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ITs Time For Author Quiz Questions - Quiz

This is over the quiz taken for chapter 4,5,7 to retake for the exam


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Charles Colley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the term:

    • A.

      Primary group

    • B.

      Expressive group

    • C.

      Secondary group

    • D.

      Instrumental group

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary group
    Explanation
    The term "primary group" refers to a small social group where members have personal and enduring relationships. This type of group is characterized by close-knit bonds, emotional support, and a sense of belonging. In primary groups, individuals interact on a personal level, share values and beliefs, and often engage in face-to-face communication. These groups play a crucial role in shaping an individual's identity, providing a sense of security, and fulfilling emotional needs. Examples of primary groups include family, close friends, and small social circles.

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  • 2. 

    What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?

    • A.

      Groupthink

    • B.

      Tunnel vision

    • C.

      Doublethink

    • D.

      Bureaucratic ritualism

    Correct Answer
    A. Groupthink
    Explanation
    Groupthink is a sociological term coined by Irving Janis to describe a limited understanding of an issue caused by group conformity. It occurs when a group of individuals prioritize consensus and harmony over critical thinking and independent decision-making. In such situations, group members suppress dissenting opinions and conform to the dominant viewpoint, leading to flawed decision-making and a failure to consider alternative perspectives or potential risks. Groupthink can result in poor outcomes and missed opportunities as the group fails to critically evaluate information and make informed decisions.

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  • 3. 

    A secondary group is a social group that:

    • A.

      We experience late in life

    • B.

      Is generally much smaller than a primary group

    • C.

      Is impersonal and tries to accomplish some specific goal

    • D.

      Engages in unimportant activities

    Correct Answer
    C. Is impersonal and tries to accomplish some specific goal
    Explanation
    A secondary group is a social group that is impersonal and tries to accomplish some specific goal. Unlike primary groups, which are characterized by close and personal relationships, secondary groups are formed for a specific purpose or task and often involve larger numbers of people. These groups may come together for work projects, volunteer organizations, or professional associations, and the focus is on achieving a common objective rather than building deep personal connections.

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  • 4. 

    The term "bureaucracy" refers to:

    • A.

      A small, primary organization

    • B.

      An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

    • C.

      An organizational model that operates informally

    • D.

      Any source of inefficiency in organizational operation

    Correct Answer
    B. An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
    Explanation
    The term "bureaucracy" refers to an organizational model that is designed in a rational manner to efficiently perform tasks. Bureaucracy is characterized by a hierarchical structure, clear division of labor, standardized procedures, and adherence to rules and regulations. This model aims to streamline operations and ensure efficiency in achieving organizational goals.

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  • 5. 

    What is th term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?

    • A.

      Expressive leadership

    • B.

      Instrumental leadership

    • C.

      Secondary leadership

    • D.

      Democratic leadership

    Correct Answer
    B. Instrumental leadership
    Explanation
    Instrumental leadership is the correct answer because it refers to a leadership style that focuses on achieving specific goals and tasks. This type of leader is more concerned with the practical aspects of completing tasks efficiently and effectively rather than focusing on the emotional or social needs of the group. They are often task-oriented, organized, and goal-driven, and they prioritize productivity and outcomes.

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  • 6. 

    In what way do men and women typically differ in their use of space?

    • A.

      Women commenly seek to control more space than men

    • B.

      Older women use more space than younger men

    • C.

      There is no difference: Men and women use space in the same way

    • D.

      Men commonly seek to control more space than women

    Correct Answer
    D. Men commonly seek to control more space than women
    Explanation
    Men commonly seek to control more space than women. This is a general observation that suggests men tend to exhibit behaviors such as spreading out, taking up more physical space, and asserting dominance over their surroundings. This behavior can be seen in various contexts, including public spaces, work environments, and personal living spaces. It is important to note that this is a generalization and individual preferences and behaviors may vary.

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  • 7. 

    The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as:

    • A.

      Dramaturgical analysis

    • B.

      Ethnomethodology

    • C.

      The social construction of reality

    • D.

      The Thomas theorem

    Correct Answer
    A. Dramaturgical analysis
    Explanation
    Dramaturgical analysis refers to the study of social interaction using the metaphor of theater. It suggests that individuals perform different roles in social situations, just like actors on a stage. This perspective emphasizes the importance of impression management, where individuals carefully present themselves to others in order to create a desired impression. By analyzing social interactions in terms of theatrical performance, dramaturgical analysis helps us understand how individuals navigate and present themselves in various social contexts.

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  • 8. 

    The Thomas theorem states that:

    • A.

      A role is as a role does

    • B.

      Situations defined as real are real in their consequences

    • C.

      People act out only the roles that thier culture provides

    • D.

      People know the world only through their language

    Correct Answer
    B. Situations defined as real are real in their consequences
    Explanation
    The Thomas theorem states that situations that are defined as real have real consequences. This means that the way individuals perceive and interpret a situation can have a significant impact on their behavior and the outcomes that result from it. In other words, if someone believes a situation to be real, even if it may not objectively be so, their actions and behaviors will still be influenced by that belief, leading to real consequences. This emphasizes the importance of subjective interpretations and the power of perception in shaping human behavior and social interactions.

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  • 9. 

    What is the term for a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily taken on later in life?

    • A.

      Master status

    • B.

      Passive role

    • C.

      Ascribed status

    • D.

      Achieved status

    Correct Answer
    C. Ascribed status
    Explanation
    An ascribed status refers to a social position that is assigned to an individual at birth or later in life without their choice or effort. It is typically based on factors such as gender, race, family background, or social class. This term highlights the idea that certain positions in society are predetermined and individuals have little control over them.

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  • 10. 

    What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?

    • A.

      A crowd

    • B.

      A dyad

    • C.

      A social group

    • D.

      A micro-system

    Correct Answer
    C. A social group
    Explanation
    A social group is the correct answer because sociologists use this term to describe two or more individuals who identify with each other and interact. Social groups can vary in size and can be based on various factors such as shared interests, values, or goals. They play a crucial role in shaping individuals' identity and behavior, and studying social groups helps sociologists understand patterns of social interaction and the dynamics within different communities.

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  • 11. 

    People riding together on a subway are correctly called a social group

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because people riding together on a subway are not necessarily considered a social group. A social group typically refers to a group of individuals who interact and have shared interests or goals. While people on a subway may temporarily share the same space, they may not necessarily have any social interaction or common interests. Therefore, they cannot be considered a social group.

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  • 12. 

    Stanley Milgram's research withe the "teacher-learner" demonstrated that only sociopathic German Nazis would engage in harmful behavior like the holocaust

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Stanley Milgram's research with the "teacher-learner" did not demonstrate that only sociopathic German Nazis would engage in harmful behavior like the Holocaust. Milgram's experiments aimed to understand obedience to authority and found that ordinary people, regardless of their nationality or background, were capable of engaging in harmful behavior under certain circumstances. The research showed that obedience to authority and situational factors played a significant role in influencing people's behavior.

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  • 13. 

    The idea of "getting" a joke, according to the text, depends on:

    • A.

      Understanding why someone is telling a joke

    • B.

      Having a different social background than the joke teller

    • C.

      Understanding the two realities presented in the joke and approaching their difference

    • D.

      Knowing the joke teller well

    Correct Answer
    C. Understanding the two realities presented in the joke and approaching their difference
    Explanation
    According to the text, the idea of "getting" a joke depends on understanding the two realities presented in the joke and approaching their difference. This suggests that in order to understand and appreciate a joke, one needs to be able to recognize the contrasting elements or perspectives being presented and appreciate the humor derived from their juxtaposition. It implies that the ability to grasp the underlying meaning and irony in a joke is crucial for understanding and finding it funny.

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  • 14. 

    Being an honors student is an example of which of the following?

    • A.

      Asribed status

    • B.

      Role set

    • C.

      Role status

    • D.

      Achieved status

    Correct Answer
    D. Achieved status
    Explanation
    Being an honors student is considered an achieved status because it is something that is earned or accomplished through individual effort and merit. It is not something that is assigned or given at birth (ascribed status) or something that is defined by a specific set of roles (role set or role status).

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  • 15. 

    In Sociology, the term "status" refers to the level of importance of a person

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect. In sociology, the term "status" refers to the position or rank that an individual holds in a social group or society. It is not related to the level of importance of a person. Status can be based on various factors such as occupation, education, wealth, or social connections. Importance or prestige is often associated with higher status positions, but they are not the same concept.

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  • 16. 

    A person's sex or racial identity is an asribed status

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A person's sex or racial identity is considered an ascribed status because it is assigned at birth and is not something that an individual can choose or change. These characteristics are determined by biological factors (sex) or ancestry (race), and they have a significant impact on how society perceives and treats individuals. Ascribed statuses are typically involuntary and have a strong influence on a person's social standing and opportunities in life. Therefore, it is accurate to say that a person's sex or racial identity is an ascribed status.

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  • 17. 

    A master status refers to being the best in one's occupational field

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A master status does not refer to being the best in one's occupational field. Instead, a master status is a social position that holds exceptional significance in a person's identity and shapes how they are perceived by others. It is often a status that overrides other statuses a person may have.

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  • 18. 

    Passengers sitting in an airport gate area and waiting to board a plane are an example of a:

    • A.

      Group

    • B.

      Population

    • C.

      Crowd or aggregate

    • D.

      Category

    Correct Answer
    C. Crowd or aggregate
    Explanation
    Passengers sitting in an airport gate area and waiting to board a plane can be considered as a crowd or aggregate. A crowd refers to a large group of people gathered together in a specific location, which fits the scenario of passengers waiting at the gate area. An aggregate, on the other hand, refers to a collection of individuals who share a common characteristic or are grouped together based on a specific criteria. In this case, the passengers can be seen as an aggregate as they are grouped together based on their purpose of waiting to board a plane.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is typically true of a social network?

    • A.

      Networks are "fuzzy" groups containing people we "know of" rather than those we "know"

    • B.

      Networks are built on primary relationships

    • C.

      Networks have clear boundaries defining membership

    • D.

      Networks foster a strong sense of membership

    Correct Answer
    A. Networks are "fuzzy" groups containing people we "know of" rather than those we "know"
    Explanation
    A social network is typically characterized by being a "fuzzy" group containing people we "know of" rather than those we "know". This means that social networks often include individuals who we are acquainted with or have some knowledge of, but may not have a close personal relationship with. Unlike primary relationships, which are built on close personal connections, social networks can encompass a wider range of connections and acquaintances. This understanding of social networks highlights their inclusive nature and the fact that they are not limited to only close relationships.

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  • 20. 

    As groups increase in size, interaction becomes more intense and more personal

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    As groups increase in size, interaction does not necessarily become more intense and personal. In fact, larger groups often result in less personal interaction and more diluted communication. With more people involved, it becomes challenging for everyone to actively participate and engage in meaningful discussions. Smaller groups, on the other hand, tend to foster more intimate and personal interactions, allowing for deeper connections and more focused communication. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 21. 

    Oligarchy refers to the rule of the many by the few

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An oligarchy is a form of government where a small group of people hold power and rule over the majority. This means that a few individuals have control and influence over the decisions and policies of the government, while the majority of the population has little to no say in the governing process. Therefore, the statement that "oligarchy refers to the rule of the many by the few" is true, as it accurately describes the nature of an oligarchic system.

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  • 22. 

    Georg Simmel referred to a group of three as a dyad

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Georg Simmel did not refer to a group of three as a dyad. A dyad is a social group consisting of two individuals, while a group of three is referred to as a triad. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the traits of bureaucracy noted by Max Weber?

    • A.

      Favoring kin (relatives) over strangers

    • B.

      Specialization

    • C.

      Rules and regulations

    • D.

      Hierarchy of offices

    Correct Answer
    A. Favoring kin (relatives) over strangers
    Explanation
    Max Weber, a sociologist, identified several traits of bureaucracy, including specialization, rules and regulations, and a hierarchy of offices. However, favoring kin (relatives) over strangers is not one of the traits noted by Weber. Bureaucracy is characterized by impersonal and rational rules and procedures, which aim to treat all individuals equally, regardless of their personal relationships. Therefore, favoritism towards relatives contradicts the principles of bureaucracy.

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  • 24. 

    Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator," showed that:

    • A.

      People become angry towards those who disagree with them, even if it is a teaching-learning situation

    • B.

      The ability to tolerate pain varies withe cultural background, and the type of task assigned to them

    • C.

      The conclusions of Soloman Asch's research were incorrect

    • D.

      Ordinary people will follow the orders of a "legitimate" authority figure, even if it cause pain to another

    Correct Answer
    D. Ordinary people will follow the orders of a "legitimate" authority figure, even if it cause pain to another
    Explanation
    Stanley Milgram's research demonstrated that ordinary people are likely to obey orders from a perceived authority figure, even if it means causing pain to another person. This suggests that individuals may prioritize obedience to authority over their own moral judgment or empathy towards others. The use of a "shock generator" in the study served as a tool to measure the willingness of participants to administer potentially harmful electric shocks to others, highlighting the power of authority in influencing human behavior.

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  • 25. 

    What is the term for a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily taken on later in life?

    • A.

      Passive role

    • B.

      Ascribed status

    • C.

      Master status

    • D.

      Achieved status

    Correct Answer
    B. Ascribed status
    Explanation
    Ascribed status refers to a social position that is assigned to an individual at birth or later in life without their choice or effort. It is not something that a person actively achieves or earns, but rather it is determined by factors such as family background, race, gender, or social class. This term highlights the idea that certain social positions are inherited or imposed upon individuals, rather than being obtained through personal accomplishments or abilities.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following statements linking nature and nurture is correct?

    • A.

      Nature is far more important than nurture

    • B.

      Humans have powerful instincts the same way other animals do

    • C.

      For Human beings, nurture is more important

    • D.

      None of the above is correct

    Correct Answer
    C. For Human beings, nurture is more important
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that for human beings, nurture is more important. This means that the environment and experiences that individuals are exposed to have a greater impact on their development and behavior than their genetic makeup. While nature does play a role in shaping human characteristics and abilities, the influence of nurture is considered to be more significant in determining outcomes such as intelligence, personality, and social behavior.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the four assertions about the social foundation of devience below is FALSE?

    • A.

      Norms and the way people define situations involve social power

    • B.

      Peopld become deviant as others define them that way

    • C.

      Deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms

    • D.

      Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere

    Correct Answer
    D. Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere
    Explanation
    The assertion "Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere" is false. Deviance is not a universal concept and varies across different cultures and societies. What may be considered deviant in one place may not be deviant in another. Deviance is socially constructed and depends on the cultural norms and values of a particular society. Therefore, acts that are deemed deviant in one place may be considered acceptable or even normal in another.

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  • 28. 

    Mr. Lapota has worn a clown nose in class:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given answer is true because it states that Mr. Lapota has worn a clown nose in class. This implies that at some point, Mr. Lapota has indeed worn a clown nose during a class session.

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  • 29. 

    Emile Durkheim's basic insight is that deviance is:

    • A.

      Less common in modern societies

    • B.

      Defined by the rich and used against the poor

    • C.

      A dysfunctional element of social organization

    • D.

      A normal element of social organization

    Correct Answer
    D. A normal element of social organization
    Explanation
    Emile Durkheim's basic insight is that deviance is a normal element of social organization. Durkheim argued that deviance serves important functions in society, such as reinforcing social norms and values, promoting social cohesion, and facilitating social change. He believed that deviance is a necessary and inevitable part of any social system, as it helps to define and reinforce the boundaries of acceptable behavior. Thus, deviance is not seen as abnormal or dysfunctional, but rather as a normal and essential aspect of social life.

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  • 30. 

    In his strain theory, Robert Merton would use which of the following term to desribe people, including alcholics and drug addicts, who "drop out"

    • A.

      Retreatist

    • B.

      Innovator

    • C.

      Rebel

    • D.

      Ritualist

    Correct Answer
    A. Retreatist
    Explanation
    In his strain theory, Robert Merton would use the term "retreatist" to describe people, including alcoholics and drug addicts, who "drop out". This term refers to individuals who reject both the cultural goals and the means to achieve them. They withdraw from society and fail to conform to societal norms and expectations. Retreatists may turn to substance abuse or other forms of escapism as a way to cope with the strain they experience from the inability to achieve success in conventional ways.

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  • 31. 

    What is Erving Goffman's term for a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?

    • A.

      Stigma

    • B.

      Secondary identity

    • C.

      Deviant ritual

    • D.

      Degradation ceremony

    Correct Answer
    A. Stigma
    Explanation
    Erving Goffman's term for a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity is "stigma". Stigma refers to the social disapproval or disgrace attached to certain characteristics or behaviors that deviate from societal norms. It can lead to the individual being marginalized or excluded from society, affecting their sense of self and how they are perceived by others.

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  • 32. 

    Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to:

    • A.

      How others respond to the behavior in question

    • B.

      How able a person is to contain deviant impulses

    • C.

      The amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question

    • D.

      How others respond to the race, ethnicity, gender, and class or the individual

    Correct Answer
    C. The amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question
    Explanation
    Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory suggests that deviance is linked to the amount of contact a person has with others who either encourage or discourage the behavior in question. According to this theory, individuals learn deviant behaviors through their interactions with others, particularly those who support and reinforce such behaviors. The theory emphasizes the importance of socialization and the influence of peer groups in shaping an individual's behavior. Therefore, the more contact a person has with individuals who encourage deviant behavior, the more likely they are to engage in such behavior themselves.

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  • 33. 

    According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based primarly upon:

    • A.

      Patterns of inequality and who has more power

    • B.

      The moral foundation of the culture

    • C.

      How often the act occurs

    • D.

      How harmful the act is to the public as a whole

    Correct Answer
    A. Patterns of inequality and who has more power
    Explanation
    According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based primarily upon patterns of inequality and who has more power. This perspective suggests that those in power have the ability to define what is considered deviant behavior, often using their influence to label behaviors that challenge their authority or threaten the existing social order as deviant. The labeling of certain actions as deviant is therefore seen as a way to maintain and reinforce the existing power dynamics and social inequalities within a society.

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  • 34. 

    What is the term for crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations?

    • A.

      Organized crime

    • B.

      Victimless crime

    • C.

      Street crime

    • D.

      White-collar crime

    Correct Answer
    D. White-collar crime
    Explanation
    White-collar crime refers to crimes that are committed by individuals of higher social status in the course of their professional or occupational activities. These crimes are typically non-violent and involve deceit, fraud, or embezzlement for personal or financial gain. Unlike street crime or organized crime, which usually involve physical violence or illegal activities carried out by criminal organizations, white-collar crimes are often committed by individuals in positions of power or authority within legitimate organizations. This term is used to distinguish these types of crimes from other forms of criminal behavior.

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  • 35. 

    Which justification uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminality?

    • A.

      Retribution

    • B.

      Deterence

    • C.

      Rehabilitation

    • D.

      Social protection

    Correct Answer
    B. Deterence
    Explanation
    Deterrence is the correct answer because it refers to the use of punishment as a means to discourage individuals from engaging in criminal activities. It operates on the belief that the fear of punishment will deter potential offenders from committing crimes. By imposing harsh penalties and consequences, the aim is to create a sense of fear and discourage criminal behavior in society. This approach focuses on preventing future crimes rather than seeking revenge or promoting rehabilitation.

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  • 36. 

    What is normal or deviant is mostly the same all around the world

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "What is normal or deviant is mostly the same all around the world" is incorrect. Cultural norms and values vary across different societies, leading to different definitions of what is considered normal or deviant behavior. What may be accepted or considered normal in one culture may be seen as deviant in another. Therefore, normalcy and deviance are subjective and influenced by cultural, social, and historical contexts.

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  • 37. 

    According to Robert Merton's model, a drug dealer would be a good example of a deviant "innovator."

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Robert Merton's model of deviance, an "innovator" is someone who accepts the cultural goals of society but rejects the legitimate means to achieve them. A drug dealer can be considered an innovator because they pursue the goal of financial success but engage in illegal activities to achieve it. This deviant behavior deviates from the societal norms and values, making a drug dealer a good example of an innovator in Merton's model.

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  • 38. 

    The stigma of deviance can encourage further deviance in an individual

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The stigma of deviance can encourage further deviance in an individual because when someone is labeled as deviant by society, they may internalize that label and start to see themselves as deviant. This can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, where the individual engages in more deviant behavior because they believe that is what is expected of them. Additionally, being stigmatized can lead to social isolation and exclusion, which can push individuals further into deviant behavior as they seek acceptance and belonging from other deviant individuals or groups.

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