The founders’ views of the philosophically best government.
The official rules for who gets what, when, and how in American politics.
The justification for the Revolution.
The most extreme example of popular sovereignty ever created.
The legislative and executive branches have gradually come to share all institutional powers.
Legislative powers include the ability to initiate and implement laws.
Legislative, executive, and judicial powers are handled by separate institutions.
The judiciary takes precedence over the legislative and executive branches by design.
Only House members have always been chosen by the public.
Senators have longer terms than members of the House.
Senate terms are staggered whereas all House members are elected at the same time.
The House of Representatives was modeled after the British House of Lords whereas the Senate was modeled after the House of Commons.
More responsive to the public than
More stable than
Similar in every way to
More accessible to the people than
Many more interests can be represented in it.
It is much more responsive to public opinion.
It can represent different levels of a federal government.
It divides the power of government more than a bicameral legislature.
Necessary and proper
Full faith and credit
He is commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
He negotiates treaties
He can call Congress into session under extraordinary circumstances.
He can declare war.
House of Representatives
Council of Governors
Federal Election Commission
A prime minister can call new elections, whereas the president cannot.
The prime minister is a member of parliament, whereas the president cannot be a member of Congress.
Parliament chooses the head of the executive branch, whereas Congress normally does not.
The prime minister is not chosen directly by the people, whereas the president is chosen directly by the people.
Senators have always been chosen by direct election.
The minimum age to be president is older than the minimum age to be a senator.
Presidents cannot be naturalized citizens.
Presidents have shorter terms than senators.
Judges are naturally peaceful.
Its members can be impeached.
It does not control the military or the budget of the nation.
Its functions are totally passive.
Is limited to acts of Congress.
Was argued by Hamilton to be consistent with the Constitution.
Can be overruled by laws passed by Congress.
Is subject to presidential veto.
Defines a ten-year term for federal judges.
Forbids Congress from adjusting the structure and organization of federal courts
Creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts.
Spells out in detail the structure and organization of the federal judiciary.
Is an alternative system to judicial review.
Grew more important after the Civil War.
Was never seriously considered by the founders.
Is provided for in Article I of the Constitution.
Separation of powers.
Checks and balances.
Fusion of powers.
Presidents can veto legislation.
Presidents can force Congress to adjourn.
Congress can impeach members of the judiciary. Congress can impeach members of the judiciary. the Supreme Court can declare acts of Congress or the president to be unconstitutional.
Congress can impeach members of the judiciary.
Necessary and proper powers.
It creates a tendency for states to cut social benefits to better compete with each other.
It creates a tendency for states to engage in “smokestack chasing.”
It creates greater flexibility at local levels of government.
It creates a more uniform environment for business activity across the country.
States that it is necessary and proper for Congress to have sufficient reasons to impeach the president.
States that the authorities must have a necessary and proper clause for search and seizure of private property.
Is used by Congress to justify the exercise of powers not mentioned in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution.
Is used by the Supreme Court as justification for the power of judicial review.
Borrowing and spending money for the general welfare.
Levying import or export taxes on goods.
Taking private property for public purposes.
Separation of powers federalism.
Was an accurate depiction of American federalism during the eighteenth century
Defines state and national powers as interdependent, requiring the cooperation of each other to get things done.
Reflects the formal distribution of powers by the Constitution.
Is modeled after a layer cake.
The Supreme Court could declare acts of Congress to be unconstitutional.
The federal government had the implied power to create a national bank.
Congress was not allowed to outlaw slavery in U.S. territories
Interpreting the commerce clause of the Constitution very broadly.
Interpreting the “necessary and proper” clause of the Constitution very broadly.
Interpreting the federal police power very broadly.
Establishing that the states did not have the power to secede from the union.
Federal police power very broadly.
Congressional power to declare war very broadly.
Commerce clause of the Constitution very broadly.