# Physical Science Chapter 15

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Physical science. Yes.

• 1.

### The more you know about an object's position, the more you know about it's momentum.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because knowing more about an object's position does not necessarily provide information about its momentum. Momentum depends on both the object's mass and velocity, while position only refers to the object's location in space. It is possible to have accurate knowledge about an object's position without having any information about its velocity or mass, which are crucial for determining momentum. Therefore, knowing more about an object's position does not necessarily mean knowing more about its momentum.

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• 2.

### Matter has both wave an particle properties.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Matter exhibits both wave and particle properties, which is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. This duality is known as wave-particle duality, meaning that matter can exhibit characteristics of both waves and particles depending on the experiment or observation. This has been demonstrated through various experiments, such as the double-slit experiment, where particles like electrons or photons can behave as both particles and waves simultaneously. Therefore, the statement "Matter has both wave and particle properties" is true.

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• 3.

### Electrons can form interference patterns, just as light can.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Electrons can form interference patterns because they exhibit wave-particle duality, meaning they can behave both as particles and waves. This phenomenon is known as electron wave interference. When electrons pass through a double-slit experiment, for example, they can interfere with each other, creating an interference pattern similar to the patterns observed with light waves. This behavior is a fundamental aspect of quantum mechanics and has been experimentally verified. Therefore, the statement "Electrons can form interference patterns, just as light can" is true.

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• 4.

### It is impossible to predict exactly where an electron will strike the screen after passing through two slits in a double-slit experiment.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
In a double-slit experiment, electrons behave as both particles and waves. When passing through the two slits, they create an interference pattern on the screen. This pattern is only possible if the electrons interact with themselves, indicating that they go through both slits simultaneously. Therefore, it is impossible to predict exactly where an electron will strike the screen after passing through the slits, making the statement true.

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• 5.

### An object's momentum is the only property associated with probability waves.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
This statement is false because an object's momentum is not the only property associated with probability waves. In quantum mechanics, an object's wave function represents its probability distribution, which includes various properties such as position, momentum, energy, and more. The wave function provides information about the probabilities of different values for these properties, not just momentum. Therefore, an object's momentum is just one of the properties associated with probability waves, and not the only one.

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• 6.

### If moving slowly enough, small objects can have wavelengths that reach macroscopic dimensions.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
When small objects move slowly, their wavelengths can become large enough to reach macroscopic dimensions. This phenomenon is known as wave-particle duality, which suggests that particles can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. According to quantum mechanics, the wavelength of a particle is inversely proportional to its momentum. Therefore, when an object's momentum is very small, its wavelength can become significant enough to be macroscopic in size. This concept has been observed in experiments with particles such as electrons and atoms.

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• 7.

### The likelihood of detecting a particle as it travels through space.

probability wave
Explanation
The term "probability wave" refers to the mathematical description of the behavior of a particle in quantum mechanics. It represents the likelihood or probability of detecting a particle at different locations as it moves through space. This concept arises from the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics, where particles can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. The probability wave allows us to understand the probabilistic nature of particle behavior and predict the chances of finding a particle at a particular position.

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• 8.

### The more you know about the position the less you know about momentum, and the more you know about momentum the less you know about position.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Explanation
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that it is impossible to simultaneously know the exact position and momentum of a subatomic particle with complete certainty. This means that as our knowledge about the position of a particle becomes more precise, our knowledge about its momentum becomes less precise, and vice versa. This principle is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics and highlights the inherent limitations of measuring certain properties of particles at the microscopic level.

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• 9.

### Phenomenon that creates areas of high probability where the electron will strike the screen

Constructive interference
Explanation
Constructive interference is a phenomenon in which two or more waves combine to produce a larger amplitude. In the context of the given question, when electrons pass through a double slit experiment, they behave as waves and create an interference pattern on a screen. Constructive interference occurs when the peaks of the electron waves align, resulting in areas of high probability where the electrons are more likely to strike the screen. Therefore, constructive interference is the correct answer to explain the phenomenon of creating areas of high probability for electron strikes on the screen.

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• 10.

### Phenomenon that creates areas of low probability where the electron is unlikely to strike the screen

destructive interference
Explanation
Destructive interference refers to the phenomenon where two or more waves combine in such a way that they cancel each other out, resulting in areas of low or zero amplitude. In the context of the given question, destructive interference can create areas of low probability where electrons are unlikely to strike the screen. This occurs when the electron waves interfere with each other in a way that their amplitudes subtract, leading to a decreased likelihood of detection on the screen.

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• 11.

### Postulates a universe where actions do not lead to pre-determined effects

Quantum mechanics
Explanation
Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics that describes the behavior of matter and energy at the smallest scales. It is known for its probabilistic nature, where the outcome of an event is not predetermined but rather determined by a wave function that gives the probability of different outcomes. This suggests a universe where actions do not lead to pre-determined effects, as the outcome of an action is uncertain until it is observed. Therefore, quantum mechanics aligns with the idea of a universe where actions do not have predetermined effects.

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• 12.

### The physical world continues on a predetermined course once set in motion

Newtonian mechanics
Explanation
Newtonian mechanics is a branch of physics that describes the motion of objects based on the laws of motion formulated by Sir Isaac Newton. According to these laws, an object will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed unless acted upon by an external force. This implies that once an object is set in motion, it will continue on its path unless something interferes with it. Therefore, the statement that the physical world continues on a predetermined course once set in motion aligns with the principles of Newtonian mechanics.

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• 13.

### The likelihood of detecting a particle at a given location

Probability curve
Explanation
The likelihood of detecting a particle at a given location can be represented by a probability curve. This curve shows the distribution of probabilities for the particle to be found at different positions. The curve is typically bell-shaped, with the highest probability at the center and decreasing probabilities towards the edges. The area under the curve represents the total probability of finding the particle within a certain range of positions.

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• 14.

### Louis de Brogile proposed that matter has the same _____________ duality as light

wave-particle
Explanation
Louis de Broglie proposed that matter has the same wave-particle duality as light. This means that like light, matter can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. This concept suggests that particles, such as electrons or protons, can behave as waves under certain circumstances, and conversely, waves can exhibit particle-like behavior. This duality is a fundamental principle in quantum mechanics and has been experimentally confirmed through various experiments, such as the double-slit experiment.

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• 15.

### To see interference patterns in an electron two-slit experiment, the slit's spacing needs to be about the same size as an electron's _____________

Davisson, Germer
• 16.

### The product of the uncertainty of an object's position and momentum is always greater than or equal to ______________

wavelength
Explanation
The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics states that the product of the uncertainty in an object's position and momentum is always greater than or equal to a certain value. This value is known as Planck's constant divided by 2π, and it represents the minimum amount of uncertainty that can exist in the measurement of position and momentum. Therefore, the correct answer is "wavelength" because it represents the minimum value that the product of position uncertainty and momentum uncertainty can have.

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• 17.

### When an electron is moving, it's ____________properties are manifest

Planck's constant
Explanation
When an electron is moving, its properties are manifest through Planck's constant. Planck's constant is a fundamental constant in quantum mechanics that relates the energy of a photon to its frequency. It also plays a crucial role in determining the behavior and properties of particles, such as electrons, at the quantum level. Therefore, when an electron is in motion, its properties, such as energy, momentum, and wavelength, can be described and understood using Planck's constant.

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• 18.

### When an electron is detected, its _________properties are manifest

wave
Explanation
When an electron is detected, its wave properties are manifest. This means that the electron exhibits characteristics of a wave, such as interference and diffraction. These properties can be observed in experiments like the double-slit experiment, where electrons behave as both particles and waves. The wave nature of electrons is an essential aspect of quantum mechanics and is fundamental to understanding the behavior of subatomic particles.

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• 19.

### If the speed of a particle increases, its wavelength

• A.

Decreases

• B.

Increases

• C.

Stays the same

• D.

Could increase, decrease, or stay the same

A. Decreases
Explanation
When the speed of a particle increases, its wavelength decreases. This is because wavelength is inversely proportional to speed. As the speed of the particle increases, the distance between successive crests or troughs of the wave decreases, resulting in a shorter wavelength. Therefore, the correct answer is decreases.

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• 20.

### Which of the following could not form a diffraction pattern in a double-slit experiment

• A.

Visible light

• B.

X-rays

• C.

Ultraviolet light

• D.

Electrons

• E.

All of the above could form diffraction patterns

E. All of the above could form diffraction patterns
Explanation
All of the given options, including visible light, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and electrons, can form a diffraction pattern in a double-slit experiment. Diffraction occurs when waves encounter an obstacle or a slit and bend around it, creating an interference pattern. This phenomenon is not limited to a specific type of wave, so all of the options mentioned can produce a diffraction pattern.

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• 21.

### For which phenomenon would the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be a significant consideration in describing motion?

• A.

Electrons in atoms

• B.

Planets in orbit around the sun

• C.

The space shuttle in orbit around Earth

• D.

Billiard balls on a pool table

• E.

Brownian motion of dust particles in the air

A. Electrons in atoms
Explanation
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that it is impossible to simultaneously know the exact position and momentum of a particle. This principle is particularly significant when describing the motion of electrons in atoms. Electrons are tiny particles with a very small mass, and their behavior is governed by quantum mechanics. Due to their small size, their exact position and momentum cannot be determined with precision, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle helps to explain this inherent uncertainty in their motion.

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• 22.

### Macroscopic objects don't show interference effects because

• A.

Quantum mechanics doesn't apply to big objects

• B.

They are larger than the wavelength of light

• C.

Their wavelengths are too short

• D.

They can't fit through small slits

• E.

They don't have wave properties

C. Their wavelengths are too short
Explanation
Macroscopic objects don't show interference effects because their wavelengths are too short. In order for interference to occur, the wavelengths of the objects should be comparable to the size of the slits or obstacles they encounter. However, macroscopic objects have such short wavelengths that they do not exhibit wave-like behavior and therefore do not show interference effects. This is in contrast to smaller particles, such as electrons or photons, which have longer wavelengths and can exhibit interference phenomena.

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• Current Version
• Feb 09, 2024
Quiz Edited by
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• Feb 24, 2010
Quiz Created by
Julierass311

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