Seleksi Masuk Sistem Saraf Pusat II

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Seleksi Masuk Sistem Saraf Pusat II - Quiz

.Petunjuk Pengerjaan:Waktu Pengerjaan soal adalah 4 (empat) menit.Jumlah soal sebanyak 10 (sepuluh) Nomor.Target nilai minimal 70 (70%) dan mendapatkan kategori PASS (lulus). Jika belum mendapatkan nilai tersebut (FAILED) praktikaN bisa mengulang ujian lagi hingga mendapatkan nilai tersebut.Sertifikat dengan kategori PASS digunakan sebagai syarat masuk praktikum.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Dibawah ini yang merupakan jenis nyeri ringan, kecuali

    • A.

      Sakit otot karna infeksi virus

    • B.

      Nyeri haid

    • C.

      rematik

    • D.

      Keseleo

    Correct Answer
    C. rematik
    Explanation
    The given options consist of different types of pain. "Rematik" (rheumatism) is not a type of mild pain, but rather a chronic condition that causes joint pain and inflammation. The other options, such as muscle pain due to a viral infection, menstrual pain, and sprained muscles, are all examples of mild pain. Therefore, "rematik" is the correct answer as it does not belong to the category of mild pain.

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  • 2. 

    Mediator utama pembentuk nyeri yang dihasilkan dari hipotalamus....

    • A.

      Prostaglandin

    • B.

      Bradikinin

    • C.

      Histamin

    • D.

      Sitokin

    Correct Answer
    A. Prostaglandin
    Explanation
    The main mediator involved in the formation of pain originating from the hypothalamus is prostaglandin. Prostaglandins are lipid compounds that are produced by various cells in the body, including the hypothalamus. They play a role in inflammation and pain by sensitizing nerve endings to pain signals. In the context of the given question, prostaglandins are likely to be the main mediator responsible for transmitting pain signals from the hypothalamus.

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  • 3. 

    Jenis nyeri yang biasa diobati dengan pemberian ergotamin/klonidin .....

    • A.

      Nyeri haid

    • B.

      Migrain

    • C.

      Neuralgia

    • D.

      Rematik

    Correct Answer
    B. Migrain
    Explanation
    Migraine is a type of headache that is commonly treated with the administration of ergotamine or clonidine. Ergotamine is a medication that constricts blood vessels in the brain, while clonidine is a medication that helps to regulate blood pressure. Both of these medications are commonly used to alleviate the symptoms of migraines, such as severe headache, nausea, and sensitivity to light and sound. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the correct answer is migraine.

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  • 4. 

    Contoh obat analgetik yang tidak bisa diberikan untuk pasien infark jantung 

    • A.

      Pirimidon

    • B.

      Morfin

    • C.

      Petidin

    • D.

      Karbamazepim

    Correct Answer
    B. Morfin
    Explanation
    Morfin is an opioid analgesic that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain. However, it can also have negative effects on the cardiovascular system, such as causing respiratory depression, hypotension, and bradycardia. These effects can be dangerous for patients with a history of heart attack (infark jantung), as it can further compromise their cardiovascular function. Therefore, morfin should not be given to patients with a heart attack.

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  • 5. 

    Jenis analgetik yang efek sampingnya menimbulkan ketergantungan 

    • A.

      Metadon dan opiod lain

    • B.

      Derivat fenamat

    • C.

      Derivat para-aminofenol

    • D.

      Inhibitor cox 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Metadon dan opiod lain
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "metadon dan opiod lain". Metadon and other opioids are analgesics that have the potential to cause dependence. These drugs work by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain. However, prolonged use of opioids can lead to physical dependence, where the body becomes accustomed to the presence of the drug and experiences withdrawal symptoms when it is stopped. Therefore, metadon and other opioids should be used with caution and under medical supervision to prevent dependence.

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  • 6. 

    Contoh obat golongan steroid, kecuali 

    • A.

      Kortisol

    • B.

      Asam mefenamat

    • C.

      Prednison

    • D.

      Dexamethasone

    Correct Answer
    B. Asam mefenamat
    Explanation
    The correct answer is asam mefenamat. This is because asam mefenamat is not a steroid medication, unlike the other options listed. Kortisol, prednison, and dexamethasone are all examples of steroid drugs.

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  • 7. 

    Paracetamol termasuk dalam golongan

    • A.

      Derivat asam asetat

    • B.

      Derivat para aminofenol

    • C.

      Derivat fenamat

    • D.

      Derivat aswa enolat

    Correct Answer
    B. Derivat para aminofenol
    Explanation
    Paracetamol termasuk dalam golongan derivat para aminofenol karena memiliki struktur kimia yang mengandung gugus aminofenol. Gugus aminofenol terdiri dari cincin benzena yang terikat dengan gugus amina (-NH2) dan gugus hidroksil (-OH). Paracetamol memiliki rumus molekul C8H9NO2 dan merupakan salah satu obat yang digunakan untuk meredakan nyeri dan menurunkan demam.

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  • 8. 

    Celecoxib termasuk golongan ........

    • A.

      Derivat asam asetat

    • B.

      Derivat para aminofenol

    • C.

      Inhibitor cox 2

    • D.

      Inhibitor cox 1

    Correct Answer
    C. Inhibitor cox 2
    Explanation
    Celecoxib termasuk golongan inhibitor COX-2.

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  • 9. 

    Alkaloid opium yang biasa digunakan sebagai antispasmodik 

    • A.

      Papaverin

    • B.

      Codein

    • C.

      Noskapin

    • D.

      Butilbromida

    Correct Answer
    A. Papaverin
    Explanation
    Papaverin is an alkaloid derived from opium that is commonly used as an antispasmodic. It helps to relax smooth muscles in the body, making it effective in relieving spasms and cramps. Other options like codeine, noscapine, and butylbromide may have different uses or mechanisms of action, but they are not specifically known for their antispasmodic properties. Therefore, papaverin is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 10. 

    Obat yang mirip antagonis opiod 

    • A.

      Codein dan noskapin

    • B.

      Noskapin dan nalokson

    • C.

      Nalorfin dan naloksan

    • D.

      Naloksan dan codein

    Correct Answer
    C. Nalorfin dan naloksan
    Explanation
    Nalorfin dan naloksan adalah obat yang mirip antagonis opiod.

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  • 11. 

    Analgetik opiod yang digunakan sebagai obat batuk 

    • A.

      Codein dan noskapin

    • B.

      Codein dan morfin

    • C.

      Codein dan petidin

    • D.

      Codein dan camylofen

    Correct Answer
    A. Codein dan noskapin
    Explanation
    Codein dan noskapin adalah analgetik opioid yang digunakan sebagai obat batuk.

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  • 12. 

    Obat analgetik yang digunakan sebagai obat batuk tetapi tidak menimbulkan adiksi 

    • A.

      Codein

    • B.

      Noskapin

    • C.

      Glyseril glukolat

    • D.

      Petidin

    Correct Answer
    B. Noskapin
    Explanation
    Noskapin is an analgesic medication that is used as a cough medicine but does not cause addiction. It is a non-narcotic antitussive agent that helps suppress coughing by acting on the cough center in the brain. Unlike codeine and petidine, which are narcotic analgesics and have the potential to cause addiction, noskapin is a safer alternative for treating cough without the risk of dependence. Glyseril glukolat is not commonly used as a cough medicine, making noskapin the most suitable answer.

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  • 13. 

    Jenis nyeri yang selain diberi obat anlgetik-antiinflamsi perlu juga ditambah dengan relaksan otot

    • A.

      Neuralgia

    • B.

      Low back pain

    • C.

      Artritis

    • D.

      Petidin

    Correct Answer
    B. Low back pain
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that in addition to being treated with analgesic-anti-inflammatory medication, a certain type of pain called "low back pain" also requires the use of muscle relaxants. This implies that low back pain is a type of pain that is not only caused by inflammation but also involves muscle tension or spasms.

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  • 14. 

    Dibawah ini yang mirip dengan mediator  nyeri,  kecuali

    • A.

      Histamin

    • B.

      Brakinin

    • C.

      Norepinefrin

    • D.

      Serotonin

    Correct Answer
    C. Norepinefrin
    Explanation
    The given options are all neurotransmitters or substances that are involved in the transmission of pain signals in the body. Histamine, bradykinin, and serotonin are all known to play a role in mediating pain and promoting inflammation. However, norepinephrine is not typically associated with pain mediation. Instead, it is primarily involved in regulating mood, arousal, and the "fight or flight" response in the body. Therefore, norepinephrine is the odd one out in this list.

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  • 15. 

    Neuralgia trigeminus perlu diobati dengan 

    • A.

      Karbamazepin + pirimidon

    • B.

      Pirimidon + barbiturat

    • C.

      Karbamazepin + ibuprofen

    • D.

      Karbamazepin + asam mefenamat

    Correct Answer
    A. Karbamazepin + pirimidon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is karbamazepin + pirimidon. Neuralgia trigeminus is a condition characterized by severe facial pain. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is commonly used to treat this condition as it helps to calm the nerves and reduce pain. Pirimidon is a muscle relaxant that can also help to alleviate the symptoms of neuralgia trigeminus. Therefore, combining these two medications can provide effective relief for the condition. The other options listed do not include both carbamazepine and pirimidon, making them incorrect choices for the treatment of neuralgia trigeminus.

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  • 16. 

    Nyeri akibat kemoterapi dapat diberikan obat analgetik golongan ....

    • A.

      Derivat fenilasetat

    • B.

      Derivat asam enolat

    • C.

      Morfin dan derivatnya

    • D.

      Apazon dan nimesulid

    Correct Answer
    C. Morfin dan derivatnya
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "morfin dan derivatnya". This is because chemotherapy-induced pain can be effectively managed with analgesic drugs such as morphine and its derivatives. These medications are known for their potent pain-relieving properties and are commonly used to alleviate severe pain associated with cancer treatments.

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  • 17. 

    Untuk menentukan efektivitas obat antipiretik, hewan coba diinduksi 

    • A.

      Karagen

    • B.

      Pepton

    • C.

      Asam asetat glasial

    • D.

      Albumin

    Correct Answer
    B. Pepton
    Explanation
    Pepton adalah zat yang digunakan untuk menginduksi demam pada hewan coba. Dalam konteks ini, untuk menentukan efektivitas obat antipiretik, hewan coba diinduksi dengan pepton. Dengan menginduksi demam pada hewan coba menggunakan pepton, dapat diukur sejauh mana obat antipiretik dapat menurunkan suhu tubuh hewan tersebut. Dengan demikian, pepton digunakan sebagai metode untuk menguji efektivitas obat antipiretik.

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  • 18. 

    Obat yang menurunkan suhu tubuh yang tinggi 

    • A.

      Analgetik

    • B.

      Analgetik antipiretik

    • C.

      Antipiretik

    • D.

      Antiinflamasi

    Correct Answer
    C. Antipiretik
    Explanation
    Antipiretik adalah obat yang digunakan untuk menurunkan suhu tubuh yang tinggi. Obat ini bekerja dengan menghambat produksi prostaglandin, yaitu zat yang dapat meningkatkan suhu tubuh. Dengan menghambat produksi prostaglandin, antipiretik dapat membantu menurunkan suhu tubuh dan meredakan demam.

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  • 19. 

    Dexametason termasuk golongan 

    • A.

      Oains

    • B.

      Asam salisilat

    • C.

      Kortikosteroid

    • D.

      Antiinflamasi

    Correct Answer
    C. Kortikosteroid
    Explanation
    Dexamethasone belongs to the group of corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are a class of medications that have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are commonly used to treat various conditions such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune disorders, and inflammation. Dexamethasone specifically is a potent corticosteroid that is often prescribed for its anti-inflammatory properties.

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  • 20. 

    Nyeri organ dalam seperti lambung, usus, ginjal termasuk nyeri

    • A.

      Nyeri ringan

    • B.

      Nyeri hebat

    • C.

      Nyeri ringan menahun

    • D.

      Nyeri hebat menahun

    Correct Answer
    B. Nyeri hebat
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that internal organ pain such as stomach, intestines, and kidneys are classified as severe pain. This means that the pain experienced in these organs is intense and can be debilitating. The term "hebat" in Indonesian translates to "severe" in English, indicating that the pain is intense and not mild or moderate. Therefore, the correct answer is "nyeri hebat."

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  • 21. 

    Indikasi utama paracetamol

    • A.

      Antibiotik

    • B.

      Antipiretik

    • C.

      Antiinflamasi

    • D.

      Antidepresan

    Correct Answer
    B. Antipiretik
    Explanation
    The main indication of paracetamol is as an antipyretic, which means it is used to reduce fever. Paracetamol is commonly used to treat fevers associated with various conditions such as colds, flu, and infections. It works by inhibiting the production of certain chemicals in the body that cause fever. Paracetamol is not an antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, or antidepressant, although it may have some mild analgesic (pain-relieving) properties.

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  • 22. 

    Asam mefenamat termasuk OAINS derivat

    • A.

      Salisilat

    • B.

      Fenilasetat

    • C.

      Fenamat

    • D.

      Inhibitor selektif cox 2

    Correct Answer
    C. Fenamat
    Explanation
    Asam mefenamat termasuk dalam kelompok OAINS derivat fenamat.

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  • 23. 

    Contoh Obat inhibitor selektif cox 2 

    • A.

      Celexocib

    • B.

      Dexametasone

    • C.

      Karagen

    • D.

      Aspirin

    Correct Answer
    A. Celexocib
    Explanation
    Celexocib is the correct answer because it is a selective COX-2 inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that specifically target the COX-2 enzyme, which is responsible for inflammation and pain. By selectively inhibiting COX-2, celexocib can effectively reduce inflammation and pain without affecting the COX-1 enzyme, which is important for maintaining the stomach lining. This makes celexocib a safer option compared to other NSAIDs like aspirin, which can also inhibit COX-1 and increase the risk of stomach ulcers and bleeding. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid and karagen is a type of food additive, neither of which are selective COX-2 inhibitors.

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  • 24. 

    Penginduksi radang pada hewan coba dalam  percobaan ssp 2

    • A.

      Asam asetat glasial

    • B.

      Na cmc

    • C.

      Karagen

    • D.

      Pepton

    Correct Answer
    C. Karagen
    Explanation
    Karagen is a substance that induces inflammation in experimental animals. It is commonly used in research studies to study the effects of inflammation and test potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

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  • 25. 

    Parameter yang ditentukan dalam percobaan penentuan efektivitas obat analgetik

    • A.

      Pengamatan jumlah geliat

    • B.

      Pengukuran volume radang

    • C.

      Pengukuran suhu rectal

    • D.

      Pengamatan frekuensi dan durasi gerak

    Correct Answer
    A. Pengamatan jumlah geliat
    Explanation
    The parameter that is determined in the experiment to determine the effectiveness of analgesic drugs is the observation of the number of movements. This means that the researchers are observing and counting the number of movements made by the subjects after administering the analgesic drug. This parameter is used to assess the analgesic effect of the drug, as a decrease in the number of movements would indicate a reduction in pain. Other parameters mentioned, such as measuring inflammation volume, measuring rectal temperature, and observing frequency and duration of movements, may also be relevant in assessing the effectiveness of analgesic drugs, but the given answer specifically mentions the observation of the number of movements.

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  • 26. 

    Tanda-tanda terjadinya inflamasi, kecuali

    • A.

      Rubor

    • B.

      Pendarahan

    • C.

      Panas

    • D.

      Kehilangan fungsi

    Correct Answer
    B. Pendarahan
    Explanation
    Inflamasi adalah respons tubuh terhadap cedera atau infeksi, yang ditandai dengan gejala-gejala tertentu. Pendarahan bukanlah salah satu tanda inflamasi. Tanda inflamasi meliputi rubor (kemerahan pada area yang terkena), panas (suhu yang meningkat pada area yang terkena), dan kehilangan fungsi (gangguan fungsi normal pada area yang terkena). Pendarahan, di sisi lain, merupakan tanda berdarah dan dapat terjadi pada kondisi lain seperti luka atau perdarahan internal.

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  • 27. 

    Contoh obat derivat salisilat

    • A.

      Aspirin

    • B.

      Natrium diklofenak

    • C.

      Ibuprofen

    • D.

      Prednison

    Correct Answer
    A. Aspirin
    Explanation
    The correct answer is aspirin because it is a derivative of salicylate. Aspirin contains acetylsalicylic acid, which is derived from salicylic acid. It is commonly used as a pain reliever, fever reducer, and anti-inflammatory medication. Natrium diklofenak, ibuprofen, and prednison are not derivatives of salicylate and have different mechanisms of action and uses.

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  • 28. 

    Contoh obat steroid, kecuali

    • A.

      Dexametason

    • B.

      Hidrokortison

    • C.

      Prednison

    • D.

      Dextrometorphan

    Correct Answer
    D. Dextrometorphan
    Explanation
    Dextrometorphan is not a steroid medication. It is a cough suppressant that works by affecting the signals in the brain that trigger cough reflex. Unlike the other options listed, dextrometorphan does not have anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive properties commonly associated with steroids.

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  • 29. 

    Respon normal terhadap luka jaringan yang disebabkan oleh trauma fisik, zat kimia yang merusak atau zat mikrobiologik.........

    • A.

      Inflamasi

    • B.

      Koagulasi

    • C.

      Histamin

    • D.

      Hay fever

    Correct Answer
    A. Inflamasi
    Explanation
    Inflamasi adalah respons normal terhadap luka jaringan yang disebabkan oleh trauma fisik, zat kimia yang merusak, atau zat mikrobiologik. Ketika terjadi inflamasi, tubuh mengirimkan sel-sel ke daerah yang terluka untuk melawan infeksi dan memulai proses penyembuhan. Ini dapat menyebabkan gejala seperti kemerahan, bengkak, nyeri, dan peningkatan suhu di area yang terkena.

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  • 30. 

    Gejala awal yang timbul akibat inflamasi

    • A.

      Rubor

    • B.

      Dolor

    • C.

      Calor

    • D.

      Tumor

    Correct Answer
    C. Calor
    Explanation
    Calor is the correct answer because it refers to the symptom of heat or warmth that is experienced in an inflamed area. Inflammation often leads to increased blood flow to the affected area, causing it to feel warm to the touch. This symptom is one of the classic signs of inflammation, along with rubor (redness), dolor (pain), and tumor (swelling).

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  • 31. 

    Contoh obat derivat propionat, kecuali

    • A.

      Fenilbutazon

    • B.

      Brufen

    • C.

      Ibuprofen

    • D.

      Arthofen

    Correct Answer
    A. Fenilbutazon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is fenilbutazon. This is because fenilbutazon is not a derivative of propionat. The other options, brufen, ibuprofen, and arthofen, are derivatives of propionat.

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  • 32. 

    Contoh obat derivat asam fenilasetat,

    • A.

      Fenilbutazon

    • B.

      Sulindac

    • C.

      Butazolidin

    • D.

      Diklofenak

    Correct Answer
    D. Diklofenak
    Explanation
    The correct answer is diklofenak because it is a derivative of phenylacetic acid. It is commonly used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to reduce pain and inflammation in conditions such as arthritis. Diklofenak works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are responsible for pain and inflammation. It is available in various forms such as tablets, capsules, and topical gels.

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  • 33. 

    Obat AINS yang efek sampingnya terhadap saluran cerna paling sedikit

    • A.

      Ibuprofen

    • B.

      Benorilat

    • C.

      Aspirin

    • D.

      Salsalat

    Correct Answer
    A. Ibuprofen
    Explanation
    Ibuprofen is the correct answer because it is an NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug) that is known to have fewer gastrointestinal side effects compared to other AINS (Anti-Inflammatory Non-Steroidal) drugs such as aspirin, benorilat, and salsalat. It is often preferred over other AINS drugs for long-term use due to its lower risk of causing stomach ulcers, bleeding, and other digestive issues.

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  • 34. 

    Contoh Obat derivat asam indolasetat, kecuali

    • A.

      Etodolak

    • B.

      Piroxicam

    • C.

      Sulindak

    • D.

      Indometasin

    Correct Answer
    B. Piroxicam
    Explanation
    Piroxicam is the correct answer because it is not a derivative of indole acetic acid. The other three options, etodolac, sulindac, and indomethacin, are all derivatives of indole acetic acid.

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  • 35. 

    Efek terapi utama aspirin, kecuali 

    • A.

      Antiinflamasi

    • B.

      Antipiretik

    • C.

      Analgetik

    • D.

      Trombosit

    Correct Answer
    D. Trombosit
    Explanation
    The main therapeutic effect of aspirin is its antiplatelet (anti-thrombotic) action. Aspirin inhibits the aggregation of platelets, which helps prevent the formation of blood clots. This is why it is commonly used in the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. While aspirin also has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects, its primary mechanism of action is the inhibition of platelet function.

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  • 36. 

    Mekanisme kerja OAINS 

    • A.

      Menghambat enzim lipooksigenase

    • B.

      Menghambat enzim siklooksigenase

    • C.

      Menghambat enzim fosfolipase

    • D.

      Menghambat enzim arakidonat

    Correct Answer
    B. Menghambat enzim siklooksigenase
    Explanation
    OAINS bekerja dengan menghambat enzim siklooksigenase. Enzim siklooksigenase bertanggung jawab untuk mengubah asam arakidonat menjadi prostaglandin, yang merupakan mediator peradangan dalam tubuh. Dengan menghambat enzim siklooksigenase, OAINS dapat mengurangi produksi prostaglandin dan mengurangi peradangan, nyeri, dan demam yang terkait dengan kondisi seperti arthritis.

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  • 37. 

    Contoh obat OAINS selektif 

    • A.

      Selekoksib

    • B.

      Asam mefenamat

    • C.

      Ibuprofen

    • D.

      Piroxicam

    Correct Answer
    A. Selekoksib
    Explanation
    Selekoksib is a selective COX-2 inhibitor, which means it specifically targets and inhibits the COX-2 enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain. This medication is commonly used to relieve symptoms of arthritis, such as pain, swelling, and stiffness. It is considered selective because it primarily targets COX-2, while sparing the COX-1 enzyme that helps protect the stomach lining. This reduces the risk of gastrointestinal side effects compared to non-selective NSAIDs like asam mefenamat, ibuprofen, and piroxicam, which inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes.

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  • 38. 

    Sakit gigi, sakit kepala, sakit otot dan nyeri haid dapat diobati dengan

    • A.

      Paracetamol

    • B.

      Prednison

    • C.

      Ampicilin

    • D.

      Karbamazepin

    Correct Answer
    A. Paracetamol
    Explanation
    Paracetamol is a commonly used medication for relieving pain and reducing fever. It is effective in treating toothache, headache, muscle pain, and menstrual pain. Paracetamol works by blocking the production of certain chemicals in the body that cause pain and inflammation. It is a safe and widely available over-the-counter medication that can be used to alleviate various types of pain and discomfort.

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  • 39. 

    Mediator-mediator nyeri, kecuali

    • A.

      Prostaglandin

    • B.

      Prednison

    • C.

      Bradikinin

    • D.

      Spasmodik

    Correct Answer
    D. Spasmodik
    Explanation
    The given question is asking for a mediator of pain, except for prostaglandin, prednisone, and bradykinin. The correct answer is "spasmodic". This suggests that spasmodic is not a mediator of pain, unlike the other options.

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  • 40. 

    Kanker, reamtik dan neuralgia berat dapat diobati dengan 

    • A.

      Analgetik OAINS

    • B.

      Analgetik narkotik

    • C.

      Analgetik antipiretik

    • D.

      Analgetik sentral

    Correct Answer
    B. Analgetik narkotik
    Explanation
    Analgesik narkotik adalah jenis obat yang digunakan untuk meredakan rasa sakit yang parah, seperti kanker, rematik, dan neuralgia berat. Obat ini bekerja dengan mengikat reseptor opioid di otak dan sistem saraf pusat, sehingga mengurangi persepsi nyeri. Analgesik narkotik sering diresepkan dalam kasus-kasus di mana analgesik lain tidak efektif atau tidak mencukupi untuk mengatasi rasa sakit yang parah.

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  • 41. 

    Obat penghilang rasa nyeri tanpa disertai hilang kesadaran 

    • A.

      Analgetik

    • B.

      Antipiretik

    • C.

      Anastesi

    • D.

      Analgesia

    Correct Answer
    A. Analgetik
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "analgetik" because it refers to a type of medication that relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness. It is commonly used to alleviate mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, muscle aches, or menstrual cramps. Unlike anesthetics, which induce a loss of sensation, analgetics specifically target pain relief. Additionally, antipiretik refers to medications that reduce fever, anestesi refers to the loss of sensation, and analgesia is a general term for the relief of pain.

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  • 42. 

    Terapi untuk radang sendi dan reumatik, kecuali

    • A.

      Asetosal

    • B.

      Ibuprofen

    • C.

      Dexametason

    • D.

      Indometason

    Correct Answer
    C. Dexametason
    Explanation
    Dexamethasone is not a therapy for joint inflammation and rheumatism. It is a corticosteroid medication that is commonly used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in various conditions, such as allergies, asthma, and certain autoimmune disorders. However, it is not specifically indicated for the treatment of joint inflammation and rheumatism.

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  • 43. 

    Terapi tambahan selain analgetik-antiinflamasi untuk nyeri punggung bawah akibat kelainan tulang punggung 

    • A.

      Relaksan otot

    • B.

      Stimulan psikomotor

    • C.

      Oains

    • D.

      Analgetik opioid

    Correct Answer
    A. Relaksan otot
    Explanation
    Relaksan otot adalah terapi tambahan yang direkomendasikan untuk mengatasi nyeri punggung bawah akibat kelainan tulang punggung. Relaksan otot bekerja dengan mengendurkan otot-otot yang tegang di sekitar tulang belakang, sehingga dapat mengurangi nyeri yang timbul. Terapi ini membantu mengurangi kekakuan otot dan meningkatkan mobilitas, sehingga dapat memberikan bantuan yang signifikan dalam mengatasi nyeri punggung bawah.

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  • 44. 

    Zat yang dapat melawan efek samping analgetik narkotik tanpa mengurangi kerja analgetiknya 

    • A.

      Analgetik OAINS

    • B.

      Analgetik SSP

    • C.

      Antagonis morfin

    • D.

      Antagonis kafein

    Correct Answer
    C. Antagonis morfin
    Explanation
    An antagonist is a substance that blocks or counteracts the effects of another substance. In this case, the correct answer suggests that an antagonist to morphine can counteract the side effects of narcotic analgesics without reducing their analgesic (pain-relieving) effects. This means that the antagonist can help mitigate the negative effects of morphine without compromising its ability to relieve pain.

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  • 45. 

    Contoh obat analgetik opioid, kecuali

    • A.

      Morfin

    • B.

      Metadon

    • C.

      Pethidin

    • D.

      Aspirin

    Correct Answer
    D. Aspirin
    Explanation
    The correct answer is aspirin because it is not an opioid analgesic. Opioid analgesics are medications that are derived from or related to opium, such as morphine, methadone, and pethidine. Aspirin, on the other hand, belongs to a different class of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which work by reducing inflammation and pain through a different mechanism of action. Therefore, aspirin does not possess the same analgesic properties as opioids.

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  • 46. 

    Apazon obat analgetik derivat .......

    • A.

      Opioid

    • B.

      Fenilasetat

    • C.

      OAINS

    • D.

      Metadon

    Correct Answer
    C. OAINS
    Explanation
    The correct answer is OAINS. OAINS stands for "Obat Analgetik Non-Steroid," which translates to "Non-Steroidal Analgesic Drug" in English. These drugs are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation, but they do not belong to the opioid class of drugs. Examples of OAINS include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen.

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  • 47. 

    Contoh obat derivat propionat 

    • A.

      Ibuprofen

    • B.

      Asam mefenamat

    • C.

      Asetosal

    • D.

      Natrium diklofenak

    Correct Answer
    A. Ibuprofen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ibuprofen because it is a derivative of propionic acid. Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the production of certain chemicals in the body that cause pain and inflammation. As a derivative of propionic acid, ibuprofen belongs to the same class of drugs as other propionic acid derivatives such as naproxen and ketoprofen.

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  • 48. 

    Indikasi asam mefenamat, kecuali

    • A.

      Analgetik

    • B.

      Antipiretik

    • C.

      Antihistamin

    • D.

      Antiinflamasi

    Correct Answer
    C. Antihistamin
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "antihistamin" because antihistamines are not indicated for the use of mefenamic acid. Mefenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used as an analgesic (pain reliever), antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory agent. Antihistamines, on the other hand, are primarily used to treat allergies and allergic reactions by blocking the effects of histamine in the body. Therefore, antihistamines are not a valid indication for the use of mefenamic acid.

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  • 49. 

    Contoh obat antiparkinson, kecuali

    • A.

      Levodopa

    • B.

      Biperiden

    • C.

      Talcapone

    • D.

      Memantine

    Correct Answer
    D. Memantine
    Explanation
    Memantine is not an antiparkinson drug. It is actually used to treat Alzheimer's disease by regulating the activity of glutamate, a neurotransmitter in the brain. Levodopa, biperiden, and talcapone are commonly used antiparkinson drugs. Levodopa is converted into dopamine in the brain to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Biperiden is an anticholinergic drug that helps reduce muscle stiffness and tremors. Talcapone is a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor that prolongs the effect of levodopa. Therefore, memantine does not belong to the category of antiparkinson drugs.

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  • 50. 

    Contoh obat parkinson

    • A.

      Rivastigmin

    • B.

      Galantamine

    • C.

      Selegiline

    • D.

      Donepezil

    Correct Answer
    C. Selegiline
    Explanation
    Selegiline is a medication used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It belongs to a class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which work by increasing the levels of certain chemicals in the brain that are involved in movement and coordination. Selegiline specifically inhibits the enzyme monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), which helps to break down dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is deficient in Parkinson's disease. By inhibiting MAO-B, selegiline helps to increase dopamine levels in the brain, improving motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. Therefore, selegiline is a suitable choice for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

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