Everything You Need To Learn About Telecommunications

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Everything You Need To Learn About Telecommunications - Quiz

Do you know what is the characteristic of light in a light beam? How do you monitor the status of optical nodes? Check out our online quiz and learn interesting information along the way.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which standards organization is considered to be the creator of the world's most recognized communications standards, known as recommendations?

    • A. 

      The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA).

    • B. 

      The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE).

    • C. 

      The International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

    • D. 

      The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

    Correct Answer
    C. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
    Explanation
    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is considered to be the creator of the world's most recognized communications standards, known as recommendations. This organization is responsible for developing and maintaining global telecommunications standards that ensure interoperability and compatibility among different communication systems and technologies used worldwide. The ITU works closely with industry experts, governments, and other stakeholders to establish these standards, which are widely adopted and followed by telecommunications companies and organizations globally.

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  • 2. 

    In which component in a fiber-optics communication system do changes to the intensity of the optical signal occur?

    • A. 

      The optical detector.

    • B. 

      The fiber-optic cable.

    • C. 

      The optical transmitter.

    • D. 

      The optical receiver.

    Correct Answer
    C. The optical transmitter.
    Explanation
    In a fiber-optics communication system, the optical transmitter is responsible for generating the optical signal and transmitting it through the fiber-optic cable. It modulates the intensity of the optical signal to encode the information being transmitted. Therefore, changes to the intensity of the optical signal occur in the optical transmitter.

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  • 3. 

    What is a drawback of using Fabry-Perot (F-P) lasers in high-speed data (HSD) networks?

    • A. 

      The emission of a number of discrete wavelengths or side modes.

    • B. 

      The narrow emission pattern limits the power output.

    • C. 

      The size and greater expense to operate.

    • D. 

      The gain in the number of light photons.

    Correct Answer
    A. The emission of a number of discrete wavelengths or side modes.
    Explanation
    Fabry-Perot (F-P) lasers have a drawback in high-speed data (HSD) networks due to the emission of a number of discrete wavelengths or side modes. This means that the laser emits light at multiple specific wavelengths, which can cause interference and signal degradation in the network. This drawback can negatively impact the performance and reliability of the HSD network.

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  • 4. 

    Why are laser diodes most effective when coupled to singlemode fiber?

    • A. 

      The laser is the least expensive type of light source.

    • B. 

      Gas lasers do not provide a high speed modulation option applicable to both analog and digital fibers.

    • C. 

      Its high coupled power, directionality, and speed.

    • D. 

      The laser's wavelength is 75 degrees from the transmitted wavelength.

    Correct Answer
    C. Its high coupled power, directionality, and speed.
    Explanation
    Laser diodes are most effective when coupled to singlemode fiber because of their high coupled power, directionality, and speed. Laser diodes have the ability to generate a high power output, which is important for long-distance transmission in fiber optics. Additionally, laser diodes emit light in a highly directional manner, allowing for efficient transmission through singlemode fiber. Lastly, laser diodes have fast response times, making them suitable for high-speed data transmission. These characteristics make laser diodes the preferred choice for coupling with singlemode fiber.

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  • 5. 

    What are the factors that contribute to an optical receiver's sensitivity?

    • A. 

      Orientation, responsivity, response time, linear response, back reflection, and optical detector material.

    • B. 

      Location, responsivity, response time, linear response, back reflection, and optical detector material.

    • C. 

      Noise, responsivity, response time, linear response, back reflection, and optical detector material.

    • D. 

      Manufacture date, responsivity, response time, linear response, back reflection, and optical detector material.

    Correct Answer
    C. Noise, responsivity, response time, linear response, back reflection, and optical detector material.
    Explanation
    The factors that contribute to an optical receiver's sensitivity include noise, responsivity, response time, linear response, back reflection, and optical detector material. Noise refers to any unwanted signals or disturbances that can affect the receiver's performance. Responsivity is the ability of the receiver to convert incoming optical power into an electrical signal. Response time is the time it takes for the receiver to detect and respond to changes in the optical signal. Linear response means that the receiver's output is directly proportional to the input. Back reflection refers to the amount of light that is reflected back into the receiver from the optical path. The optical detector material refers to the material used to construct the receiver's detector, which can affect its sensitivity.

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  • 6. 

    What is a positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) diode?

    • A. 

      An optical detector with current flow that is nonlinear to the intensity of light photons, with one electron/hole pair created for every absorbed photon until saturation.

    • B. 

      An optical detector with current flow that is linear to the intensity of light photons squared, with two absorbed photons created for every electron/hole pair until saturation.

    • C. 

      An optical detector which provides gain with current flow that is proportional to the intensity of light photons, as two absorbed photons are created for every electron/hole pair until saturation.

    • D. 

      An optical detector with current flow that is linear to the intensity of light photons, with one electron/hole pair created for every absorbed photon until saturation.

    Correct Answer
    D. An optical detector with current flow that is linear to the intensity of light photons, with one electron/hole pair created for every absorbed photon until saturation.
    Explanation
    A positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) diode is an optical detector that exhibits a linear relationship between the current flow and the intensity of light photons. This means that as the intensity of light increases, the current flow through the diode also increases in a linear manner. Additionally, for every absorbed photon, one electron/hole pair is created until the diode reaches saturation.

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  • 7. 

    What does the amplification process in an avalanche photodiode (APD) introduce into the electrical output of an optical detector?

    • A. 

      Noise.

    • B. 

      Kinetic energy.

    • C. 

      Low bias voltage to the optical transmitter.

    • D. 

      Valence electrons.

    Correct Answer
    A. Noise.
    Explanation
    The amplification process in an avalanche photodiode (APD) introduces noise into the electrical output of an optical detector. This is because the APD operates in avalanche breakdown mode, where the incident photons create electron-hole pairs that are then accelerated by a high electric field, leading to the generation of additional electron-hole pairs through impact ionization. However, this amplification process also introduces noise, which can degrade the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector.

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  • 8. 

    What functions does the detector in an optical receiver perform?

    • A. 

      Conversion of an electrical signal to an optical carrier, and demodulation of the modulated optical carrier.

    • B. 

      Conversion of an optical carrier to an electrical signal, and modulation of the demodulated optical carrier.

    • C. 

      Conversion of an optical carrier to a digital signal, and encoding of the digital signal to an analog signal.

    • D. 

      Conversion of an optical carrier to an electrical signal, and demodulation of the modulated optical carrier.

    Correct Answer
    D. Conversion of an optical carrier to an electrical signal, and demodulation of the modulated optical carrier.
    Explanation
    The detector in an optical receiver performs the conversion of an optical carrier to an electrical signal, and demodulation of the modulated optical carrier. This means that it takes the incoming optical signal and converts it into an electrical signal that can be processed by the receiver. Additionally, it demodulates the modulated optical carrier, extracting the original information from the signal.

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  • 9. 

    What happens if the optical signal exceeds the maximum specified input power into a photodetector?

    • A. 

      Nonlinear operation resulting in distortion, back reflection, and signal loss.

    • B. 

      Nonlinear operation resulting in distortion, data errors, and signal loss.

    • C. 

      Nonlinear operation resulting in thermal noise, shot noise, and signal loss.

    • D. 

      Nonlinear operation resulting in distortion, data errors, and responsivity.

    Correct Answer
    B. Nonlinear operation resulting in distortion, data errors, and signal loss.
    Explanation
    When the optical signal exceeds the maximum specified input power into a photodetector, it causes nonlinear operation. This leads to distortion, which means that the output signal will not accurately represent the input signal. Additionally, the excessive power can result in data errors, causing incorrect or corrupted information to be transmitted. Finally, the signal loss occurs because the photodetector is unable to properly convert the high power optical signal into an electrical signal, resulting in a loss of signal strength.

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  • 10. 

    What is a characteristic of light in a laser beam?

    • A. 

      The laser beam consists of a wide range of wavelengths (monochromatic), with all light waves in phase (coherent light).

    • B. 

      The laser beam consists of a limited range of wavelengths (monochromatic), with all light waves out of phase (coherent light).

    • C. 

      The laser beam consists of a limited range of wavelengths (monochromatic), with all light waves in phase (coherent light).

    • D. 

      The laser beam consists of a wide range of wavelengths (monochromatic), with all light waves out of phase (coherent light).

    Correct Answer
    C. The laser beam consists of a limited range of wavelengths (monochromatic), with all light waves in phase (coherent light).
    Explanation
    A characteristic of light in a laser beam is that it consists of a limited range of wavelengths (monochromatic), with all light waves in phase (coherent light). This means that the light in a laser beam is of a single color and the waves of light are synchronized and aligned, resulting in a concentrated and powerful beam of light.

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  • 11. 

    Monitoring the status of optical nodes 

    • A. 

      Involves the use of a node transponder that continuously monitors a number of critical functions.

    • B. 

      Is a completely separate function from generating an alarm when parameters exceed a preset threshold.

    • C. 

      Involves monitoring the most critical functions except for temperature and a tamper switch mechanism.

    • D. 

      By remote means is not critical for maintaining network stability and reliability.

    Correct Answer
    A. Involves the use of a node transponder that continuously monitors a number of critical functions.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Involves the use of a node transponder that continuously monitors a number of critical functions." This answer states that monitoring the status of optical nodes involves using a node transponder that continuously monitors critical functions. This suggests that the node transponder plays a crucial role in monitoring the health and performance of the optical nodes.

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  • 12. 

    Digital return path transmissions 

    • A. 

      Multiplex each input by processing it through a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter.

    • B. 

      Cause the dynamic range of the return path to be greatly decreased.

    • C. 

      Use dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) digital return transmitters in hub-to-headend architectures.

    • D. 

      Use digital return transmitters that typically have four inputs.

    Correct Answer
    C. Use dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) digital return transmitters in hub-to-headend architectures.
  • 13. 

    Broadband cable operators provide customers with high-speed data (HSD) connections to the Internet via their HFC networks using what standard?

    • A. 

      High-Speed Data Over Cable Specification (HSDOCS)

    • B. 

      Passive Optical Network Specification (PONS).

    • C. 

      Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS).

    • D. 

      Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).

    Correct Answer
    C. Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS).
    Explanation
    Broadband cable operators provide high-speed data (HSD) connections to the Internet through their HFC networks using the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) standard. DOCSIS is a set of specifications that define how data is transmitted over cable networks, allowing for fast and efficient internet access. This standard ensures compatibility and interoperability between different cable modems and cable systems, enabling broadband cable operators to offer reliable and high-speed internet services to their customers.

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  • 14. 

    What is MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)?

    • A. 

      A universally accepted standard for digital television that does not take into consideration audio storage, channel compression and decompression, transport or display.

    • B. 

      A two-phase standard, with MPEG-1 being the most recognizable as related to data transport.

    • C. 

      A universally accepted standard for digital television, first released in 1992.

    • D. 

      Ten standards in one for the digitally coded representation of moving pictures.

    Correct Answer
    C. A universally accepted standard for digital television, first released in 1992.
    Explanation
    MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) is a universally accepted standard for digital television that was first released in 1992. It is a widely recognized and adopted standard that has revolutionized the way moving pictures are digitally coded and represented. It encompasses various standards and technologies for the compression, decompression, transport, and display of audio and video data. MPEG has played a significant role in the development and advancement of digital television and has become the de facto standard for video compression and transmission.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is true about optical nodes?

    • A. 

      They serve as the interface between the customer premises and the coaxial network.

    • B. 

      They convert RF signals to fiber-optic signals at the node's optical receiver before routing them to an RF amplifier module.

    • C. 

      They contain four main sections: the optical receiver, the RF amplifier module, the reverse optical transmitter, and the DC power supply.

    • D. 

      They receive return path signals from a diplex filter at the input of the forward optical transmitter.

    Correct Answer
    C. They contain four main sections: the optical receiver, the RF amplifier module, the reverse optical transmitter, and the DC power supply.
    Explanation
    Optical nodes contain four main sections: the optical receiver, the RF amplifier module, the reverse optical transmitter, and the DC power supply. These sections work together to convert RF signals to fiber-optic signals at the node's optical receiver, amplify the signals using the RF amplifier module, transmit the signals back to the headend using the reverse optical transmitter, and provide power to the node using the DC power supply. This allows optical nodes to serve as an interface between the customer premises and the coaxial network, ensuring efficient signal transmission and reception.

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  • 16. 

    What product based on the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) defines the protocols for Internet protocol (IP) telephony over hybrid fiber/coax (HFC) networks?

    • A. 

      Digital telephony services (DTS).

    • B. 

      Circuit-switched voice.

    • C. 

      PacketCable.

    • D. 

      Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP).

    Correct Answer
    C. PacketCable.
    Explanation
    PacketCable is the correct answer because it is a product based on the DOCSIS that defines the protocols for IP telephony over HFC networks. DOCSIS is a standard that specifies how data is transmitted over cable television networks, and PacketCable builds upon this standard to enable the transmission of voice over IP on these networks. Digital telephony services and circuit-switched voice are not specific products based on DOCSIS, and while VoIP is a form of IP telephony, it is not specifically defined by the DOCSIS standard.

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  • 17. 

    In a centralized server video-on-demand (VOD) architecture,

    • A. 

      Servers store VOD content at each headend and hub location.

    • B. 

      The number of servers needed for video content storage is smaller than in the distributed server architecture.

    • C. 

      QAM modulators located in the customer premises convert video content to RF for delivery over the HFC network to the regional headend.

    • D. 

      Video content is transmitted to hub sites using SONET (synchronous optical network) analog transport and then converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) for delivery over the hybrid fiber/coax (HFC) network.

    Correct Answer
    B. The number of servers needed for video content storage is smaller than in the distributed server architecture.
    Explanation
    In a centralized server video-on-demand (VOD) architecture, the video content is stored at each headend and hub location. This means that the content is distributed across multiple servers, but the total number of servers required for storage is smaller compared to a distributed server architecture. In a distributed server architecture, each customer premise would have its own server for content storage. However, in a centralized server architecture, the content is stored at specific locations, reducing the overall number of servers needed.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following statements about local ad insertion is true?

    • A. 

      Local ad insertion is performed usually by a video server.

    • B. 

      Cable operators can replace only local TV ads with their own commercial content, such as upcoming pay-per-view (PPV) events or featured sales presentations.

    • C. 

      Local advertising is broadcast in addition to all network commercials, so the network commercials aren't replaced.

    • D. 

      Large three-quarter-inch tape decks are used to play local advertisements because of the digital programming.

    Correct Answer
    A. Local ad insertion is performed usually by a video server.
    Explanation
    Local ad insertion is typically performed by a video server. This means that the video server is responsible for replacing the national commercials with local ads during the broadcast. This allows cable operators to customize the advertising content to their specific audience and target local markets. Using a video server for local ad insertion is more efficient and flexible compared to using tape decks, as it allows for easier management and scheduling of the ads.

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  • 19. 

    In regard to providing high-speed data (HSD) service,

    • A. 

      Data speeds are not affected by the number of customers using the network at a given time.

    • B. 

      The cable modem termination system (CMTS) can provide a data transfer rate up to 38 Mbps, using 256-QAM in a single 6 MHz channel.

    • C. 

      CMTS units are housed only in regional or secondary hubs and not in a system's headend.

    • D. 

      The CMTS can only provide a data transfer rate of up to 27 Mbps, using 256-QAM in a 6 GHz bandwidth.

    Correct Answer
    B. The cable modem termination system (CMTS) can provide a data transfer rate up to 38 Mbps, using 256-QAM in a single 6 MHz channel.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the cable modem termination system (CMTS) can provide a data transfer rate of up to 38 Mbps, using 256-QAM in a single 6 MHz channel. This means that the CMTS is capable of delivering high-speed data (HSD) service to customers. The other statements in the question are either incorrect or irrelevant to the provision of HSD service.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is true about the synchronous optical network (SONET) transmission standard?

    • A. 

      SONET defines optical carrier (OC) levels that increase by a factor of five, starting with OC-4.

    • B. 

      SONET defines optical carrier data rates and interface standards that enable only local carriers within a state to interconnect their existing fiber-optic systems.

    • C. 

      SONET is the North American standard used for telephony applications.

    • D. 

      SONET is a fiber transmission standard that addresses generic requirements for optical amplifiers and proprietary dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems.

    Correct Answer
    C. SONET is the North American standard used for telephony applications.
    Explanation
    SONET is the North American standard used for telephony applications. This means that SONET is specifically designed and implemented in North America for telecommunication purposes. It is not a global standard, but rather a regional one.

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  • 21. 

    Why was the zero-dispersion point in single-mode fiber moved to 1,550 nm?

    • A. 

      To take advantage of the low water peak region at 1,550 nm in single-mode fiber.

    • B. 

      To take advantage of the resistance to the distortion known as four-wave mixing (FWM) at 1,550 nm in single-mode fiber.

    • C. 

      To take advantage of the low intrinsic absorption and lower attenuation at 1,550 nm in single-mode fiber.

    • D. 

      To take advantage of the tolerance for bending at 1,550 nm in single-mode fiber.

    Correct Answer
    C. To take advantage of the low intrinsic absorption and lower attenuation at 1,550 nm in single-mode fiber.
    Explanation
    The zero-dispersion point in single-mode fiber was moved to 1,550 nm to take advantage of the low intrinsic absorption and lower attenuation at this wavelength. This means that the fiber can transmit signals over longer distances without significant loss of signal strength. By moving the zero-dispersion point to 1,550 nm, the fiber can provide better performance and improved signal quality, making it more suitable for long-distance communication applications.

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  • 22. 

    What type of single-mode fiber is intended for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) installations?

    • A. 

      The ITU-T G.657 FTTH fiber.

    • B. 

      The ITU-T G.657 depressed-clad fiber (DCF).

    • C. 

      The ITU-T G.657 bend-insensitive fiber (BIF).

    • D. 

      The ITU-T G.657 matched-clad fiber (MCF).

    Correct Answer
    C. The ITU-T G.657 bend-insensitive fiber (BIF).
    Explanation
    The ITU-T G.657 bend-insensitive fiber (BIF) is the type of single-mode fiber that is intended for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) installations. This type of fiber is designed to be more resistant to bending and allows for easier installation in tight spaces and around corners without significant loss of signal quality. This makes it ideal for residential and small business applications where the fiber optic cables may need to be routed through existing infrastructure or tight spaces.

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  • 23. 

    What are the primary causes of intrinsic loss in single-mode fiber?

    • A. 

      Material absorption and residual metal ions, which are introduced during the manufacturing process.

    • B. 

      Material absorption and Rayleigh scattering.

    • C. 

      Rayleigh scattering and total internal reflection.

    • D. 

      Excessive bending and Rayleigh scattering.

    Correct Answer
    B. Material absorption and Rayleigh scattering.
    Explanation
    The primary causes of intrinsic loss in single-mode fiber are material absorption and Rayleigh scattering. Material absorption refers to the absorption of light by the fiber material itself, which leads to energy loss. Rayleigh scattering, on the other hand, is the scattering of light caused by microscopic variations in the refractive index of the fiber material. Both of these factors contribute to the overall loss of signal in single-mode fiber.

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  • 24. 

    The phenomenon, total internal reflection, is what enables an optical fiber to guide light. What characteristic of optical fiber causes total internal reflection?

    • A. 

      The identical refractive indexes of the cladding and core cause light to be reflected within the core along the optical fiber.

    • B. 

      The difference in refractive indexes, between cladding and core, causes light to be reflected off the cladding and back into the core along the optical fiber.

    • C. 

      The difference in refractive indexes, between cladding and core, causes light to be reflected off the core and back into the cladding along the optical fiber.

    • D. 

      The identical refractive indexes of the cladding and core cause light to be reflected off the cladding and back into the core along the optical fiber.

    Correct Answer
    B. The difference in refractive indexes, between cladding and core, causes light to be reflected off the cladding and back into the core along the optical fiber.
    Explanation
    The difference in refractive indexes between the cladding and core of an optical fiber causes light to be reflected off the cladding and back into the core along the fiber. This phenomenon is known as total internal reflection.

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  • 25. 

    Where would you expect Fresnel reflections to occur in a fiber-optic network?

    • A. 

      At the macrobends in the optical fiber.

    • B. 

      At the Fresnel interface in the optical receiver.

    • C. 

      At connections and mechanical splices where the signal source is entering or exiting the cable.

    • D. 

      Inside the laser.

    Correct Answer
    C. At connections and mechanical splices where the signal source is entering or exiting the cable.
    Explanation
    Fresnel reflections occur when there is a mismatch in the refractive index between two mediums. In a fiber-optic network, connections and mechanical splices are areas where the signal source is entering or exiting the cable, and these areas often have different refractive indices. Therefore, it is expected that Fresnel reflections would occur at these points. Macrobends in the optical fiber and the Fresnel interface in the optical receiver are not mentioned as areas where there would be a refractive index mismatch, so they are not the correct answer. Inside the laser is also not mentioned as a location where Fresnel reflections would occur.

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  • 26. 

    Chromatic dispersion is a combination of which two dispersions?

    • A. 

      Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and material dispersion.

    • B. 

      Material and waveguide dispersion.

    • C. 

      Modal and material dispersion.

    • D. 

      Modal and waveguide dispersion.

    Correct Answer
    B. Material and waveguide dispersion.
    Explanation
    Chromatic dispersion is a phenomenon that occurs in optical fibers, where different wavelengths of light travel at different speeds, causing a spreading or smearing of the light pulse. This dispersion is a combination of two types of dispersions: material dispersion and waveguide dispersion. Material dispersion is caused by the different velocities of light in different materials, while waveguide dispersion is caused by the structure of the fiber itself. Therefore, the correct answer is material and waveguide dispersion.

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  • 27. 

    What is one advantage and one disadvantage of single-mode fiber with a large mode field diameter (MFD)?

    • A. 

      The larger the MFD, the easier it is to splice and connectorize the fiber, although it becomes more sensitive to bending losses.

    • B. 

      The larger the MFD, the lower the attenuation loss of the fiber, although it becomes more sensitive to bending losses.

    • C. 

      The larger the MFD, the more difficult it is to splice and connectorize the fiber, although it becomes less sensitive to bending losses

    • D. 

      The larger the MFD, the more difficult it is to splice and connectorize the fiber, although the attenuation loss is lower.

    Correct Answer
    A. The larger the MFD, the easier it is to splice and connectorize the fiber, although it becomes more sensitive to bending losses.
    Explanation
    The larger the mode field diameter (MFD) of a single-mode fiber, the easier it is to splice and connectorize the fiber. This means that it is simpler to join the fiber to other fibers or connectors, making installation and maintenance easier. However, a larger MFD also makes the fiber more sensitive to bending losses. This means that if the fiber is bent too much, the signal can be attenuated or lost. So, while the larger MFD offers advantages in terms of splicing and connectorization, it also comes with the disadvantage of being more sensitive to bending losses.

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  • 28. 

    What is the current standardized outside diameter (OD) of the cladding of single-mode fiber?

    • A. 

      It is 250 μm, with an accuracy of ±1 μm.

    • B. 

      It is 225 μm, with an accuracy of ±1 μm.

    • C. 

      It is 165 μm, with an accuracy of ±1 μm.

    • D. 

      It is 125 μm, with an accuracy of ±1 μm.

    Correct Answer
    D. It is 125 μm, with an accuracy of ±1 μm.
    Explanation
    The current standardized outside diameter (OD) of the cladding of single-mode fiber is 125 μm, with an accuracy of ±1 μm.

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  • 29. 

    What do diameter differences between spliced fibers look like on an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)?

    • A. 

      An undetected event in both directions.

    • B. 

      An undetected event in one direction and high loss in the opposite direction.

    • C. 

      High loss in both directions.

    • D. 

      Gain in one direction and high loss in the opposite direction.

    Correct Answer
    D. Gain in one direction and high loss in the opposite direction.
    Explanation
    When there are diameter differences between spliced fibers, it can cause a phenomenon known as a "mismatch loss." This occurs when the light signal traveling through the smaller diameter fiber experiences a gain or increase in power, while the light signal traveling through the larger diameter fiber experiences a high loss or decrease in power. Therefore, the correct answer is "Gain in one direction and high loss in the opposite direction."

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  • 30. 

    Besides protection, what else must the coating on an optical fiber do?

    • A. 

      Function over a wide temperature range; be compatible with cable gels; adhere to the glass cladding over the lifetime of the cable; and be mechanically strippable for splicing operations.

    • B. 

      Keep light reflected within the core; function over a wide temperature range; be compatible with cable gels; and be mechanically strippable for splicing operations.

    • C. 

      Keep light reflected within the core; function over a wide temperature range; adhere to the glass cladding over the lifetime of the cable; and be mechanically strippable for splicing operations.

    • D. 

      Keep light reflected within the core; be compatible with cable gels; adhere to the glass cladding over the lifetime of the cable; and be mechanically strippable for splicing operations.

    Correct Answer
    A. Function over a wide temperature range; be compatible with cable gels; adhere to the glass cladding over the lifetime of the cable; and be mechanically strippable for splicing operations.
    Explanation
    The coating on an optical fiber must not only provide protection but also have several other functions. It needs to function effectively over a wide temperature range to ensure its performance in various environments. It must also be compatible with cable gels, which are commonly used in optical fiber installations. Additionally, the coating should adhere to the glass cladding over the lifetime of the cable to maintain its integrity. Lastly, it should be mechanically strippable for splicing operations, allowing for easy and efficient maintenance and repairs.

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  • 31. 

    How do technicians know the specific type of single-mode fiber used in a particular project?

    • A. 

      They have looked at the cable jacket.

    • B. 

      They have viewed the sticker on the inside of the access door.

    • C. 

      They have read the project's specification records.

    • D. 

      They have used the standardized color coding scheme.

    Correct Answer
    C. They have read the project's specification records.
    Explanation
    Technicians know the specific type of single-mode fiber used in a particular project by reading the project's specification records. This means that the necessary information about the type of fiber to be used is documented in the project's specifications, allowing technicians to refer to these records to determine the specific type of single-mode fiber required for the project.

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  • 32. 

    Which type of fiber-optic cable provides the most stable transport characteristics and additional protection from stresses caused by macrobends and microbends?

    • A. 

      Tight-tube cable.

    • B. 

      Tight-buffered cable.

    • C. 

      Loose-buffered cable.

    • D. 

      Loose-tube cable.

    Correct Answer
    D. Loose-tube cable.
    Explanation
    Loose-tube cable provides the most stable transport characteristics and additional protection from stresses caused by macrobends and microbends. This type of cable has a gel-filled buffer tube that houses the individual fibers, allowing them to move independently and reducing the risk of damage from bending. The gel filling also provides protection against moisture and other environmental factors. Tight-tube cable, on the other hand, has a rigid buffer tube that can cause stress on the fibers, while tight-buffered cable has a thicker buffer layer around each fiber, limiting its flexibility. Loose-buffered cable, as the name suggests, has a loose buffer layer around each fiber, providing less protection against bending stresses.

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  • 33. 

    What is a consideration for the use of ribbon fiber?

    • A. 

      Ribbon fiber requires the use of special patch panels.

    • B. 

      Ribbon fiber is used where large-diameter cables are needed.

    • C. 

      Ribbon fiber is used where low fiber counts are required.

    • D. 

      Ribbon fiber requires different tools and equipment to perform splicing.

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribbon fiber requires different tools and equipment to perform splicing.
    Explanation
    Ribbon fiber requires different tools and equipment to perform splicing because it consists of multiple fibers that are arranged in a flat ribbon-like structure. This is different from traditional loose tube fiber cables, which have individual fibers. The flat ribbon structure of ribbon fiber requires special tools and equipment specifically designed for splicing ribbon fibers. These tools and equipment ensure that the fibers are properly aligned and fused together during the splicing process.

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  • 34. 

    What are the two critical elements that align the optical fibers in a connection?

    • A. 

      Rear boot and plug body.

    • B. 

      The C-clip and adapter.

    • C. 

      The ferrules and the mating adapter.

    • D. 

      The adaptor and plug body.

    Correct Answer
    C. The ferrules and the mating adapter.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the ferrules and the mating adapter. Ferrules are small ceramic or metal tubes that hold the fiber in place and ensure accurate alignment. The mating adapter is a device that connects two fiber connectors together, providing a stable and secure connection. These two critical elements work together to align the optical fibers in a connection and ensure efficient transmission of light signals.

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  • 35. 

    In an optical network, what is reflectance?

    • A. 

      Reflectance is the ratio of the amount of light emitted from a source to the total amount of light reflected back to the source.

    • B. 

      Reflectance is the reflected light from a single Fresnel reflection event.

    • C. 

      Reflectance is the scattering of light into a direction that is generally in reverse of the original direction.

    • D. 

      Reflectance is the combination of material and waveguide dispersion that causes transported pulses of light to spread out and overlap.

    Correct Answer
    B. Reflectance is the reflected light from a single Fresnel reflection event.
    Explanation
    Reflectance refers to the reflected light from a single Fresnel reflection event. When light encounters a boundary between two different media, such as air and glass, a portion of the light is reflected back. This reflection is known as Fresnel reflection. Reflectance specifically refers to the amount of light that is reflected back from this single reflection event. It does not take into account other factors such as scattering or dispersion.

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  • 36. 

    How should surface particulates usually be removed from optical connectors?

    • A. 

      By using a pad soaked with high-grade isopropyl alcohol.

    • B. 

      By using a compressed-air cleaner designed for optical connectors.

    • C. 

      By using clean wipes designed for optical connectors.

    • D. 

      By using a swab designed for optical surfaces.

    Correct Answer
    B. By using a compressed-air cleaner designed for optical connectors.
    Explanation
    Surface particulates on optical connectors should usually be removed by using a compressed-air cleaner designed specifically for optical connectors. This method is effective in blowing away any dust or debris that may be present on the connectors without causing any damage. Using a pad soaked with high-grade isopropyl alcohol may not be the best option as it can leave residue on the connectors. Clean wipes designed for optical connectors may also be a good option, but they may not be as effective in removing stubborn particulates. Using a swab designed for optical surfaces may risk scratching the connectors.

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  • 37. 

    Since they provide the same functions, what is the primary difference between the fiber distribution hub (FDH) and fiber access terminal (FAT)?

    • A. 

      The FAT is typically easier to install and has higher fiber counts than the FDH.

    • B. 

      The FAT is typically installed in a cabinet and has higher fiber counts than the FDH.

    • C. 

      The FAT is typically easier to install and has lower fiber counts than the FDH.

    • D. 

      The FAT is typically installed in a cabinet and has lower fiber counts than the FDH

    Correct Answer
    C. The FAT is typically easier to install and has lower fiber counts than the FDH.
    Explanation
    The primary difference between the fiber distribution hub (FDH) and fiber access terminal (FAT) is that the FAT is typically easier to install and has lower fiber counts than the FDH.

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  • 38. 

    Which statement about pigtails used for optical fiber terminations is true?

    • A. 

      Pigtails can be ordered in varying lengths and are commonly color coded with 250 microns (µm) thick coatings.

    • B. 

      Pigtails should always be ordered with multimode fibers so as to increase the coupling efficiency from the transmitter.

    • C. 

      Prior to splicing, pigtails should be labeled to correspond with the correct color code and patch panel designation.

    • D. 

      In cases where greater protection is required, larger pigtails - 5 millimeter (mm) diameter jackets - are available.

    Correct Answer
    C. Prior to splicing, pigtails should be labeled to correspond with the correct color code and patch panel designation.
    Explanation
    Prior to splicing, pigtails should be labeled to correspond with the correct color code and patch panel designation. This is because labeling the pigtails ensures that they are correctly identified and connected during the splicing process. This helps to avoid any confusion or mistakes, and ensures that the optical fibers are properly terminated and connected to the correct patch panel.

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  • 39. 

    How are optical splitters used in the forward path?

    • A. 

      In the forward path, optical splitters are used as active devices that combine multiple signals onto a common optical fiber.

    • B. 

      In the forward path, optical splitters are used as passive branching devices that divide an optical signal across multiple output fibers.

    • C. 

      In the forward path, optical splitters are used as passive combining devices that stream an optical signal across two common fibers.

    • D. 

      In the forward path, optical splitters are used as active devices that split one signal on an optical fiber into multiple signals.

    Correct Answer
    B. In the forward path, optical splitters are used as passive branching devices that divide an optical signal across multiple output fibers.
    Explanation
    Optical splitters are used in the forward path as passive branching devices that divide an optical signal across multiple output fibers. This means that they take a single optical signal and split it into multiple signals, allowing it to be transmitted to different locations or devices simultaneously. This is a common use of optical splitters in telecommunications and networking systems, where the ability to distribute a signal to multiple destinations is important.

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  • 40. 

    Which optical splitter package is similar in appearance and size to a standard fusion splice protector?

    • A. 

      Integrated optical splitter (IOS).

    • B. 

      Standardized six pack (SSP).

    • C. 

      Heat-shrink fusion splice (HSFS) protector.

    • D. 

      Fused biconical taper (FBT).

    Correct Answer
    D. Fused biconical taper (FBT).
    Explanation
    The fused biconical taper (FBT) is similar in appearance and size to a standard fusion splice protector. This is because the FBT is designed to splice together two or more optical fibers, just like a fusion splice protector. The FBT package typically consists of a cylindrical shape with a protective casing, similar to the standard fusion splice protector. Therefore, the FBT is the optical splitter package that closely resembles a standard fusion splice protector.

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  • 41. 

    In what applications is a splice closure used?

    • A. 

      Splice closures are used to slide over the splice to provide protection against a full range of environmental changes in aerial installations or below ground in vaults.

    • B. 

      Splice closures are used to protect optical fibers and splices against a full range of environmental changes in aerial installations or below ground in vaults.

    • C. 

      Splice closures are used to provide the transition between outdoor optical fiber to indoor fiber.

    • D. 

      Splice closures are used to house electronics and spare cable, along with optical patch or splice panels.

    Correct Answer
    B. Splice closures are used to protect optical fibers and splices against a full range of environmental changes in aerial installations or below ground in vaults.
    Explanation
    Splice closures are used to protect optical fibers and splices from various environmental factors such as moisture, dust, and temperature changes in both aerial installations and underground vaults. These closures provide a secure housing for the splices, ensuring their integrity and preventing any damage or degradation that could occur due to external elements. This helps maintain the performance and reliability of the optical fibers and splices in different installation scenarios.

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  • 42. 

    When preparing a fiber-optic cable for splicing, what is the purpose of removing approximately 2.5 cm (1 inch) of jacket and any armor that is present, from the end of the cable?

    • A. 

      To determine if the cable is for outdoor or indoor installations.

    • B. 

      To allow excess flooding compound to drain before taking off the remaining jacket.

    • C. 

      To access the cable's rip cord and to check the cutting depth of the knife or ringing tool.

    • D. 

      To determine the type of strength member used in the cable.

    Correct Answer
    C. To access the cable's rip cord and to check the cutting depth of the knife or ringing tool.
    Explanation
    When preparing a fiber-optic cable for splicing, removing approximately 2.5 cm (1 inch) of jacket and any armor that is present from the end of the cable allows access to the cable's rip cord. The rip cord is used to remove the remaining jacket and expose the fiber for splicing. Additionally, this step allows the technician to check the cutting depth of the knife or ringing tool, ensuring that the cable is properly prepared for splicing.

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  • 43. 

    What does water do to the glass core of an optical fiber?

    • A. 

      Water causes the glass core of the optical fiber to disintegrate, tuning the optical fiber into a hollow tube.

    • B. 

      Water causes the glass core of the optical fiber to change its properties from low water peak to high water peak.

    • C. 

      Water causes the glass core of the optical fiber to become clear, which prevents the fiber from transporting a signal.

    • D. 

      Water causes the glass core of the optical fiber to become opaque, which degrades the signal as it's transported through the fiber.

    Correct Answer
    D. Water causes the glass core of the optical fiber to become opaque, which degrades the signal as it's transported through the fiber.
  • 44. 

    When preparing a splice closure, what should be done with the fiberglass rod strength member that runs down the center of loose-tube fiber-optic cable?

    • A. 

      Trim the strength member flush with the cable jacket.

    • B. 

      Trim the strength member back for convenience, but leave it long enough to be tightly clamped to a strain-relief lug in the closure.

    • C. 

      Pull the full length of the strength member from the stripped cable and then attach it to a strain-relief lug on the cable strand.

    • D. 

      Wrap the unspliced buffer tubes around the strength member, then wrap the strength member inside the closure.

    Correct Answer
    B. Trim the strength member back for convenience, but leave it long enough to be tightly clamped to a strain-relief lug in the closure.
    Explanation
    When preparing a splice closure, the fiberglass rod strength member that runs down the center of the loose-tube fiber-optic cable should be trimmed back for convenience. However, it should be left long enough to be tightly clamped to a strain-relief lug in the closure. This ensures that the strength member is securely attached and provides strain relief to the cable, preventing any damage or breakage.

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  • 45. 

    What is the purpose of splice trays inside splice closures?

    • A. 

      Splice trays are designed to provide a stable work surface when splicing optical fiber.

    • B. 

      Splice trays are designed to provide protection for mechanical splices, fusion splice protectors, and optical splitters as well as provide storage for the required fiber slack.

    • C. 

      Splice trays are designed to provide storage and protection for buffer tubes as well as provide storage for the fiber slack required during splicing operations.

    • D. 

      Splice trays are designed to provide storage of spare mechanical splices in case of network changes or for emergency restoration of damaged fiber-optic cable.

    Correct Answer
    B. Splice trays are designed to provide protection for mechanical splices, fusion splice protectors, and optical splitters as well as provide storage for the required fiber slack.
    Explanation
    The purpose of splice trays inside splice closures is to provide protection for mechanical splices, fusion splice protectors, and optical splitters. Additionally, they also provide storage for the required fiber slack.

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  • 46. 

    How should the buffer tubes be secured in the closure?

    • A. 

      The buffer tubes should be secured with tie wraps so that there is no movement of the optical fibers inside the buffer tube.

    • B. 

      The buffer tubes should be secured with cable clips to allow free movement without pulling or stressing the optical fibers.

    • C. 

      The buffer tubes should be secured with tie wraps to allow slight movement without pulling or stressing the optical fibers.

    • D. 

      The buffer tubes should be unsecured to allow free movement without pulling or stressing the optical fibers.

    Correct Answer
    C. The buffer tubes should be secured with tie wraps to allow slight movement without pulling or stressing the optical fibers.
    Explanation
    The buffer tubes need to be secured with tie wraps to prevent excessive movement that could potentially pull or stress the optical fibers. However, allowing slight movement is necessary to accommodate any expansion or contraction of the fibers due to temperature changes. This ensures that the fibers remain protected and do not experience any damage or loss of signal quality.

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  • 47. 

    How are optical splices secured in a splice tray?

    • A. 

      Cable clips hold optical splices in place in a splice tray.

    • B. 

      Retaining clips hold optical splices in place in a splice tray.

    • C. 

      Fast drying epoxy glue holds optical splices in place in a splice tray.

    • D. 

      Tie wraps hold optical splices in place in a splice tray.

    Correct Answer
    B. Retaining clips hold optical splices in place in a splice tray.
    Explanation
    Retaining clips are used to secure optical splices in a splice tray. These clips are designed to hold the splices firmly in place, preventing them from moving or becoming dislodged. By securely holding the splices, the retaining clips ensure that the optical fibers are properly aligned and protected within the splice tray. This helps to maintain the integrity and performance of the optical connections.

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  • 48. 

    What is the purpose of buffer tubes in fiber-optic cable?

    • A. 

      Buffer tubes provide the optical fibers with the tensile strength necessary for the cable to be pulled during installation.

    • B. 

      Buffer tubes protect and separate the optical fiber in smaller bundles.

    • C. 

      Buffer tubes protect the optical fibers from water and ultraviolet deterioration from the sun.

    • D. 

      Buffer tubes provide a way of holding the individual fibers in place while splicing.

    Correct Answer
    B. Buffer tubes protect and separate the optical fiber in smaller bundles.
    Explanation
    Buffer tubes in fiber-optic cables serve the purpose of protecting and separating the optical fibers in smaller bundles. This helps to organize and manage the fibers within the cable, preventing them from getting tangled or damaged. By providing a protective barrier, the buffer tubes safeguard the delicate optical fibers from external elements such as moisture and UV deterioration. This arrangement also facilitates easier handling and maintenance of the cable, allowing for efficient installation and splicing processes.

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  • 49. 

    When splicing fiber-optic cable, why is it a good safety practice to clean off fiber strippers and other hand tools after each use?

    • A. 

      So that the next person using the tools has clean tools to work with.

    • B. 

      To prevent corrosion caused by prolonged contact with fiber debris or fiber chips.

    • C. 

      To keep the tools sharp and in good working order.

    • D. 

      To prevent the accidental transfer of fiber debris or fiber chips onto clean hands.

    Correct Answer
    D. To prevent the accidental transfer of fiber debris or fiber chips onto clean hands.
    Explanation
    Cleaning off fiber strippers and other hand tools after each use is a good safety practice to prevent the accidental transfer of fiber debris or fiber chips onto clean hands. Fiber debris or chips can be sharp and may cause injury if they come into contact with the skin. Additionally, if the debris or chips contain harmful substances, they could potentially cause skin irritation or other health issues. By cleaning the tools, any remaining debris or chips are removed, reducing the risk of accidental transfer and ensuring that the tools are ready for the next use.

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  • 50. 

    Where would you expect to install a mid-entry splice in a fiber-optic cable network?

    • A. 

      A location where a select number of optical fibers need to be spliced, and the remaining buffer tubes and fibers remain untouched.

    • B. 

      A location where optical fibers within the cable are routed to multiple sites.

    • C. 

      A location where damage to the fiber-optic cable has occurred, so a portion of the cable needs to be replaced and spliced to the original cable.

    • D. 

      A location where a splitter needs to be spliced into multiple outgoing optical fibers to feed a new neighborhood.

    Correct Answer
    A. A location where a select number of optical fibers need to be spliced, and the remaining buffer tubes and fibers remain untouched.
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because a mid-entry splice is typically used when only a select number of optical fibers need to be spliced, while the remaining buffer tubes and fibers remain untouched. This allows for easier access and maintenance without disrupting the entire cable network.

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