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Psych Quizzes & Trivia

Let’s talk about psychology? In this quiz, we will test you on topics like scale construction, social psychology, the California psychological inventory, scientific education and the factor analytic technique. What can you tell us on the topic?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Research regarding the person-situation debate indicates that ____are relevant to how people will act under specific circumstances and that _____are better for describing how people act in general

    • A.

      S data; I data

    • B.

      S data; B data

    • C.

      Personality traits; situation variables

    • D.

      Situational variables; personality traits

    Correct Answer
    D. Situational variables; personality traits
    Explanation
    Research regarding the person-situation debate suggests that situational variables are relevant to how people will act under specific circumstances, while personality traits are better for describing how people act in general. This means that the context and environment in which individuals find themselves play a significant role in shaping their behavior, while their inherent characteristics and traits have a more consistent influence on their actions overall.

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  • 2. 

    What is the first step in the empirical method of scale construction?

    • A.

      Gather lots of items

    • B.

      Identify the groups

    • C.

      Administer items to a large sample

    • D.

      Conduct a factor analysis on existing scales

    Correct Answer
    A. Gather lots of items
    Explanation
    The first step in the empirical method of scale construction is to gather lots of items. This is important because it allows researchers to have a wide range of options to choose from when developing the scale. By collecting a large number of items, researchers can ensure that they have enough material to accurately measure the construct they are interested in. This step also helps to ensure that the scale is comprehensive and includes a variety of different aspects of the construct.

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  • 3. 

    One mission of the person-situation debate was that many social psychologists concluded that personality did not really exist 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The person-situation debate in social psychology led many researchers to believe that personality did not truly exist. This debate focused on the extent to which people's behavior is influenced by their internal traits or external situations. Those who supported the idea that personality is not a significant factor argued that behavior is primarily determined by situational factors rather than stable individual characteristics. Therefore, the correct answer is true, as many social psychologists concluded that personality did not really exist.

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  • 4. 

    The statement, "There is no such thing as objective reality, only human ideas or perceptions of reality," would most likely be made by a ____. The statement, "The absence of perfect, infallible criteria for truth does not force us to conclude that all interpretations of reality are equally likely to be correct," would most likely be made by a ____.

    • A.

      Contructivisit; empiricst

    • B.

      Constructivist; critical realist

    • C.

      Critical realist; empiricst

    • D.

      Empiricist; critical realist

    Correct Answer
    B. Constructivist; critical realist
    Explanation
    The statement "There is no such thing as objective reality, only human ideas or perceptions of reality" aligns with the perspective of a constructivist, as constructivists believe that reality is constructed through individual and collective interpretations. On the other hand, the statement "The absence of perfect, infallible criteria for truth does not force us to conclude that all interpretations of reality are equally likely to be correct" reflects the viewpoint of a critical realist, as critical realists acknowledge the existence of an objective reality but recognize that our understanding of it is limited and imperfect. Therefore, the correct answer is constructivist; critical realist.

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  • 5. 

    In current psychological research, men are more likely to participate in studies than women.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. In current psychological research, there is no evidence to suggest that men are more likely to participate in studies than women. In fact, researchers strive to ensure equal representation of both genders in their studies to avoid any gender bias and to obtain more accurate and representative results.

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  • 6. 

    The california psychological inventory (CPI) was designed

    • A.

      To assess individuals with psychological disorders

    • B.

      To assess normal individuals

    • C.

      To identify the Big Five personality factors

    • D.

      To assess Jung's psychological types

    Correct Answer
    B. To assess normal individuals
    Explanation
    The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was designed to assess normal individuals. It is a psychological test that measures various personality traits and provides insights into an individual's behavior, motivations, and interpersonal skills. Unlike other psychological assessments that focus on identifying disorders or specific personality factors, the CPI is specifically tailored to evaluate the characteristics of individuals who do not have any psychological disorders.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is NOT an advantage of B data? 

    • A.

      Direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation.

    • B.

      Direct observations are easily quantifiable

    • C.

      Direct observations can be made with extreme precision as in the case of reaction times

    • D.

      Psychologists can construct situations to elicit particular behaviors.

    Correct Answer
    A. Direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation.
    Explanation
    The given answer states that direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation. This means that when using direct observations, there is no need for psychologists to interpret or analyze the observed behavior in a psychological context. This is presented as a disadvantage of B data, as it suggests that direct observations may not provide a comprehensive understanding of the underlying psychological processes or motivations behind the observed behavior.

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  • 8. 

    The observation, "If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it is probably a duck," illustrates the method of

    • A.

      Moderator variables

    • B.

      Constructivist accuracy

    • C.

      Procedural judgment

    • D.

      Convergent validation

    Correct Answer
    D. Convergent validation
    Explanation
    The observation "If it looks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it is probably a duck" demonstrates the concept of convergent validation. Convergent validation is a method used to establish the validity of a measure or test by comparing it to other measures or tests that are already known to be valid. In this case, the observation suggests that if something exhibits the characteristics typically associated with a duck, such as appearance and sound, it is likely to be a duck. This aligns with the idea of convergent validation, as the observation is based on comparing the characteristics of the object to the expected characteristics of a duck.

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  • 9. 

    Why do inventories derived from the empirical method sometimes have items that seem objectionable to test taskers?

    • A.

      To catch test takers who are faking responses

    • B.

      Because those items correlated with outcomes of interest to the test developers

    • C.

      To catch test takers who are prudish and close-minded

    • D.

      Because those items seemed the most content valid to the test developers

    Correct Answer
    B. Because those items correlated with outcomes of interest to the test developers
    Explanation
    The inventories derived from the empirical method sometimes have items that seem objectionable to test taskers because those items correlated with outcomes of interest to the test developers. This means that the test developers have included these objectionable items because they have found a relationship between these items and the outcomes they are interested in measuring. These items may be controversial or uncomfortable for some test takers, but they are included because they provide valuable information for the test developers.

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  • 10. 

    In a series of studies about intellectual expectancies, Rosenthal (1968) found that schoolchildren randomly indentified as "late bloomers" showed an average IQ increase of about 15 points by the end of the school year. These studies demonstrated

    • A.

      The power of expectanices

    • B.

      That formal training designed to develop self-efficacy can impact performance

    • C.

      The accuracy of lay judgement of personality.

    • D.

      The good target moderator of accuracy

    Correct Answer
    A. The power of expectanices
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that the studies conducted by Rosenthal in 1968 demonstrated the power of expectancies. These studies showed that schoolchildren who were randomly identified as "late bloomers" experienced an average increase of about 15 points in their IQ by the end of the school year. This indicates that the expectations placed on these students had a significant impact on their performance and intellectual development.

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  • 11. 

    A recent review of the entire literature on social psychology concluded that the situational effect was about 

    • A.

      .10

    • B.

      .20

    • C.

      .40

    • D.

      .50

    Correct Answer
    B. .20
    Explanation
    The correct answer is .20. This suggests that the situational effect in social psychology is relatively moderate. It implies that situational factors have a noticeable impact on human behavior and attitudes, but they are not the sole determinant. Other factors such as individual differences and personal traits also play a significant role in shaping behavior. This finding highlights the importance of considering both situational and individual factors when studying social psychology.

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  • 12. 

    According to the text the goal of scientific education is

    • A.

      To teach what is known and how to find out what is not yet known

    • B.

      To convey what is known about a subject so it can be applied

    • C.

      To train individuals to exclusively rely on deductive reasoning to solve problems

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. To teach what is known and how to find out what is not yet known
    Explanation
    The goal of scientific education, according to the text, is to teach students both what is currently known and how to discover new knowledge. This implies that scientific education aims to convey existing information about a subject so that it can be applied practically, while also equipping individuals with the skills and methods necessary to explore and uncover new information. Therefore, the correct answer is "to teach what is known and how to find out what is not yet known."

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  • 13. 

    The factor analytic technique of test construction is deisgned to 

    • A.

      Identify individuals who are attempting to lie or sabotage a test

    • B.

      Identify groups of test items that seem to be alike

    • C.

      Identify items that mean the same thing to the respondent as they do to the researcher

    • D.

      Create projective tests

    Correct Answer
    B. Identify groups of test items that seem to be alike
    Explanation
    The factor analytic technique of test construction is designed to identify groups of test items that seem to be alike. This technique analyzes the responses of individuals to various test items and identifies underlying factors or dimensions that explain the patterns of responses. By identifying groups of items that are highly correlated, it helps to determine which items are measuring similar constructs or traits. This information can be used to refine and improve the test, ensuring that it is reliable and valid in measuring the intended construct.

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  • 14. 

    The basis of ______ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure

    • A.

      Rational

    • B.

      Empirical

    • C.

      Philosopical

    • D.

      Factor analytic

    Correct Answer
    A. Rational
    Explanation
    The basis of the rational method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure. This means that the items are chosen based on a rational judgment or reasoning, rather than being derived from empirical data, philosophical theories, or factor analysis. The focus is on creating items that make sense and are relevant to the construct being measured.

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  • 15. 

    A variable that influences the association between two other variables is called a(n) _________- variable

    • A.

      Intervening

    • B.

      Mediating

    • C.

      Moderator

    • D.

      Suppressor

    Correct Answer
    C. Moderator
    Explanation
    A moderator variable is a variable that affects the strength or direction of the relationship between two other variables. It interacts with the independent variable to determine the outcome of the dependent variable. Unlike a mediating variable, which explains the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, a moderator variable simply influences the relationship. Therefore, the correct answer is "moderator."

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  • 16. 

    According to the article by Vazire and Mehl in the Funder and Ozer reader, when an objective recording is available to see who is right, who is a more accurate predictor of behavior?

    • A.

      The person being obsevered (the self)

    • B.

      Other people

    • C.

      Overall, there is no clear advantage for self or others' knowledge

    • D.

      We do not know

    Correct Answer
    C. Overall, there is no clear advantage for self or others' knowledge
    Explanation
    According to the article by Vazire and Mehl, there is no clear advantage for self or others' knowledge when it comes to predicting behavior. This suggests that both the person being observed (the self) and other people are equally accurate in their predictions. The article likely presents research findings that support this conclusion, indicating that objective recordings of behavior provide an unbiased measure to determine accuracy. Therefore, when there is an objective recording available, neither self-knowledge nor others' knowledge has a clear advantage in predicting behavior.

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  • 17. 

    In observing human behavior, it is impossible 

    • A.

      To understand everything about a person all at once

    • B.

      To choose to limit what you look at in a person

    • C.

      To find patterns across different kinds of observation

    • D.

      To make any real progress towards solving the personality puzzle

    Correct Answer
    A. To understand everything about a person all at once
    Explanation
    Understanding everything about a person all at once is impossible because human behavior is complex and multifaceted. It requires careful and continuous observation over time to gain a comprehensive understanding of an individual. People's behaviors, thoughts, and emotions are influenced by various factors and can change in different contexts. Therefore, it is necessary to observe and analyze different aspects of a person's behavior to form a more accurate understanding of their personality and motivations.

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  • 18. 

    Happiness is associated with what trait?

    • A.

      Openness to experience

    • B.

      Self-monitoring

    • C.

      Extraversion

    • D.

      Conscientiousness

    Correct Answer
    C. Extraversion
    Explanation
    Extraversion is associated with happiness because extraverts tend to be outgoing, sociable, and energetic, which often leads to positive social interactions and experiences. They are more likely to seek out social connections, engage in activities that bring them joy, and have a positive outlook on life. This trait is characterized by being talkative, assertive, and enjoying being the center of attention. Therefore, extraverted individuals are more likely to experience happiness due to their natural inclination towards socializing and engaging with the world around them.

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  • 19. 

    According to principles described in the text, it would be relatively difficult to create a reliable measure of 

    • A.

      Attitudes towards paperclips

    • B.

      Attitudes towards TV violence

    • C.

      Attitudes toward casual sex

    • D.

      Attitudes towards the self (like self-esteem)

    Correct Answer
    A. Attitudes towards paperclips
    Explanation
    Creating a reliable measure of attitudes towards paperclips would be relatively difficult because attitudes towards paperclips are likely to be less complex and less emotionally charged compared to attitudes towards other topics such as TV violence, casual sex, or attitudes towards the self. Attitudes towards paperclips may not elicit strong opinions or emotions, making it harder to accurately measure and capture individuals' attitudes towards this specific topic.

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  • 20. 

    If you were to develop a personality test without even looking at the item content, you would be using the ______ method of test construction

    • A.

      Factor analytic

    • B.

      Rational

    • C.

      Projective

    • D.

      Empirical

    Correct Answer
    D. Empirical
    Explanation
    The empirical method of test construction involves gathering data through observation and experimentation. In the context of developing a personality test without looking at the item content, it would mean relying on data and evidence from previous research or studies to construct the test. This method emphasizes the importance of empirical evidence and objective data in test development, rather than relying on subjective interpretations or personal opinions.

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  • 21. 

    A researcher constructs a scatter plot and notices that it shows a linear trend such that scores on the X axis increase as scores on the Y axis decrease. The correlation coefficient that describes the relationship between X and Y should therefore be negative 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The scatter plot shows a negative linear trend, meaning that as scores on the X axis increase, scores on the Y axis decrease. This indicates an inverse relationship between X and Y. The correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables, and in this case, it should be negative to reflect the negative trend observed in the scatter plot. Therefore, the answer is true.

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  • 22. 

    What is the best way for a researcher to judge the face validity of items on a measure?

    • A.

      Conduct an exploratory factor analysis on the items

    • B.

      Conduct a confirmatory factor analysis

    • C.

      Conduct an internal consistency analysis of the items

    • D.

      Read content of the items

    Correct Answer
    D. Read content of the items
    Explanation
    To judge the face validity of items on a measure, the best way for a researcher is to read the content of the items. Face validity refers to the extent to which the items in a measure appear to measure what they are intended to measure. By reading the content of the items, the researcher can assess whether the items align with the construct being measured and make a judgment about their face validity. Conducting factor analyses or internal consistency analyses may provide valuable information about the psychometric properties of the measure, but they do not specifically address face validity.

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  • 23. 

    According to the text, which of the following characteristics is positively associated with personality consistency?

    • A.

      Openness to experience

    • B.

      Neuroticism

    • C.

      General mental health

    • D.

      Need for cognition

    Correct Answer
    C. General mental health
    Explanation
    General mental health is positively associated with personality consistency. This means that individuals who have better mental health are more likely to exhibit consistent personality traits over time. Good mental health can contribute to stability and consistency in behavior, emotions, and thought patterns, leading to a more consistent personality. On the other hand, individuals with poor mental health may experience fluctuations in their personality traits due to the impact of mental health issues.

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  • 24. 

    Self monitoring seems to be an important quality of a good personality judge for both men and women

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Self-monitoring refers to the ability to regulate one's behavior based on the social context. The statement suggests that self-monitoring is an important quality for a good personality judge for both men and women. However, this is not necessarily true. While self-monitoring can be a useful trait for assessing others' personalities, it is not the only important quality. Other factors, such as empathy, objectivity, and knowledge of personality theories, also play a significant role in being a good personality judge. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 25. 

    The most important and generally useful way to enhance reliablitiy is

    • A.

      To use as the smallest possible number of items

    • B.

      To measure something that is important

    • C.

      To aggregate your measurements

    • D.

      To maximize error variance

    Correct Answer
    C. To aggregate your measurements
    Explanation
    Aggregating measurements is the most important and generally useful way to enhance reliability. By combining multiple measurements, any errors or inconsistencies in individual measurements can be minimized or canceled out, leading to a more accurate and reliable overall result. This approach helps to reduce the impact of random errors and increases the precision of the measurement process. Additionally, aggregating measurements allows for a more comprehensive and holistic understanding of the phenomenon being measured, providing a more reliable basis for making informed decisions or drawing conclusions.

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  • 26. 

    A researcher can increase the reliability of a personality test by 

    • A.

      Refusing to aggregate items

    • B.

      Measuring something important

    • C.

      Using very few items to reduce the risk of mistakes

    • D.

      Constructing items with complicated words and phrases

    Correct Answer
    B. Measuring something important
    Explanation
    By measuring something important, the researcher can increase the reliability of a personality test. This means that the test is more likely to consistently measure the same trait or characteristic over time and across different individuals. By focusing on important aspects of personality, the test becomes more valid and reliable, as it captures meaningful and accurate information.

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  • 27. 

    As described in the text, according to some researchers, the TAT measures ______, whereas questionnaire-based measures predict ______/

    • A.

      What people want; actual performance

    • B.

      What people need; what people want

    • C.

      What people want; how motives are expressed

    • D.

      How motives are expressed; actual performance

    Correct Answer
    D. How motives are expressed; actual performance
    Explanation
    According to the text, the TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) measures how motives are expressed, while questionnaire-based measures predict actual performance.

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  • 28. 

    According to the text, which of the following is NOT a threat to the generalizability of personality research ?

    • A.

      More women participate in research

    • B.

      Participants who show up for research studies are more conventional than potential participants who skip

    • C.

      Personality researchers often study multiple cohorts

    • D.

      Much personality research is based on samples of college students

    Correct Answer
    C. Personality researchers often study multiple cohorts
    Explanation
    Personality researchers often studying multiple cohorts is not a threat to the generalizability of personality research. This is because studying multiple cohorts allows researchers to gather data from different age groups and demographics, which increases the external validity of their findings. By studying multiple cohorts, researchers can better understand how personality traits may vary across different populations, making their research more applicable to the general population.

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  • 29. 

    One concern with items on measures like the MMPI is that they often lack face validity. What kind of problem does this create?

    • A.

      Participants can easily fake responses on the items

    • B.

      Such items raise concerns with social desirability

    • C.

      Responses to such items are difficult to interpet

    • D.

      Such items tend to make participants very anxioous

    Correct Answer
    C. Responses to such items are difficult to interpet
    Explanation
    When items on measures like the MMPI lack face validity, it means that they may not appear to measure what they are intended to measure. This creates a problem because the responses to such items become difficult to interpret. Without face validity, it becomes challenging to determine if participants are providing genuine responses or if they are simply guessing or trying to present themselves in a more socially desirable manner. This lack of interpretability undermines the usefulness and reliability of the measure in assessing the intended constructs.

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  • 30. 

    Increasing the number of items on a test makes it a better insturment according to which principle

    • A.

      Construct validation

    • B.

      Operational definiton

    • C.

      Aggregation

    • D.

      Incremental validation

    Correct Answer
    C. Aggregation
    Explanation
    Increasing the number of items on a test makes it a better instrument according to the principle of aggregation. This principle suggests that by including a larger number of items in a test, the measurement of a particular construct becomes more reliable and accurate. Aggregation helps to minimize measurement errors and random fluctuations, leading to more consistent and valid results. Therefore, increasing the number of items on a test enhances its effectiveness as an instrument for assessing a specific construct.

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  • 31. 

    According to the text, what term describes a context where social norms tend to restrict what people do?

    • A.

      Weak situation

    • B.

      A socially constrained situation

    • C.

      A strong situation

    • D.

      Situationism

    Correct Answer
    C. A strong situation
    Explanation
    A strong situation refers to a context where social norms heavily influence and restrict people's behavior. In such situations, individuals are more likely to conform to societal expectations and norms, limiting their freedom to act according to their own preferences or beliefs. This term implies that the influence of the situation is powerful enough to override individual differences and shape behavior in a predictable and consistent manner.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following illustrates converging criteria that could be used to establish the accuracy of a personality judgement?

    • A.

      One of your friends describes you as a extravert

    • B.

      You always show up to work on time, and your colleagues say that you are dependable and conscientious

    • C.

      You tend to experience extreme emotions and throw tantrums frequently

    • D.

      You describe yourself as intelligent, but you score low on an IQ test

    Correct Answer
    B. You always show up to work on time, and your colleagues say that you are dependable and conscientious
    Explanation
    The answer illustrates converging criteria because it involves multiple sources of information (your colleagues) and consistent behavior (showing up to work on time) to establish the accuracy of the personality judgment.

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  • 33. 

    Psychology is relatively unique among the sciences because it uses the case method

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Psychology is not relatively unique among the sciences because it uses the case method. While the case method is commonly used in fields like law and business, it is not a defining characteristic of psychology. Psychology employs various research methods, including experiments, surveys, and observations, to study human behavior and mental processes. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 34. 

    Traditonally, the usual practice in evaluating the degree to which behavior is affected by the situation has been to 

    • A.

      Square the correlation coefficient for the relationship between behavior and some aspect of the situation

    • B.

      Determine the percentage of variance accounted for by personality, subtract that from 100, percent, and then assign the remaining percentage of the variance, by default, to the situation

    • C.

      Multiply the variance in the behavioral measure by 2

    • D.

      Add the variance in the behavioral measure to the variance for the situational variable

    Correct Answer
    B. Determine the percentage of variance accounted for by personality, subtract that from 100, percent, and then assign the remaining percentage of the variance, by default, to the situation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to determine the percentage of variance accounted for by personality, subtract that from 100 percent, and then assign the remaining percentage of the variance, by default, to the situation. This approach is commonly used to assess the influence of the situation on behavior. By calculating the percentage of variance explained by personality and subtracting it from 100 percent, we can estimate the proportion of variance in behavior that is attributed to the situation. This assumes that any unexplained variance is due to the situational factors.

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  • 35. 

    Shy people fear social interaction and often feel lonely. They are typically percieved by others as 

    • A.

      Shy

    • B.

      Cold and aloof

    • C.

      Warm and friendly

    • D.

      Sensitive and intelligent

    Correct Answer
    B. Cold and aloof
    Explanation
    Shy people often fear social interaction and tend to withdraw from others, leading them to be perceived as cold and aloof. Their hesitation to engage in social situations can create a barrier between themselves and others, making them appear distant and unapproachable. This perception may not accurately reflect their true personality, as shy individuals may actually be warm and friendly once they feel comfortable and secure in their surroundings. However, their initial reserved behavior can give off the impression of being cold and aloof to others.

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  • 36. 

    In a study of social expectancies, Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid found that if male participants were shown a photograph of an attractive woman and told they would be interacting with her by telephone, the femalse participant they actually spoke with 

    • A.

      Rated herself as more attractive than the woman in the photograph

    • B.

      Rated herself as less attractive that the woman in the photograph

    • C.

      Was rated by other people as behaving in a warm, humorous, and friendly manner

    • D.

      Was rated by other people as behaving in a cold, aloof and unfriendly manner

    Correct Answer
    C. Was rated by other people as behaving in a warm, humorous, and friendly manner
    Explanation
    The study conducted by Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid found that when male participants were shown a photograph of an attractive woman and told they would be interacting with her by telephone, the female participant they actually spoke with was rated by other people as behaving in a warm, humorous, and friendly manner. This suggests that the participants' expectations of the woman based on her attractiveness influenced their perception of her behavior during the interaction.

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  • 37. 

    Imagine a researcher conducts a study and FAILS to find a statistically significant correlation between exercise and weight loss. However, there is a real association between exercise and weight loss in nature. What kind of error has this researcher made? 

    • A.

      Type 1 error

    • B.

      Type 2 error

    • C.

      Type 3 error

    • D.

      Correlational error

    Correct Answer
    B. Type 2 error
    Explanation
    The researcher has made a type 2 error. This error occurs when the null hypothesis is incorrectly accepted, meaning that the researcher fails to reject the null hypothesis when it should have been rejected. In this case, the null hypothesis would state that there is no association between exercise and weight loss, but there is actually a real association in nature. Therefore, the researcher incorrectly concludes that there is no association between exercise and weight loss, when in fact there is.

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  • 38. 

    The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt

    • A.

      To identify and measure individual differences in ability and behavior

    • B.

      To determine the effect of the social environment on behavior

    • C.

      To explain whole, functioning persons in their social context

    • D.

      To prevent or treat psychological personality dissorders

    Correct Answer
    C. To explain whole, functioning persons in their social context
    Explanation
    Personality psychologists have a unique mandate to explain whole, functioning persons in their social context. This means that their focus is on understanding and describing individuals as a whole, taking into account their personality traits, behaviors, and how they interact with the social environment. They aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of individuals and how they function within the context of their social surroundings. This involves studying various aspects of personality, such as traits, motivations, and cognitive processes, and considering the influence of social factors on behavior and development.

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  • 39. 

    Early research on the good judge of personality indicated that the good judge was

    • A.

      Extraverted

    • B.

      A high self-monitor

    • C.

      Narcissistic

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given answer "none of the above" is correct because the question states that early research on the good judge of personality indicated certain traits such as being extraverted, a high self-monitor, or narcissistic. However, the answer "none of the above" implies that none of these traits were found to be associated with being a good judge of personality according to the early research.

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  • 40. 

    It appears that there are gender differences in the attributes that make someone a good judge of personality. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    There is evidence to suggest that there are indeed gender differences in the attributes that make someone a good judge of personality. Research has shown that women tend to be more empathetic and better at picking up on social cues, which are important factors in accurately assessing someone's personality. On the other hand, men may excel in other areas such as making quick judgments or focusing on specific details. These differences in attributes can influence how individuals perceive and judge others' personalities, supporting the statement that there are gender differences in being a good judge of personality.

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  • 41. 

    As part of a research project, a participant carries a handheld computer (e.g.) that signals her at random times throughout the day. At those times, the computer presents a series of questions for her to answer regarding her current acitvities. This is an example of ______ data.

    • A.

      Experience sampling

    • B.

      Experimental B

    • C.

      L

    • D.

      Projective

    Correct Answer
    B. Experimental B
    Explanation
    This scenario can be categorized as "experience sampling" data. The participant is randomly signaled throughout the day and asked questions about their current activities, allowing researchers to gather real-time information about their experiences. This method aims to capture the participant's subjective experiences in their natural environment, making it a form of experience sampling. The other options, experimental, L, and projective, do not accurately describe the nature of the data collection method described in the question.

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  • 42. 

    It is possible to directly calculate correlation effect sizes from experimental social psychology

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Correlation effect sizes can be directly calculated from experimental social psychology studies. In these studies, researchers often measure the strength and direction of relationships between variables using correlation coefficients such as Pearson's r. These effect sizes provide information about the magnitude of the relationship between variables, allowing researchers to assess the strength of the effect and make conclusions about the significance of their findings. Therefore, it is possible to directly calculate correlation effect sizes from experimental social psychology.

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  • 43. 

    Imagine that you are at a party and your best friend introduces you to a guy named David. You and your friend talk to David for an hour, and you both notice the hostile comments that he repeatedly makes about his roommate. Later, you and your friend discuss your impressions of David, and you find that you disagree about him. Your friend thinks that David’s comments were just good-natured joking and that he is a good guy and a pretty funny fellow. You think that his comments were mean spirited and that he is a hostile person. Your disagreement arises because you and your friend differ in the ________ stage of the RAM model of personality judgment

    • A.

      Detection

    • B.

      Availabilty

    • C.

      Utilization

    • D.

      Judgment

    Correct Answer
    C. Utilization
    Explanation
    The disagreement between you and your friend arises because you both differ in the utilization stage of the RAM model of personality judgment. The utilization stage involves interpreting and making sense of the information gathered during the detection stage. In this case, while your friend interprets David's comments as good-natured joking, you interpret them as mean-spirited, leading to differing judgments about his personality.

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  • 44. 

    Personality attributes are rarely linked with mortality risk

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Personality attributes are rarely linked with mortality risk" is false. Numerous studies have shown that personality traits can indeed be linked to mortality risk. For example, traits like conscientiousness, optimism, and emotional stability have been associated with lower mortality rates, while traits like neuroticism and hostility have been linked to higher mortality rates. These findings suggest that personality attributes can play a significant role in determining an individual's risk of mortality.

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  • 45. 

    The reason that objective tests include so many items is to increase the _____ of the test. 

    • A.

      Criterion-related validity

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Content validity

    • D.

      Construct validity

    Correct Answer
    B. Reliability
    Explanation
    Objective tests include so many items in order to increase the reliability of the test. By including a large number of items, the test is more likely to provide consistent and accurate results. This is because having multiple items measuring the same construct increases the reliability of the test by reducing the impact of random errors or individual item biases. In other words, the more items included in the test, the more reliable the test becomes as it provides a more comprehensive and consistent measurement of the construct being assessed.

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  • 46. 

    According to the text, _____ does not seem to significantly improve as judges acquire more information, whereas _____ does seem to significantly improve. 

    • A.

      Accuracy; consensus

    • B.

      Consensus; accuracy

    • C.

      Predictive validity; reliability

    • D.

      Consensus; interjudge agreement

    Correct Answer
    B. Consensus; accuracy
    Explanation
    The text suggests that as judges acquire more information, their accuracy does not seem to significantly improve. However, it does seem that their consensus does significantly improve. This means that while judges may not become more accurate in their judgments with more information, they are more likely to reach a consensus or agreement on their judgments.

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  • 47. 

    47. If Dr. O'COnnell wants to learn about Laura. why might Dr. O'Connel want to use S data?

    • A.

      S data have casual force

    • B.

      S data are relatively simple and easy to collect

    • C.

      The person providing S data might be the world's best expert on Laura

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Dr. O'Connell might want to use S data to learn about Laura because S data have casual force, meaning they provide information about the causes and effects of a particular behavior or phenomenon. Additionally, S data are relatively simple and easy to collect, making them a convenient source of information. Moreover, the person providing S data might be the world's best expert on Laura, which would make their insights highly valuable for Dr. O'Connell's research.

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  • 48. 

    Agreeableness is negatively associated with criminal behavior

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Agreeableness refers to a person's tendency to be cooperative, empathetic, and considerate towards others. When someone possesses high levels of agreeableness, they are less likely to engage in criminal behavior as they prioritize maintaining positive relationships and avoiding conflict. On the other hand, individuals with low agreeableness may be more prone to aggression, hostility, and disregard for others, increasing their likelihood of engaging in criminal activities. Therefore, the statement that agreeableness is negatively associated with criminal behavior is true.

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  • 49. 

    What is the correct definition of the p-value?

    • A.

      Probability that the null hypothesis is TRUE

    • B.

      Probability that the null hypothesis is FALSE

    • C.

      Probability that the observed result occurred by chance given that the null hypothesis is TRUE

    • D.

      Probability that the observed result occurred by chance given that the null hypothesis is FALSE

    Correct Answer
    C. Probability that the observed result occurred by chance given that the null hypothesis is TRUE
    Explanation
    The p-value is the probability that the observed result occurred by chance, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. It is a measure of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis. A low p-value suggests that the observed result is unlikely to occur by chance alone, leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis.

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  • 50. 

    What type of data is likely to be the most subjective and judgemental?

    • A.

      I

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      L

    • D.

      S

    Correct Answer
    A. I
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "I". In this context, "I" refers to qualitative data, which is subjective and judgmental in nature. Qualitative data is based on opinions, beliefs, and interpretations, making it highly subjective and open to individual judgment. It often involves gathering information through interviews, observations, or open-ended survey questions, allowing for a deeper understanding of people's experiences, attitudes, and perspectives.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 27, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Caseym122
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