Natural levees, oxbow-shaped lakes
Natural levees, washes
Transform faults and earthquakes.
Mid-ocean ridges and volcanoes.
Relatively flat terrain on the ocean floor.
Deep-sea trenches and mountain ranges.
The landforms moved over faults.
Of the mountain ranges on the fringes of the Pacific Ocean.
Of the remarkable fit of the continents.
Scientists observed that the Atlantic Ocean was widening.
1 yard (.9 m) per year.
1 inch (2.5 cm) per year.
1 foot (.3 m) per year.
1 mile (1.6 km) per year.
Discovery of subduction.
Numerical scale of earthquake magnitude.
Invention of the seismograph.
Theory of continental drift.
Marble, basalt, conglomerate
Conglomerate, limestone, shale
Slate, gneiss, marble
Limestone, sandstone, granite
Subduction, seafloor spreading, transform movement
Broad warping, folding, faulting
Weathering, mass wasting, erosion
Oxidation, hydrolysis, carbonation
Lagoons or inlets.
Siberia, Canada, and Alaska
The Himalayan Mountains and the Andes Mountains.
The Rocky Mountains and the Himalayan Mountains.
Antarctica and Greenland.
An increase in gravitational pull of the moon.
An abrupt change of temperature.
A hurricane or typhoon.
Frost action, root action, development of salt crystals
Frost action, carbonation, root action
Hydrolysis, oxidation, carbonation
Development of salt crystals, oxidation, carbonation
Continental crust forced upwards into the asthenosphere.
Oceanic crust forced upwards into the lithosphere.
Oceanic crust forced downward into the asthenosphere.
Continental crust forced downward into the mid-Atlantic ridge.
Lateral moraines, fiords, permafrost
Lateral moraines, terminal moraines, outwash plain
Fiords, outwash plains, terminal moraines
Outwash plain, lateral moraines, fiords
The buildup of tension as tectonic forces are applied.
Vibrations caused by seismic waves.
The reduction in surface tension following a buildup of tectonic forces.
The drifting of continental plates over tropical regions.
Changes in the shape, the tilt, and the seasonal positions of the earth's orbit around the sun.
Periods of excessive dust in the atmosphere.
The periodic changes in the amount of solar energy received on the earth's surface.
Lava that cools rapidly on the earth's surface.
Magma that cools slowly beneath the earth's surface.
Magma that cools slowly on the earth's surface.
Lava that cools rapidly beneath the earth's surface.
The gravitational pull on steep slopes causes avalanches that dislodge the snow accumulations.
Tectonic forces from within the earth dislodge loose materials, such as great slabs of snow and ice.
The rotation of the earth holds the snowfields back, thereby forcing them to move.
The weight of snow causes compaction at the base and the formation of ice, which becomes plastic-like.
Knob and kettle topography .
Strength of the wind.
Steepness of the slope.
Amount of precipitation.
Type of vegetation.
Coastal erosion and streams.
Windblown materials from desert environments.
The great rivers of the world.
It results from the action of water.
It is found in limestone regions.
It is found in arid regions.
It often results in potholes and sinks.
The Northern Hemisphere only.
No part of the world.
The Southern Hemisphere only.
The Northern and the Southern Hemispheres.
An offshore bar.
A lateral moraine.
Sea cliffs, headlands, embayments
Sandbars, talus slopes, sandspits
Fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls
Deltas, cuspate bars, capes
10 to 12