion / rock," accurately describes this relationship, indicating that erosion acts upon rock formations to create different landforms.

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• 20.

### ____________ occur when parts of the earth press against an area of the _____________..

• A.

Earthquakes / inner core

• B.

Faults / crust

• C.

Foldings / clay

• D.

Uplifts / sinkholes

• E.

Subsidences / mantle

B. Faults / crust
Explanation
Faults occur when parts of the earth press against an area of the crust. Faults are fractures in the Earth's crust where rocks on either side have moved relative to each other. This movement can occur due to the compression, tension, or shear forces acting on the crust. Faults are responsible for causing earthquakes as the accumulated stress along the fault line is released in the form of seismic waves. The crust, which is the outermost layer of the Earth, is the most common location for faults to occur.

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• 21.

### ____________ of the soft earth layers occurs when the layers are pushed from ___________.

• A.

Folding / both sides

• B.

Faulting / above

• C.

Subsidence / the east

• D.

Sinkholes / below

• E.

Erosion / earthquakes

A. Folding / both sides
Explanation
Folding of the soft earth layers occurs when the layers are pushed from both sides. This means that the layers are being compressed and bent due to forces acting on them from opposite directions. This can happen due to tectonic plate movements or other geological processes.

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• 22.

### Lift is the force acting upon the plane in a/an _____________ direction.

• A.

Forward

• B.

Backward

• C.

Downward

• D.

Upward

• E.

Gravitational

D. Upward
Explanation
Lift is the force acting upon the plane in an upward direction because it counteracts the force of gravity and allows the plane to stay in the air. When air flows over the wings, it creates a difference in pressure, with lower pressure on top and higher pressure on the bottom. This pressure difference generates lift, which pushes the plane upward and opposes the downward force of gravity. Therefore, the correct answer is upward.

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• 23.

### Thrust is the force of the engine to move the plane _____________.

• A.

Forward

• B.

Backward

• C.

Downward

• D.

Upward

• E.

For landing

A. Forward
Explanation
Thrust is the force generated by the engine that propels the plane in a specific direction. In this case, the correct answer is "forward" because the thrust from the engine is used to move the plane in the direction of its intended travel.

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• 24.

### __________ is the force of the friction of __________.

• A.

Thrust / the ground

• B.

Weight / gravity

• C.

Drag / air

• D.

Lift / drag

C. Drag / air
Explanation
Drag is the force of friction that opposes the motion of an object through a fluid, such as air. When an object moves through the air, it experiences resistance due to the interaction between its surface and the air molecules. This resistance is known as drag. Therefore, the correct answer is "Drag / air."

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• 25.

### __________________ acts in the direction opposite to the forward force, _____________.

• A.

Friction / thrust

• B.

Weight / drag

• C.

Lift / drag

• D.

Thrust / lift

A. Friction / thrust
Explanation
Friction acts in the direction opposite to the forward force, which is thrust.

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• 26.

### Another word for empennage is ___________.

• A.

Crop dusting

• B.

Cockpit

• C.

Fuselage

• D.

Tail

D. Tail
Explanation
The correct answer is "tail". The empennage refers to the rear section of an aircraft, which includes the tail. The tail plays a crucial role in providing stability and control during flight. It consists of vertical and horizontal surfaces, such as the vertical stabilizer and the horizontal stabilizer, which are essential for maintaining the aircraft's balance and maneuverability. Therefore, "tail" is another word that can be used interchangeably with empennage.

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• 27.

### The horizontal stabilizer helps the plane ______________.

• A.

Turn to the right

• B.

Turn to the left

• C.

Land

• D.

Fly level

D. Fly level
Explanation
The horizontal stabilizer helps the plane fly level by providing stability and balance. It is located at the tail of the aircraft and generates downward force to counteract the nose-heavy tendency of the plane. This allows the plane to maintain a level flight attitude, ensuring that it stays on a straight and steady course without pitching up or down.

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• 28.

### The ________________ are the controls that make an airplane turn.

• A.

Landing gear

• B.

Ailerons

• C.

Elevator

• D.

Fuselage

B. Ailerons
Explanation
Ailerons are the controls that make an airplane turn. They are small hinged sections on the trailing edge of the wings, usually near the wingtips. By moving the ailerons up or down, the pilot can change the lift on each wing, causing the airplane to roll and turn in the desired direction. The ailerons work in opposition, with one going up while the other goes down, to create the necessary imbalance of lift for turning. The other options listed, such as landing gear, elevator, and fuselage, are not directly involved in the turning of an airplane.

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• 29.

### Contour lines are lines of equal _________________.

• A.

Sedimentary rock

• B.

Elevation

• C.

Folding

• D.

Concentric circles

B. Elevation
Explanation
Contour lines are lines on a map that connect points of equal elevation. They help to visualize the shape and steepness of the land. By following contour lines, one can determine the height and slope of a particular area. Therefore, the correct answer is elevation.

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• 30.

### Pieces of the Earth's crust which move around as units are called _________________.

• A.

Earthquakes

• B.

Volcanoes

• C.

Landforms

• D.

Plates

• E.

Layers

D. Plates
Explanation
The correct answer is "plates." Pieces of the Earth's crust that move around as units are called plates. These plates are constantly shifting and interacting with each other, which can result in various geological phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanic activity. The movement of these plates is responsible for the formation of different landforms and the shaping of the Earth's surface.

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• 31.

### Which of the following is NOT an external characteristic of the Earth?

• A.

Orbits the sun

• B.

Receives solar energy from the sun

• C.

Has breathable gases in the atmospHere

• D.

Inner core is very dense and hot

• E.

Moon is close enough to affect weather and tides

D. Inner core is very dense and hot
Explanation
The inner core being very dense and hot is not an external characteristic of the Earth because it is located at the very center of the planet. External characteristics refer to features or properties that are observable or present on the surface or in the surrounding environment of the Earth. The inner core, on the other hand, is located deep within the Earth's interior and cannot be directly observed or experienced externally.

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• 32.

### The mantle makes up about _____ of the Earth's mass.

• A.

23%

• B.

40%

• C.

68%

• D.

87%

C. 68%
Explanation
The mantle is a layer of the Earth that lies between the crust and the core. It is composed of solid rock and makes up the majority of the Earth's mass. The correct answer of 68% indicates that the mantle comprises a significant portion of the Earth's overall mass. This demonstrates the importance of the mantle in understanding the composition and structure of our planet.

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• 33.

### About _____ of the Earth's surface is covered by __________,

• A.

98% / mountains

• B.

70% / oceans

• C.

57% / crust

• D.

39% / glaciers

• E.

2% / land

B. 70% / oceans
Explanation
Approximately 70% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceans. This is a well-known fact supported by scientific evidence. Oceans are vast bodies of saltwater that play a crucial role in regulating the Earth's climate, supporting marine life, and providing essential resources. The remaining percentage includes landmasses, such as continents and islands, which make up only a small portion of the Earth's surface.

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• 34.

### __________ are flat and fairly __________ areas.

• A.

Glaciers / dry

• B.

Glaciers / eroded

• C.

Plains / rocky

• D.

Plains / level

D. Plains / level
Explanation
Plains are flat and fairly level areas. This means that they do not have significant variations in elevation or slope. They are characterized by their smooth and even terrain, making them ideal for agriculture and human settlement.

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• 35.

### The ______________ River is the largest river in the United States.

• A.

Missouri

• B.

Mississippi

• C.

Wisconsin

• D.

Amazon

• E.

Nile

B. Mississippi
Explanation
The Mississippi River is the largest river in the United States. It stretches over 2,320 miles and flows through 10 states. It is known for its significant role in American history, as it has been a vital transportation route for goods and people for centuries. The Mississippi River is also home to diverse ecosystems and wildlife, making it an important natural resource.

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• 36.

### The Law of ______________ states that a layer of rock laid down on top of another is __________ than the one underneath.

• A.

Superposition / younger

• B.

Superposition / older

• C.

Bernoulli / younger

• D.

Bernoulli / older

A. Superposition / younger
Explanation
The Law of Superposition states that a layer of rock laid down on top of another is younger than the one underneath. This principle is based on the observation that in undisturbed rock layers, the bottom layers formed first, and subsequent layers were deposited on top of them over time. As a result, the oldest rocks are found at the bottom, while the youngest rocks are found at the top. This principle is fundamental in the field of geology and helps in determining the relative ages of different rock layers.

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• 37.

### _______________ are naturally-occurring depressions where some of the limestone underground has been disolved by rain.

• A.

Volcanoes

• B.

Folds

• C.

Faults

• D.

Subsidences

• E.

Sinkholes

E. Sinkholes
Explanation
Sinkholes are naturally-occurring depressions where some of the limestone underground has been dissolved by rain. This process, known as karstification, occurs when water seeps through cracks in the limestone and gradually dissolves the rock over time. As the limestone dissolves, it creates underground cavities and tunnels, eventually causing the ground above to collapse and form a sinkhole. Sinkholes can vary in size and can pose a significant hazard to infrastructure and human safety.

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• 38.

### A method for comparing the hardness of different minerals is called ____________________.

• A.

Buhs scale of magnetism

• B.

Poms scale of luster

• C.

Mohs scale of hardness

• D.

Lohs scale of streakability

• E.

Fums scale of fracture

C. Mohs scale of hardness
Explanation
The correct answer is Mohs scale of hardness. This scale is used to compare the hardness of different minerals based on their ability to scratch one another. It was developed by Friedrich Mohs in 1812 and consists of a series of 10 minerals, with diamond being the hardest at 10 and talc being the softest at 1. The scale is widely used in geology and mineralogy to determine the relative hardness of minerals.

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• 39.

### Another word for molten rock is ___________.

• A.

Topaz

• B.

Gypsum

• C.

Acid rain

• D.

Lava

• E.

None of the above

D. Lava
Explanation
Molten rock refers to the state of rock when it has been heated to such a high temperature that it becomes liquid. This liquid rock is commonly known as lava. Therefore, the correct answer for another word for molten rock is lava.

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• 40.

### Rocks are made up of ____________________.

• A.

Mica

• B.

Calcite

• C.

Minerals

• D.

Sediments

• E.

Magma

C. Minerals
Explanation
Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure. They are the building blocks of rocks and are responsible for their physical and chemical properties. Different combinations and arrangements of minerals give rocks their unique characteristics and classifications.

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