Neurophysiology Skills Quiz

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| By Catherine Halcomb
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Neurophysiology Skills Quiz - Quiz

Do you know that neurophysiology is the study of nerve cells (neurons) as they receive and transmit information? It is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that focuses on the functioning of the nervous system. The word originates from the Greek word νεῦρον meaning "nerve" and -λογία meaning "knowledge".
Test your neurophysiology skills in this quiz and improve your knowledge.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following statements regarding the taste pathway is FALSE

    • A.

      CNVII, CNIX, and CNX are primary afferents that synapse at the solitary nucleus

    • B.

      The parabrachial tract relays the third-order fiber that synapses on the lateral aspect of the parietal cortex

    • C.

      Brodmann's area 3,1, and 2 receive synaptic innervation from the VPM of the thalamus

    • D.

      The taste reflex arc from the solitary tract can be in response to a NaCl stimulus 

    • E.

      The solitary nucleus is located anteriorly to the cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    B. The parabrachial tract relays the third-order fiber that synapses on the lateral aspect of the parietal cortex
    Explanation
    The statement that the parabrachial tract relays the third-order fiber that synapses on the lateral aspect of the parietal cortex is false. The parabrachial tract actually relays the second-order fiber from the solitary nucleus to the ventroposteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus. From there, the third-order fiber projects to the primary gustatory cortex in the insula, not the parietal cortex.

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  • 2. 

    In the taste pathway, the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves all synapse on ______________

    • A.

      Solitary nucleus

    • B.

      Ganglion nucleus

    • C.

      Trigeminal nucleus 

    • D.

      Brodmann's area 3, 1, 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Solitary nucleus
    Explanation
    In the taste pathway, the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves all synapse on the solitary nucleus. The solitary nucleus is a structure located in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem. It receives sensory information related to taste from the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve), glossopharyngeal nerve (9th cranial nerve), and vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve). The synapses in the solitary nucleus allow for the integration and processing of taste information before it is relayed to other areas of the brain for further interpretation and perception of taste.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is the correct order for the taste pathway beginning at the anterior 2/3 of the tongue

    • A.

      Chorda Tympani --> CN VII --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex broadmann's #3,1,2

    • B.

      Chorda tympani --> CN XI --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex broadmann's #3,1,2

    • C.

      Chorda tympani --> CN X --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex broadmann's #3,1,2

    • D.

      Geniculate ganglion --> CN VII --> solitary nucleus--> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex broadmann's #3,1,2

    Correct Answer
    A. Chorda Tympani --> CN VII --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex broadmann's #3,1,2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Chorda Tympani -> CN VII -> solitary nucleus -> VPM of thalamus -> lateral surface of parietal cortex Broadmann's #3,1,2. This pathway begins with the Chorda Tympani nerve, which is a branch of the facial nerve (CN VII), carrying taste information from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. The taste information then travels to the solitary nucleus, a structure in the brainstem, before being relayed to the VPM (ventral posteromedial) nucleus of the thalamus. Finally, the taste information is transmitted to the lateral surface of the parietal cortex, specifically the areas known as Broadmann's #3,1,2, where taste perception occurs.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is in the correct order for the perceptual taste pathway beginning from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

    • A.

      CN IX --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex brodmanns # 3,1,2

    • B.

      CN X --> solitary nucleus --> VML of thalamus --> medial surface of parietal cortex brodmanns # 44

    • C.

      CN VII --> Chorda tympani --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of cortex brodmanns #3,2,1

    • D.

      Inferior ganglion of CN IX --> solitary nucleus ---> salivary nuclei (CN VII, IX)

    Correct Answer
    A. CN IX --> solitary nucleus --> VPM of thalamus --> lateral surface of parietal cortex brodmanns # 3,1,2
    Explanation
    the posterior 1/3 of the tongue is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) --> the signal passes through the inferior ganglion of CN IX but remains in CN IX (think of it as a checkpoint) --> the signal then passes to the solitary nucleus --> ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus then the the primary sensory cortex

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following are factors that are contributed to the final perception of taste (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Olfactory system

    • B.

      Tactile input

    • C.

      Limbic system

    • D.

      Taste bud activation

    • E.

      Massecation

    • F.

      Visual system

    • G.

      Motor system

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Olfactory system
    B. Tactile input
    C. Limbic system
    D. Taste bud activation
    Explanation
    our final perception of taste is a combination of the smell (olfactory), feel of food in the mouth (tactile), memories and emotions (limbic) and of course the taste bud must be activated
    without taste but activation, the whole thing come crashing down
    massecation is chewing, you do not necessarily need to chew in order to taste
    you don't need to see what you are tasking
    motor goes along with massecation --> you can paralyze your motor neurons of the face and jaw, and still perceive taste

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is a reason why our thresholds for some tastes are lower than others

    • A.

      Sour and bitter thresholds are lower, making us super sensitive. ---> usually sour and bitter tastes represent harmful foods

    • B.

      Sweet and salty thresholds are lower, making us super sensitive ---> usually sweet and salty tastes represent harmful foods

    • C.

      Sour and bitter thresholds are lower, making us super insensitive. ---> usually sour and bitter tastes represent beneficial foods

    • D.

      Sour and bitter thresholds are the same as sweet and salty --> we love candy

    Correct Answer
    A. Sour and bitter thresholds are lower, making us super sensitive. ---> usually sour and bitter tastes represent harmful foods
    Explanation
    Sour and bitter tastes usually represent harmful foods, so our thresholds for these tastes are lower to make us super sensitive and avoid consuming potentially dangerous substances. This heightened sensitivity helps us detect and avoid potentially harmful foods, ensuring our safety and well-being.

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  • 7. 

    Approximately how many taste buds are found in the oral/buccal cavity?

    • A.

      ~5,000

    • B.

      ~ 500

    • C.

      ~50,000

    • D.

      2

    Correct Answer
    A. ~5,000
    Explanation
    There are approximately 5,000 taste buds found in the oral/buccal cavity. Taste buds are small sensory organs located on the tongue and other parts of the mouth that allow us to perceive different tastes such as sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. These taste buds contain specialized cells that send signals to the brain, allowing us to experience the sensation of taste.

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  • 8. 

    Select the 3 cell types found WITHIN a taste bud

    • A.

      Receptor cell

    • B.

      Supporting cells

    • C.

      Basal cells 

    • D.

      Wing cells

    • E.

      Stem cells

    • F.

      Neuronal cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Receptor cell
    B. Supporting cells
    C. Basal cells 
    Explanation
    the taste bud contains 3 cell types
    basal cells - proliferating
    supporting cells - hold everything in place
    receptor cells - functional unit
    the receptor cell does have connections to the dendrites of a nerve cell but the neuron is not WITHIN the taste bud

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  • 9. 

    The cells within a taste bud are replaced about every _______________

    • A.

      10 days 

    • B.

      10 months 

    • C.

      10 hours 

    • D.

      10 years 

    • E.

      10 minutes 

    Correct Answer
    A. 10 days 
    Explanation
    The cells within a taste bud are replaced about every 10 days. This is because taste buds are constantly being worn down and damaged by chewing and the chemicals in food. In order to maintain their function, taste buds need to regenerate and replace old cells with new ones. This turnover process ensures that taste buds remain sensitive to different flavors and can continue to send signals to the brain about the taste of food.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the influx of Na+ ions through a Na+ channel leading the depolarization of the receptor

    • A.

      Salty

    • B.

      Sour

    • C.

      Bitter

    • D.

      Sweet

    Correct Answer
    A. Salty
    Explanation
    Salty taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the influx of Na+ ions through a Na+ channel, leading to the depolarization of the receptor. This means that when we taste something salty, the Na+ ions enter the receptor cells through specific channels, causing a change in the electrical charge of the cells. This change in charge triggers a signal that is sent to the brain, allowing us to perceive the salty taste.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the binding of an H+ ion to a leaky K+ channel, closing it. leading to depolarization of the receptor cell

    • A.

      Sour

    • B.

      Sweet

    • C.

      Salty

    • D.

      Bitter

    Correct Answer
    A. Sour
    Explanation
    Sour taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the binding of an H+ ion to a leaky K+ channel, closing it. This closure of the K+ channel leads to depolarization of the receptor cell.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the binding of a substance to a receptor, activating its 2nd messenger system and ultimately DESTROYING cAMP, leading to the closing of K+ channels and membrane depolarization

    • A.

      Bitter

    • B.

      Sweet

    • C.

      Sour

    • D.

      Salty

    Correct Answer
    A. Bitter
    Explanation
    Bitter taste receptors initiate signal transduction by binding a substance to a receptor, which activates its second messenger system. This activation leads to the destruction of cAMP, causing the closing of K+ channels and membrane depolarization. The bitter taste is associated with the activation of this signaling pathway.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the binding of a substance to a receptor, activating its 2nd messenger system and ultimately PRODUCES cAMP. this results in the closing of K+ channels and receptor depolarization

    • A.

      Sweet

    • B.

      Sour

    • C.

      Bitter

    • D.

      Salty

    Correct Answer
    A. Sweet
    Explanation
    Sweet taste receptors initiate signal transduction by the binding of a substance to a receptor, activating its 2nd messenger system, which in turn produces cAMP. This leads to the closing of K+ channels and depolarization of the receptor. Therefore, the correct answer is sweet.

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  • 14. 

    True or false? taste receptors are incapable of producing an action potential 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    taste receptors can undergo membrane depolarization but this is not an action potential

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following are the class of primary afferent nerves in the taste pathway?

    • A.

      III

    • B.

      IV

    • C.

      II

    • D.

      Ia

    • E.

      Ib

    Correct Answer
    A. III
    Explanation
    group III nerves are small myelinated nerves... slow conduction (but faster than IV)

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  • 16. 

    The taste pathway has an addition branch to the _______________ and _______________ which provides input on pleasure/pain, hunger/thirst/satiety centers

    • A.

      Hypothalamus; amygdala

    • B.

      Hypothalamus; thalamus

    • C.

      Hypothalamus; limbic system

    • D.

      Wernicke's area; broca's area

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypothalamus; amygdala
    Explanation
    the amygdala is PART of the limbic system, that is why i made limbic system incorrect

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following nuclei are involved in taste pathways to the centers for pleasure/pain, hunger/thirst/satiety but NOT in perceptual or reflex pathways

    • A.

      Parabrachial nuclei

    • B.

      Ventro posteriormedial nucleus of thalamus 

    • C.

      Parietal nucleus

    • D.

      CN VII nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Parabrachial nuclei
    Explanation
    The parabrachial nuclei are involved in taste pathways to the centers for pleasure/pain, hunger/thirst/satiety but not in perceptual or reflex pathways. This means that these nuclei play a role in processing and transmitting signals related to taste and the emotional aspects of eating and drinking, but not in the perception of taste or in reflexive responses to taste stimuli.

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  • 18. 

    The area of the human olfactory epithelium is ~ ___________________ mm2

    • A.

      50

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      100

    • D.

      10

    Correct Answer
    A. 50
    Explanation
    this question is asking about mm.... not cm like what was presented in lecture

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  • 19. 

    True or false? the receptor cells of the olfactory system are incapable of generating an action potential 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    this is one of the "unique" characteristics of olfactory receptor neurons, they are neurons, they are capable of generating APs
    this is different from taste receptors which have changes in membrane potential

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  • 20. 

    FUN FACT Q: dogs have _________x more olfactory epithelium than humans and can smell ________  

    • A.

      20; 7 miles away

    • B.

      5; 7 feet away

    • C.

      20; 7 minutes away

    • D.

      5; 7 miles away

    Correct Answer
    A. 20; 7 miles away
    Explanation
    Dogs have 20 times more olfactory epithelium than humans, which allows them to have a much stronger sense of smell. This heightened sense of smell enables them to detect scents from a much greater distance, such as 7 miles away.

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  • 21. 

    Olfactory receptor cells, transduce a signal via:

    • A.

      A second messenger system and is slower than other systems

    • B.

      Primary messenger system and is faster than other systems

    • C.

      Graded membrane potential and is faster than other systems 

    • D.

      Na+/K+ channels and is slower than other systems 

    Correct Answer
    A. A second messenger system and is slower than other systems
    Explanation
    Olfactory receptor cells transduce a signal via a second messenger system, which means that the signal is not directly transmitted to the brain but instead relies on the activation of secondary messengers within the cell. This process is slower compared to other systems that use a primary messenger system, where the signal is directly transmitted to the brain. Additionally, the use of a second messenger system is slower than systems that rely on graded membrane potential or Na+/K+ channels for signal transduction.

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  • 22. 

    The primary afferent neuron of the olfactory epithelium is

    • A.

      Group ia

    • B.

      Group II

    • C.

      Group III

    • D.

      Group IV 

    • E.

      Group Ib

    Correct Answer
    D. Group IV 
    Explanation
    olfactory epithelium primary afferent neuron is a small, unmyelinated neuron (group IV) making for a slow conduction of signal
    think about it.... if you put you face up to a fresh baked cookie, most people have to inhale.... wait... there is the smell
    same thing for farts****

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  • 23. 

    The thalamus is the major source of sensory information to the primary sensory cortex for all senses

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    the olfactory pathway does not have a direct connection to the thalamus,. the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus collects information from the olfactory cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus and projects information back to the parahippocampal gyrus

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is NOT a unique characteristic of the sensory olfactory system

    • A.

      Information is sent to the cortex first then the thalamus 

    • B.

      Receptor cell is a neuron

    • C.

      Only two cell in the pathway

    • D.

      Information is sent to the thalamus first, then the cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Information is sent to the thalamus first, then the cortex
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "information is sent to the thalamus first, then the cortex." This is not a unique characteristic of the sensory olfactory system. In most sensory systems, including the olfactory system, information is first sent to the thalamus and then to the cortex. This is known as the thalamocortical pathway. Therefore, this characteristic is not unique to the olfactory system.

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  • 25. 

    Light "crude" touch and pressure (tickle, itch), as well as sexual stimulation, use which 2 afferent neurons groups

    • A.

      Group III

    • B.

      Group IV

    • C.

      Group II

    • D.

      Group Ia

    • E.

      Group Ib

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Group III
    B. Group IV
    Explanation
    Group III and group IV afferent neurons are responsible for transmitting signals related to light "crude" touch and pressure (such as tickle and itch) as well as sexual stimulation. These neurons are part of the somatosensory system and play a crucial role in relaying sensory information from the skin and other tissues to the central nervous system. Group III and group IV afferent neurons are involved in the perception of various tactile sensations and are essential for the overall sensory experience.

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  • 26. 

    True or false? in the temperature and pain perception pathway; there is a specific range of temperatures that excite specific receptors for all areas of temperature, thus no areas of overlap

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    there are areas of overlap in temperature sensation. which is why we are very sensitive to temperature changes

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  • 27. 

    In this figure, at a temperature of 51oF, the subject is still experiencing pain even when the stimulus is removed. which of the following would be the best description as to why this is?

    • A.

      The thermoreceptor axons have very slow action potential conduction velocity

    • B.

      The nociceptors are continually stimulated in the absence of the stimulus

    • C.

      The stimulus was never removed

    • D.

      The brain takes extended lengths of time to process the information from the thermoreceptors

    Correct Answer
    A. The thermoreceptor axons have very slow action potential conduction velocity
    Explanation
    thermoreceptors have group III & IV axons, III is small and myelinated which conducts a signal at a very slow velocity, group IV are even slower due to the lack of myelination. the stimulus is stopped and the thermoreceptors immediately cease there activity, however due to the slow conduction of signal to processing centers in the brain, it takes time for the lack of signal to reach the brain, this is also why the subject doesn't feel the pain immediately (even though the thermoreceptors begin firing right away) because it takes a while for the initial signal to reach the processing centers of the brain

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is the correct transduction mechanism by which nociceptors are depolarized

    • A.

      Tissue damage releases intracellular contents (K+) which depolarizes the nociceptor

    • B.

      Adjacent cell actively release K+. influx of K+ on nociceptors cause depolarization

    • C.

      Tissue damage releases K+ into the extracellular space, resulting in a increased positive extracellular charge, K+ channels on the nociceptor open and the nociceptor is depolarized 

    • D.

      It happens by wizard magic

    Correct Answer
    A. Tissue damage releases intracellular contents (K+) which depolarizes the nociceptor
    Explanation
    Tissue damage releases intracellular contents, specifically potassium ions (K+), which depolarizes the nociceptor. This is the correct transduction mechanism for the depolarization of nociceptors. When tissue damage occurs, intracellular contents, including potassium ions, are released into the extracellular space. The influx of potassium ions onto the nociceptor causes depolarization, leading to the generation of an action potential and the perception of pain.

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  • 29. 

    Thresholds for touch and temperature are very _____________, thresholds for pain are very __________

    • A.

      Low, high

    • B.

      High, low

    • C.

      Low, low

    • D.

      High, high

    Correct Answer
    A. Low, high
    Explanation
    we are quite sensitive to touch thus our thresholds are low (same for temp), however we are not very sensitive to pain thus thresholds are high

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  • 30. 

    Regarding pain and temperature; all information from the free nerve endings must pass through the _____________ prior to synapse in the spinal cord

    • A.

      Dorsal root ganglion

    • B.

      Ventral root ganglion

    • C.

      Spinothalamic tract

    • D.

      Trigeminothalamic tract

    Correct Answer
    A. Dorsal root ganglion
    Explanation
    the cell body of the free nerve endings is the dorsal root ganglion, information must pass through the cell body

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  • 31. 

    Regarding the spinothalamic tract; the first synapse is at the _________________. after decussation the second synapse is at the_________________, the final synapse is at the ___________________ (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Substantia gelatinosa, VPL, brodmann #3,1,2

    • B.

      Dorsal funicular gray, VPL, brodmann's # 3,1,2

    • C.

      DRG, dorsal funicular gray, VPL

    • D.

      Substantia gelatinosa, post central gyrus, VPL

    • E.

      Dorsal funicular gray, post central gyrus, VPL

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Substantia gelatinosa, VPL, brodmann #3,1,2
    B. Dorsal funicular gray, VPL, brodmann's # 3,1,2
    Explanation
    pain and temp information can be sent to the dorsal funicular gray OR the substantia gleatinosa
    the substantia gelatinosa is the primary pathway for pain, temp and light touch, the dorsal funicular gray is the primary pathway for mechanical and temp sensation

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  • 32. 

    What are the 3 inputs to the substantia gelatinosa that aid in controlling the magnitude of the perception of pain (select 3)

    • A.

      Nociceptors

    • B.

      Mechanoreceptors

    • C.

      Brain

    • D.

      Dorsal root ganglion

    • E.

      VPL 

    • F.

      Proprioceptors

    • G.

      Group Ia neurons 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Nociceptors
    B. Mechanoreceptors
    C. Brain
    Explanation
    The substantia gelatinosa is a region in the spinal cord that plays a role in processing pain signals. Nociceptors are sensory receptors that detect harmful stimuli and transmit pain signals to the spinal cord. Mechanoreceptors, on the other hand, detect mechanical stimuli such as pressure and touch. Both nociceptors and mechanoreceptors provide input to the substantia gelatinosa, allowing it to receive information about the presence and intensity of painful stimuli. The brain also contributes to the control of pain perception by modulating the signals received from the substantia gelatinosa. Therefore, nociceptors, mechanoreceptors, and the brain are the three inputs that aid in controlling the magnitude of the perception of pain.

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  • 33. 

    Regarding the spinothalamic tract: after decussation in the spinal cord information from the leg will ascend through the ____________________ side of the spinothalamic tract 

    • A.

      Anterolateral

    • B.

      Anteromedial

    • C.

       dorsomedial

    • D.

      Dorsolateral

    Correct Answer
    A. Anterolateral
    Explanation
    After decussation in the spinal cord, information from the leg will ascend through the anterolateral side of the spinothalamic tract. The spinothalamic tract is responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, and crude touch sensations from the body to the brain. It consists of two parts: the lateral spinothalamic tract and the anterior spinothalamic tract. The lateral spinothalamic tract carries pain and temperature sensations, while the anterior spinothalamic tract carries crude touch sensations. The anterolateral side of the spinothalamic tract specifically refers to the lateral spinothalamic tract, where information from the leg is transmitted.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is the first synapse in the trigeminothalamic pathway

    • A.

      Trigeminal nucleus

    • B.

      Trochlear nucleus

    • C.

      Thalamic nucleus

    • D.

      Cuneate nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Trigeminal nucleus
    Explanation
    The trigeminal nucleus is the first synapse in the trigeminothalamic pathway. This nucleus receives sensory information from the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensory information from the face, head, and oral cavity. The trigeminal nucleus then relays this information to the thalamus, which is the next structure in the pathway. The trochlear nucleus is involved in eye movement, the thalamic nucleus is a general term for the different nuclei within the thalamus, and the cuneate nucleus is involved in the sensation of touch and proprioception from the upper body.

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  • 35. 

    The ventroposterior lateral nucleus receives information from the ______________, the ventroposterior medial nucleus receives information from the____________

    • A.

      Body, head

    • B.

      Head, body

    • C.

      Body, body

    • D.

      Head, head

    Correct Answer
    A. Body, head
    Explanation
    The ventroposterior lateral nucleus receives information from the body, while the ventroposterior medial nucleus receives information from the head.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following types of cells account for fine, discriminative touch (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Merkel discs

    • B.

      Pincus domes

    • C.

      Meissner's corpuscle

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscle

    • E.

      Ruffini endings

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Merkel discs
    B. Pincus domes
    C. Meissner's corpuscle
    Explanation
    Merkel discs, pincus domes, and Meissner's corpuscles are types of cells that account for fine, discriminative touch. Merkel discs are found in the skin and are responsible for detecting light touch and texture. Pincus domes are specialized nerve endings found in the fingertips and are involved in the sensation of fine touch. Meissner's corpuscles are also found in the skin, particularly in areas such as the fingertips, palms, and soles of the feet, and are responsible for detecting light touch and vibration.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is the main cell type in the sense of vibration

    • A.

      Pacinian corpuscle 

    • B.

      Merkel discs

    • C.

      Pincus domes

    • D.

      Meissner's corpuscle

    Correct Answer
    A. Pacinian corpuscle 
    Explanation
    The main cell type in the sense of vibration is the Pacinian corpuscle. Pacinian corpuscles are specialized nerve endings located in the skin and other tissues. They are responsible for detecting mechanical stimuli, including vibrations. These corpuscles have a layered structure that allows them to detect changes in pressure and transmit signals to the brain, which then interprets them as vibrations. Merkel discs, pincus domes, and Meissner's corpuscles are also types of sensory receptors, but they are not specifically associated with the sense of vibration.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following are found in glabrous skin (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Pacinian corpuscle

    • B.

      Meissner's corpuscle

    • C.

      Merkel discs

    • D.

      Pincus domes

    • E.

      Hair follicle endings

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pacinian corpuscle
    B. Meissner's corpuscle
    C. Merkel discs
    Explanation
    glabrous (hairless skin) contains merkel discs, pacinian corpuscles, and meissner's corpuscles
    according to the diagram in the manual, pincus domes are found only in hairy skin, and hair follicle endings are only found where there is hair.

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  • 39. 

    Pincus domes are usually associated with which of the following

    • A.

      A grouping of merkel discs

    • B.

      A grouping of pacinian corpuscles

    • C.

      A grouping of meissner's corpuscles

    • D.

      A grouping of hair follicle endings

    Correct Answer
    A. A grouping of merkel discs
    Explanation
    Pincus domes are structures found in the skin that contain a grouping of Merkel discs. Merkel discs are specialized sensory receptors that detect light touch and pressure. These discs are located in the epidermis and are responsible for transmitting tactile information to the brain. Pincus domes serve to enhance the sensitivity and efficiency of Merkel discs, allowing for a more precise perception of touch and pressure.

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  • 40. 

    What are 2 representative characteristics that you see in the receptors responsible for fine descrimative touch (choose 2)

    • A.

      Small in size

    • B.

      Found near the surface of the skin

    • C.

      Found deep in the dermis

    • D.

      Found on the surface

    • E.

      Large in size 

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Small in size
    B. Found near the surface of the skin
    Explanation
    The receptors responsible for fine discriminative touch are small in size and found near the surface of the skin. This allows them to detect subtle changes in touch and provide detailed sensory information. Receptors that are deep in the dermis or on the surface may not be as sensitive to fine touch or may detect different types of stimuli. Additionally, large receptors are typically associated with detecting pressure or vibration rather than fine touch.

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  • 41. 

    All specialized sensory endings of the skin have what group of afferent fibers

    • A.

      Group II

    • B.

      Group Ia

    • C.

      Group Ib

    • D.

      Group III

    • E.

      Group IV

    Correct Answer
    A. Group II
    Explanation
    Group II afferent fibers are responsible for transmitting information from specialized sensory endings in the skin. These fibers are involved in the transmission of information related to touch, pressure, and proprioception. They have a medium conduction velocity and are classified as myelinated fibers. Group II afferent fibers play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and interpret sensory stimuli from the skin.

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  • 42. 

    Muscle spindles sense ___________________, and contain group ___________ fibers

    • A.

      Stretch, Ia and II

    • B.

      Tension, Ia and II

    • C.

      Stretch, II and III

    • D.

      Tension, II and III

    Correct Answer
    A. Stretch, Ia and II
    Explanation
    Muscle spindles are sensory receptors located within muscles that detect changes in muscle length or stretch. They contain two types of nerve fibers, Ia and II, which transmit information about muscle stretch to the central nervous system. Therefore, the correct answer is "stretch, Ia and II."

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  • 43. 

    Joint receptors sense ________________, and contain group ______________ fibers

    • A.

      Joint position, Ib and II

    • B.

      Joint position, II and III

    • C.

      Joint tension, Ib and II

    • D.

      Joint tension, Ia and II

    Correct Answer
    A. Joint position, Ib and II
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "joint position, Ib and II". Joint receptors are sensory receptors located in the joint capsule and ligaments that sense joint position and movement. They contain group Ib and II fibers, which transmit information about joint position and movement to the central nervous system. These receptors play a crucial role in proprioception, which is the body's ability to sense the position and movement of its limbs and joints.

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  • 44. 

    A receptive field mapping of the integumentary system is classified as a _________________

    • A.

      Dermatome

    • B.

      Halotome

    • C.

      Skinotome

    • D.

      Desmosome

    Correct Answer
    A. Dermatome
    Explanation
    A receptive field mapping refers to the area of skin that is innervated by a specific sensory nerve. A dermatome is a specific region of skin that is innervated by a single spinal nerve. Therefore, a receptive field mapping of the integumentary system is classified as a dermatome.

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  • 45. 

     true or false? in the dorsal column pathway, the primary afferent fibers from the legs do not synapse until the medullary region

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the dorsal column pathway, the primary afferent fibers from the legs do not synapse until the medullary region. This means that the sensory information from the legs is transmitted through the dorsal column of the spinal cord without synapsing until it reaches the medulla. This allows for efficient transmission of sensory information and helps maintain the integrity of the sensory signals from the legs.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is the first synapse of the jaw jerk reflex

    • A.

      Mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal 

    • B.

      Ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus

    • C.

      Ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus

    • D.

      Trigeminal motor nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal 
    Explanation
    for the jaw jerk reflex, when the jaw is presses down, muscle spindles in the muscles of the jaw will send information straight to the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal. the mesencephalic nucleus will then send information to the trigeminal motor nucleus, the trigeminal motor nucleus will then excite the masseter muscle and close the jaw.

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  • 47. 

    In the spinothalamic pathway decussation occurs ________________. in the medial lemiscus pathway, decussation occurs ____________

    • A.

      At vertebral level of stimulus, in the medulla

    • B.

      In the medulla, at the vertebral level of the stimulus 

    • C.

      In the medulla, in the medulla

    • D.

      In the brain, in the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    A. At vertebral level of stimulus, in the medulla
    Explanation
    In the spinothalamic pathway, decussation occurs at the vertebral level of the stimulus, in the medulla. This means that the nerve fibers carrying sensory information from the opposite side of the body cross over to the other side of the spinal cord at the same level where the stimulus is received. Once the fibers reach the medulla, they continue to ascend towards the brain for further processing. This pattern of decussation allows for the integration of sensory information from both sides of the body in the brain.

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  • 48. 

    Fred, a construction worker has impaled by a forklift while on the job, he has no pain sensation in his right leg, however, his touch perception in his right leg is normal which of the following pathways was likely damaged given the above information

    • A.

      Left spinothalamic tract

    • B.

      Right spinothalamic tract

    • C.

      Left medial lemniscus tract

    • D.

      Right medial lemniscus tract

    Correct Answer
    A. Left spinothalamic tract
    Explanation
    The left spinothalamic tract is likely damaged because it carries pain sensation from the right leg to the brain. Since Fred has no pain sensation in his right leg, it suggests that the pathway responsible for transmitting pain signals from the right leg to the brain is damaged. The other options, right spinothalamic tract, left medial lemniscus tract, and right medial lemniscus tract, are not likely to be damaged based on the given information.

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  • 49. 

    The cerebellum needs proprioceptive input from the body to produce

    • A.

      Smooth , voluntary muscular movements

    • B.

      Fast muscular movements

    • C.

      Reflex movements

    • D.

      Involuntary movements

    Correct Answer
    A. Smooth , voluntary muscular movements
    Explanation
    without information to the cerebellum, muscle movements would be erratic and "not smooth"

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  • 50. 

     true or false? the cerebellum participates in perceptual output

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    the cerebellum uses all the information that it receives to coordinate muscular movements

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