Everything You Need To Know About Existentialism

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Everything You Need To Know About Existentialism - Quiz

Existentialism is a philosophical theory that explores the existence of every being as unique and particular. To learn everything there is to know about existentialism, enjoy our online quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Who is considered to be the founder of existentialism?

    • A.

      Immanuel Kant

    • B.

      Friedrich Nietzsche

    • C.

      Soren Kierkegaard

    • D.

      Jean Paul Sartre

    Correct Answer
    C. Soren Kierkegaard
    Explanation
    Soren Kierkegaard is considered to be the founder of existentialism because he was one of the first philosophers to explore the concepts of individual existence, subjective experience, and the importance of personal choice and responsibility. Kierkegaard emphasized the significance of individual freedom and the need to confront the anxieties and uncertainties of life. His works, such as "Fear and Trembling" and "The Sickness Unto Death," laid the foundations for existentialist thought and greatly influenced later existentialist philosophers like Jean-Paul Sartre.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT an existential concept?

    • A.

      Mankind has no free will.

    • B.

      Life is a series of choices.

    • C.

      Few decisions are without any negative consequences.

    • D.

      If one makes a decision, he or she must follow through.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mankind has no free will.
    Explanation
    The concept of free will refers to the ability of individuals to make choices and decisions freely, without being determined by external factors. The statement "Mankind has no free will" contradicts this concept, suggesting that humans do not possess the capacity to exercise their own will and make choices independently. This statement denies the existence of free will, making it the correct answer as it does not align with the existential concept of free choice and decision-making.

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  • 3. 

    When does one experience an existential moment?

    • A.

      When attempting to find a way to deal with life experiences.

    • B.

      When recognizing that anxiety exists and where it comes from.

    • C.

      When facing depression to find a solution for the problem.

    • D.

      When taking a leap of faith.

    Correct Answer
    B. When recognizing that anxiety exists and where it comes from.
    Explanation
    An existential moment refers to a profound realization or awareness of one's existence and the meaning of life. It is a moment when an individual becomes acutely aware of their own mortality, purpose, and the underlying anxiety that may accompany these realizations. Recognizing that anxiety exists and understanding its source is an essential part of experiencing an existential moment because it involves introspection, self-reflection, and a deeper understanding of one's own emotions and psychological state. This awareness can lead to personal growth, a reevaluation of values, and a search for meaning and purpose in life.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is a philosophic idea that Kierkegaard does NOT believe in?

    • A.

      A person must be totally committed to living life and be prepared to go against the accepted norms of society.

    • B.

      Essence comes before existence because people need to find their own moral perfection.

    • C.

      Passionate individuals should decide the questions of truth and morality.

    • D.

      The search for truth causes apprehension.

    Correct Answer
    B. Essence comes before existence because people need to find their own moral perfection.
    Explanation
    Kierkegaard believes that a person must be totally committed to living life and be prepared to go against the accepted norms of society. He also believes that passionate individuals should decide the questions of truth and morality. Additionally, he acknowledges that the search for truth causes apprehension. However, Kierkegaard does not believe that essence comes before existence because people need to find their own moral perfection.

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  • 5. 

    What term is used to describe Kierkegaard's frustration at the human tendency to follow modern technology and the human susceptibiliity to peer pressure?

    • A.

      Conformity.

    • B.

      Societal dependence.

    • C.

      Herd mentality.

    • D.

      Self preservation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Herd mentality.
    Explanation
    Kierkegaard's frustration at the human tendency to follow modern technology and the human susceptibility to peer pressure is referred to as "herd mentality." This term describes the behavior of individuals who conform to the actions and beliefs of a larger group, often without critically thinking or questioning their own choices. Kierkegaard believed that this conformity hindered individuality and authentic self-expression.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following does NOT represent an existential situation?

    • A.

      Deciding to get married.

    • B.

      Deciding to drop out of college.

    • C.

      Deciding where to go for lunch.

    • D.

      Deciding to end a friendship.

    Correct Answer
    C. Deciding where to go for lunch.
    Explanation
    The question asks which option does NOT represent an existential situation. An existential situation refers to a decision or choice that has significant consequences and impacts one's existence or identity. Deciding to get married, deciding to drop out of college, and deciding to end a friendship are all choices that can have long-term effects on one's life and personal growth. However, deciding where to go for lunch is a relatively trivial decision that does not carry the same weight or existential impact.

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  • 7. 

    According to Kierkegaard, what constitutes human existence?

    • A.

      Only a person who is consciously engaged in an activity is said to exist.

    • B.

      All living and breathing people are said to exist.

    • C.

      To exist, one must first have essence.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Only a person who is consciously engaged in an activity is said to exist.
    Explanation
    According to Kierkegaard, human existence is constituted by only a person who is consciously engaged in an activity. This suggests that true existence requires active participation and engagement in one's actions and choices. Merely being alive or having essence is not enough to define human existence, as it is the conscious engagement that gives meaning and significance to one's life.

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  • 8. 

    When can a moment from essence to existence occur?

    • A.

      When people become concerned about their human limitations.

    • B.

      When people try to overcome their limitations.

    • C.

      When people add dread and unhappiness to their already anxious state of mind.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    A moment from essence to existence can occur when people become aware of their human limitations and start to feel concerned about them. It can also occur when people actively try to overcome these limitations by taking action and striving for personal growth. Additionally, this transition can happen when people add dread and unhappiness to their already anxious state of mind, further emphasizing their limitations and the need to move from essence to existence. Therefore, all of the given options contribute to the occurrence of this moment.

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  • 9. 

    What stage of life is a person in when he behaves according to his impulses and desires?

    • A.

      The ethical stage.

    • B.

      The existential stage.

    • C.

      The aesthetic stage.

    • D.

      The religious stage.

    Correct Answer
    C. The aesthetic stage.
    Explanation
    The aesthetic stage refers to a stage in life where a person primarily focuses on pursuing pleasure and fulfilling their desires. This stage is characterized by impulsive behavior and a lack of concern for moral or ethical considerations. In this stage, individuals prioritize their own personal satisfaction and enjoyment above all else.

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  • 10. 

    What stage of life is a person in when he takes a firm stand on moral questions?

    • A.

      The ethical stage.

    • B.

      The existential stage.

    • C.

      The aesthetic stage.

    • D.

      The religious stage.

    Correct Answer
    A. The ethical stage.
    Explanation
    When a person takes a firm stand on moral questions, they are likely in the ethical stage of life. This stage is characterized by an individual's development of a personal code of ethics and principles. It is during this stage that individuals begin to question and evaluate their own moral values and make decisions based on them. They prioritize doing what is right and just, and their actions are guided by a strong sense of morality. The ethical stage is an important phase in personal growth and development, as it shapes a person's character and their approach to ethical dilemmas.

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  • 11. 

    What stage of life is achieved by an act of commitment or by a leap of faith?

    • A.

      The ethical stage.

    • B.

      The existential stage.

    • C.

      The aesthetic stage.

    • D.

      The religious stage.

    Correct Answer
    D. The religious stage.
    Explanation
    An act of commitment or a leap of faith signifies a deep level of devotion and belief in something greater than oneself. This level of dedication and trust is often associated with the religious stage of life, where individuals seek meaning and purpose through their connection with a higher power or spiritual belief system. This stage involves a profound sense of surrender, obedience, and a desire for transcendence beyond the material world.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following best describes Nietzsche's view of the world.

    • A.

      He looked at everything with enthusiasm and wonder.

    • B.

      He looked at the world with a jaded eye.

    • C.

      He believed in looking at the appearance of things to discover truth.

    • D.

      He viewed life as senseless and meaningless.

    Correct Answer
    B. He looked at the world with a jaded eye.
    Explanation
    Nietzsche's view of the world can be described as looking at it with a jaded eye. This means that he viewed the world with skepticism, weariness, and a lack of enthusiasm. He did not see the world as a place of wonder and excitement, but rather as a place that was disillusioning and disappointing. This perspective is reflected in his philosophy, which often emphasized the harsh realities of life and the absence of inherent meaning or purpose.

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  • 13. 

    Because of his rejection of absolute truth, what is Nietzche often accused of embracing?

    • A.

      Existentialism.

    • B.

      Hedonsim.

    • C.

      Nihilism.

    • D.

      Atavism.

    Correct Answer
    C. Nihilism.
    Explanation
    Nietzsche is often accused of embracing nihilism because of his rejection of absolute truth. Nihilism is the belief that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Nietzsche's philosophy challenged traditional moral and religious values, arguing that they were constructed by society and lacked inherent truth. This rejection of absolute truth led to accusations of nihilism, as he believed that individuals must create their own values and meanings in a world without inherent purpose.

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  • 14. 

    What did Nietzsche believe about the concept of right and wrong?

    • A.

      He believed in universal laws.

    • B.

      He believed in ethical contextualism.

    • C.

      He believed in ethical relativism.

    • D.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. He believed in ethical relativism.
    Explanation
    Nietzsche believed in ethical relativism, which means that he believed that there are no universal or objective standards of right and wrong. Instead, he argued that moral values are subjective and vary from person to person, culture to culture, and time to time. Nietzsche believed that morality is a human creation and that individuals should create their own values based on their own desires and needs. Therefore, he rejected the idea of universal laws or objective moral truths.

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  • 15. 

    What doctrine says that everything happens an infinite number of times with an infinite number of variations?

    • A.

      The doctrine of eternal divergence.

    • B.

      The doctrine of eternal convergence.

    • C.

      The doctrine of eternal recurrence.

    • D.

      The doctrine of infinite possibilities

    Correct Answer
    C. The doctrine of eternal recurrence.
    Explanation
    The doctrine of eternal recurrence posits that everything happens an infinite number of times with an infinite number of variations. This means that every event, every action, and every moment in time will repeat itself in an endless cycle. This concept suggests that history is not linear but rather circular, and that the universe is in a constant state of repetition.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is NOT a part of Nietzsche's idea of the teenage Ubermensch?

    • A.

      Being manipulated by the media.

    • B.

      The avoidance of peer pressure.

    • C.

      The use of technology because it provides something personally useful.

    • D.

      Being motivated by the will to power and the will to self.

    Correct Answer
    A. Being manipulated by the media.
    Explanation
    Nietzsche's idea of the teenage Ubermensch emphasizes the rejection of societal norms and the pursuit of individual greatness. The avoidance of peer pressure aligns with this idea as it encourages independence and self-determination. The use of technology because it provides something personally useful is also in line with Nietzsche's philosophy, as it supports the individual's pursuit of self-improvement. Being motivated by the will to power and the will to self is a key aspect of Nietzsche's philosophy, as it emphasizes the individual's drive to assert their own power and overcome obstacles. However, being manipulated by the media goes against the idea of the Ubermensch, as it implies a lack of critical thinking and a reliance on external influences.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following does NOT describe Nietzsche's Ubermensch, the person who transcends desires?

    • A.

      Rejects conventional moralities.

    • B.

      Judges own actions as good.

    • C.

      Concerned with the afterlife.

    • D.

      Willing to recreate his/herself.

    Correct Answer
    C. Concerned with the afterlife.
    Explanation
    Nietzsche's Ubermensch, or Superman, is a concept that represents a person who surpasses societal norms and conventional moralities. They are willing to reject these moralities and create their own values. The Ubermensch judges their own actions as good based on their own standards. They are also willing to recreate themselves and constantly strive for self-improvement. However, the Ubermensch is not concerned with the afterlife. Nietzsche believed that focusing on the afterlife distracts individuals from living in the present and embracing their own power and potential.

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  • 18. 

    What does Zarathustra say man is to the overman?

    • A.

      An ape.

    • B.

      A laughing stock.

    • C.

      A painful embarrassment.

    • D.

      Both B and C

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both B and C
    Explanation
    Zarathustra believes that man is both a laughing stock and a painful embarrassment to the overman. This suggests that Zarathustra sees man as foolish and ridiculous, causing both amusement and discomfort to the overman. By stating that man is both a laughing stock and a painful embarrassment, Zarathustra emphasizes the negative aspects of human nature and highlights the need for the overman to transcend these limitations.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following BEST describes Nietzsche's idea of The Will to Power?

    • A.

      Being in command of others.

    • B.

      Being in command of oneself.

    • C.

      Being in judgment of others.

    • D.

      Being in judgment of oneself.

    Correct Answer
    B. Being in command of oneself.
    Explanation
    Nietzsche's idea of The Will to Power refers to an individual's ability to have control and mastery over oneself. It is not about being in command of others or passing judgment on others or oneself. The concept emphasizes the importance of self-control, self-determination, and the ability to harness one's own inner strength and desires. It is about achieving personal autonomy and self-mastery rather than exerting control over others.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is not a concept or idea presented in Nietzsche's "On Self-Overcoming"?

    • A.

      He who cannot obey himself is commanded.

    • B.

      Commanding is harder than obeying.

    • C.

      The weaker serves the stronger.

    • D.

      The smaller yields to the larger.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above.
    Explanation
    In Nietzsche's "On Self-Overcoming," all of the concepts or ideas mentioned are presented. The idea that he who cannot obey himself is commanded reflects Nietzsche's belief in the importance of self-discipline and self-mastery. The notion that commanding is harder than obeying highlights Nietzsche's emphasis on the challenges and responsibilities of leadership. The concept that the weaker serves the stronger aligns with Nietzsche's views on power dynamics and the will to power. Lastly, the idea that the smaller yields to the larger relates to Nietzsche's perspective on the natural order and hierarchy. Therefore, none of the options are excluded from Nietzsche's concepts in "On Self-Overcoming."

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following does Sartre believe affects how a person thinks and acts?

    • A.

      Choices.

    • B.

      Human nature.

    • C.

      A higher power.

    • D.

      Society.

    Correct Answer
    A. Choices.
    Explanation
    Sartre believes that choices affect how a person thinks and acts. According to his philosophy of existentialism, individuals have complete freedom to make choices and are responsible for the consequences of those choices. He argues that human existence precedes essence, meaning that individuals exist first and then define their essence through their choices and actions. Sartre rejects the idea of a higher power or predetermined human nature influencing behavior, emphasizing instead the importance of individual agency and the power of personal choices in shaping one's thoughts and actions.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following BEST describes Sartre's distinction between "consciousness" and "self"?

    • A.

      "Consciousness" determines existence while "self" determines essence.

    • B.

      "Consciousness" has no existence of its own while "self", however, exists outside of Consciousness.

    • C.

      "Self" is "nothingness" and "consciousness" is the "becomingness" that allows people to effectively view the world.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. "Consciousness" has no existence of its own while "self", however, exists outside of Consciousness.
    Explanation
    According to Sartre, "consciousness" refers to our awareness and perception of the world, while "self" is the essence of who we are as individuals. "Consciousness" does not have an independent existence, as it is always directed towards something outside of itself. On the other hand, the "self" exists outside of consciousness, as it is the core of our being. Therefore, the answer option that best describes Sartre's distinction is that "consciousness" has no existence of its own while "self" exists outside of consciousness.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following, according to Sartre, can prevent people from living an authentic life?

    • A.

      Being passive.

    • B.

      Following a role.

    • C.

      Belief in universal values.

    • D.

      Giving excuses.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    According to Sartre, all of the mentioned factors can prevent people from living an authentic life. Being passive means not taking responsibility for one's own actions and choices, which goes against the idea of living authentically. Following a role implies conforming to societal expectations and norms, rather than being true to oneself. Belief in universal values suggests that one is adhering to external standards rather than forming their own values. Giving excuses indicates a lack of accountability and a failure to confront one's own freedom and choices.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following BEST describes Sartre's paradoxical quote, "Man is condemned to be free"?

    • A.

      Freedom is not always a good thing.

    • B.

      Freedom brings unhappiness when people realize what it really means to be free.

    • C.

      People are forever dissatisfied with existence.

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Freedom brings unhappiness when people realize what it really means to be free.
    Explanation
    Sartre's quote, "Man is condemned to be free," suggests that although freedom is a fundamental aspect of human existence, it can also bring unhappiness. This is because when people fully understand the implications of their freedom, they may become aware of the responsibility and choices that come with it, leading to feelings of anxiety, doubt, and dissatisfaction. Therefore, the quote implies that the realization of true freedom can be a source of unhappiness for individuals.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following BEST describes Sartre's quote, "Hell is other people"?

    • A.

      Mean people suck.

    • B.

      Human relationships are constant conflicts.

    • C.

      I'm perfect and others are not.

    • D.

      Three words: RUSH HOUR TRAFFIC.

    Correct Answer
    B. Human relationships are constant conflicts.
    Explanation
    The quote "Hell is other people" by Sartre suggests that human relationships are constantly filled with conflicts. It implies that the presence of others can lead to discomfort, misunderstandings, and disagreements, making social interactions challenging and unpleasant. The quote reflects Sartre's existentialist philosophy, emphasizing the struggle and complexity of human connections. It does not imply that people are inherently mean or perfect, nor does it refer to rush hour traffic.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following BEST describes Sartre's quote, "Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself"?

    • A.

      Human beings have enormous creative powers.

    • B.

      Nothing from nothing means nothing.

    • C.

      Decisions are based on conscious choices.

    • D.

      It's late, I'm tired, mark letter A.

    Correct Answer
    A. Human beings have enormous creative powers.
    Explanation
    Sartre's quote, "Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself," suggests that human beings have the ability to shape their own identities and determine their own destinies. It implies that individuals have the power to create and define themselves through their choices, actions, and decisions. This quote highlights the idea that humans have the capacity for self-determination and the freedom to shape their own lives according to their own values and desires.

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  • 27. 

    What is the assertion that every event in the universe has a cause, and, since human acts are events, they also have causes?

    • A.

      Free will.

    • B.

      Formalism.

    • C.

      Determinism.

    • D.

      Utilitarianism.

    Correct Answer
    C. Determinism.
    Explanation
    Determinism is the correct answer because it asserts that every event in the universe, including human acts, has a cause. This means that human actions are not random or arbitrary, but rather they are determined by prior causes or factors. Determinism suggests that free will is an illusion and that our actions are predetermined by factors such as genetics, environment, and past experiences. This concept challenges the idea of complete autonomy and suggests that human behavior can be explained and predicted based on causal relationships.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is an argument against the notion of free will?

    • A.

      Human actions are determined by a series of antecedent causes.

    • B.

      Environment plays a part in the outcome of human behavior.

    • C.

      It has been ignored by our court system.

    • D.

      Human beings have the ability to choose.

    Correct Answer
    A. Human actions are determined by a series of antecedent causes.
    Explanation
    The argument against the notion of free will is that human actions are determined by a series of antecedent causes. This suggests that our actions are not truly freely chosen, but rather a result of various factors that precede them. It implies that our choices are influenced and shaped by external factors such as genetics, upbringing, and environmental circumstances, which limit our ability to have complete control over our actions.

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  • 29. 

    With respects to free will, an obstacle prevents an action and a constraint enforces an action.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because in the context of free will, an obstacle refers to something that hinders or blocks an action, while a constraint refers to something that compels or forces an action. Therefore, an obstacle prevents an action from being taken, while a constraint enforces or requires an action to be taken.

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  • 30. 

    If determinism is true, we could, theoretically, know beforehand if a person is going to commit a particular crime.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If determinism is true, it means that all events, including human actions, are determined by prior causes and conditions. Therefore, if determinism is true, it would be possible to trace back the causes and conditions that lead to a person committing a particular crime. By understanding these causes and conditions, it would be theoretically possible to predict beforehand if a person is going to commit a specific crime. Hence, the statement that if determinism is true, we could know beforehand if a person is going to commit a particular crime is true.

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  • 31. 

    According to proponents of free will, if a person appears to choose freely, we need to ask why a peron chose he way he did, or rather, what caused him to choose the way he did.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that proponents of free will believe that if a person appears to choose freely, it is important to understand the reasons or causes behind their choices. However, the correct answer is "False" because proponents of free will argue that choices are not determined by external causes but rather are the result of an individual's conscious decision-making. Therefore, they would not necessarily emphasize the need to investigate the causes behind a person's choices.

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  • 32. 

    According to Kierkegaard, All human beings are condemned to live lives of uncertainty and absudity, committed to subjective truths that can never be proved.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Kierkegaard believed that human beings have the ability to live meaningful lives by embracing uncertainty and absurdity. He argued that subjective truths, although unprovable, are essential for individuals to find their own purpose and meaning in life. Therefore, the correct answer is False, as Kierkegaard did not view all human beings as condemned to lives of uncertainty and absurdity, but rather saw the potential for individuals to create their own subjective truths.

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  • 33. 

    Nietzsche attacked the idea that there is only one correct way of looking at human behavior.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Nietzsche criticized the notion that there is a single correct perspective to understand human behavior. He believed that human behavior is complex and multifaceted, and cannot be reduced to a single fixed interpretation. Nietzsche advocated for a more nuanced and individualistic approach, emphasizing the importance of personal perspectives and interpretations in understanding human behavior. Therefore, the statement is true as Nietzsche indeed attacked the idea of a singular correct way of looking at human behavior.

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  • 34. 

    Like Kierkegaard, Nietzsche believed the modern world was too conforming,

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Both Kierkegaard and Nietzsche shared the belief that the modern world was excessively conforming. They criticized the conformity and herd mentality that they observed in society, arguing that it stifled individuality and authentic self-expression. This shared perspective on the modern world is what makes the statement "True."

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  • 35. 

    Nietzsche sought to avoid the creation of new truths.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Nietzsche sought to avoid the creation of new truths because he believed that truth is subjective and varies from individual to individual. He argued that the pursuit of objective truth leads to the suppression of individual perspectives and the imposition of a single, dominant truth. Instead, Nietzsche advocated for embracing multiple perspectives and interpretations, encouraging individuals to create their own truths based on their unique experiences and perspectives. Therefore, it can be inferred that Nietzsche indeed sought to avoid the creation of new truths.

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  • 36. 

    The conscious rejection of whatever ideals are presented by the media--just to be different--is not something a true Ubermensch would do.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that a true Ubermensch, a concept introduced by Friedrich Nietzsche, would not simply reject ideals presented by the media just for the sake of being different. The Ubermensch, according to Nietzsche, is an individual who surpasses societal norms and values, creating their own set of values based on their own self-realization. Therefore, blindly rejecting media ideals without a thoughtful evaluation would not align with the characteristics of a true Ubermensch. Hence, the answer is true.

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  • 37. 

    Nietzsche's Ubermensch is an achievable reality.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Nietzsche's Ubermensch, also known as the Superman or Overman, is not an achievable reality. According to Nietzsche, the Ubermensch is a hypothetical concept of a superior individual who surpasses the limitations of ordinary humans. It is an ideal to strive towards, but Nietzsche himself acknowledged that it is an unattainable goal. The Ubermensch represents a higher form of humanity that transcends traditional moral values and embraces individual will to power. Therefore, the statement that Nietzsche's Ubermensch is an achievable reality is false.

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  • 38. 

    Nietzsche believes that the suppressive structure of society creates mediocrity among people who lead lives of self-delusion and are not able to see the world as it truly is.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Nietzsche argues that society's oppressive structure leads individuals to live in self-delusion and prevents them from perceiving the world as it truly is. This suggests that people are influenced by societal norms and expectations, which result in mediocrity. By conforming to these norms, individuals are unable to develop their true potential and instead settle for a mediocre existence. Nietzsche's belief aligns with the statement that society's suppressive structure creates mediocrity among people who are disconnected from reality.

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  • 39. 

    Sartre believes that humans alone are responsible for making decisions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sartre's philosophy of existentialism emphasizes that humans have free will and are responsible for their own actions and choices. According to him, there is no predetermined purpose or meaning in life, and individuals must create their own values and determine their own path. Therefore, Sartre believes that humans alone are responsible for making decisions, as they have the autonomy to choose and shape their own lives.

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  • 40. 

    Essence can be defined as the basic nature of something that determines its shape.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement accurately defines essence as the fundamental nature of something that influences its form or characteristics. It implies that the essence of an object or entity is what defines its core identity or purpose. Therefore, the given answer, "True," is correct as it aligns with the definition provided.

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