Mega Biogeography Trivia

45 Questions

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Mega Biogeography Trivia

Biogeography is the branch of geography that focuses on the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. Organisms and biological communities usually vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude, elevation, isolation, and habitat area. Do you think you know everything about this topic? Attempt this quiz to find out more


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    There are 2 kinds of histories: history of place & history of lineages.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    Which of the following are components of the history of place?
    • A. 

      Geology

    • B. 

      Geography

    • C. 

      Climate

    • D. 

      Soils & Vegetation

    • E. 

      Evolution & Extinction of new taxa

    • F. 

      Distribution changes

    • G. 

      Range shifting

  • 3. 
    The history of lineages follows fundamental biogeographic processes. Which of the following is involved in the history of lineages?
    • A. 

      Evolution of new taxa

    • B. 

      Extinction of taxa

    • C. 

      Changes in distribution

    • D. 

      Geology

    • E. 

      Climate

    • F. 

      Soils & Vegetation

  • 4. 
    Select which of the following are fundamental biogeographic patterns.
    • A. 

      Endemism

    • B. 

      Provincialism

    • C. 

      Disjunction

    • D. 

      Interchange

    • E. 

      Divergence & Convergence

  • 5. 
    Species can be endemic only over a continental scale.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Which is not a reason why endemism occurs?
    • A. 

      Due to mass extinction

    • B. 

      Due to historical events and ecological processes

    • C. 

      Originated and never disappeared

    • D. 

      Entire range has shifted in locality

    • E. 

      Now survive in small part of former range

  • 7. 
    Endemism occurs on a variety of spatial scales and at a nested hierarchy of taxonomic scales.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    Which of the following statements about provincialism are true?
    • A. 

      Made up of endemic forms that are randomly distributed

    • B. 

      Most closely related species tend to have overlapping or adjacent ranges

    • C. 

      Unrelated higher taxa show similar patterns of endemism

  • 9. 
    Concerning Biogeographic regions, there are many lines dividing species. Sclater's line is for birds whereas Wallace's line is for terrestrial mammals.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    Within the deserts of North America, independent groups of organisms have similar distribution boundaries.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    Biogeographic provinces within the Nearctic Biogeographic region are not stable in location or composition over time.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    Biogeographical lines represent areas of rapid turnover of taxa at the boundaries between regions.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Marine provincialism involves the change of location and composition with changing climates.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    Disjunction can occur through historical events or ecological processes. Select all of the following which are ways by which disjunction occurs (3 correct answers)
    • A. 

      Tectonics

    • B. 

      Intervening Extinction

    • C. 

      Dispersal

    • D. 

      Sympatric Speciation

  • 15. 
    One form of disjunction is amphitropical where species occur in temperate regions in North America and South America but not in the trophics themselves.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    All disjunct distributions are accurate and based upon phylogenetic data.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Interchange can repeat through time.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Concerning interchange, it was found that mammals with northern ancestry did better with crossing filters than mammals with southern ancestry. Which of the following is not a reason why?
    • A. 

      Better reproductive strategies

    • B. 

      Better migrators

    • C. 

      Better survivors and speciators

    • D. 

      Better competitors

  • 19. 
    Symplesiomorphic (shared primitive) characters are not useful in diagnosing a monophyletic group.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    [Blank] are used to polarize primitive to derived direction of character state changes in ingroups (focal monophyletic group)
  • 21. 
    Which of the following does not apply to phylogenetics in modern biogeography?
    • A. 

      All of these answers apply

    • B. 

      Importance of fossils

    • C. 

      Value of molecular characters (phylogenetics)

    • D. 

      History of vicariance and dispersal

    • E. 

      None of these answers apply

  • 22. 
    Fossils are important for:
    • A. 

      Documentation of extinction

    • B. 

      Earliest appearance of a taxonomic lineage

    • C. 

      Appearance of lineage traits

    • D. 

      Reconstructing past environments, climates, and distributions

    • E. 

      Phylogenetic accuracy

    • F. 

      Hierarchical resolution

  • 23. 
    What is the value of molecular characters in phylogenetics (systematics)?
    • A. 

      Phylogenetic accuracy

    • B. 

      Phylogenetic comparability

    • C. 

      Dating divergence events (molecular clocks)

    • D. 

      Molecular diagnosis of taxa and distributions from fossils

    • E. 

      Hierarchial resolution

    • F. 

      Distribution and timing of taxonomic lineages

    • G. 

      Reconstructing past environments, climates, and distributions

  • 24. 
    A biota is defined as "all species of plants, animals, and microbes inhabiting a specified region." Which of the following are important questions regarding biotas?
    • A. 

      What part of a "biota" are actually sampled and why?

    • B. 

      How do we specify a region of interest?

    • C. 

      What time range does a biota cover?

    • D. 

      Is climate irrelevant to any particular biota?

  • 25. 
    Prior to Croizat's metaphor, most biogeographers generally believed in "dispersal over a permanent geography" from a Center of Origin; vicariance was not addressed until the plate tectonic theory was introduced.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

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