Pharmacology(6) Git - MCQ

39 Questions | Total Attempts: 1358

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Pharmacology(6) Git - MCQ

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Decreased colonic activity may be due to:
    • A. 

      Drugs

    • B. 

      High bulk diet

    • C. 

      Depression, confusional states

    • D. 

      Various local conditions including carcinoma

    • E. 

      Old age, immobility

  • 2. 
    Drugs that cause obstipation:
    • A. 

      Anticholinergic agents

    • B. 

      Ca channel antagonists

    • C. 

      Opioids

    • D. 

      Tricyclic antidepressants

    • E. 

      Muscarinic agonists

  • 3. 
    Plant fiber (a laxative, purgative)
    • A. 

      Increases the bulk of the stools

    • B. 

      Increases the bowel transit time

    • C. 

      Slowly distends the wall of the colon

    • D. 

      Increases the effective caloric content of the diet

    • E. 

      Takes up water and swells

  • 4. 
    Lactulose
    • A. 

      Is a monosaccharide

    • B. 

      Is broken down in the small intestine by bacteria

    • C. 

      Is broken down to unabsorbed organic anions which retain fluid

    • D. 

      Produces laxative effects after 2-3 hours

    • E. 

      Is of particular value in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy

  • 5. 
    Lactulose is of particular value in the treatment of encephalopathy:
    • A. 

      As it discourages the proliferation of ammonia producing organisms

    • B. 

      As it decreases the absorption of ammonia

    • C. 

      As it decreases chronic portal hypertension

    • D. 

      As it acidifies the stools

    • E. 

      As it improves functions of CNS after absorption from the GIT

  • 6. 
    Magnesium sulfate
    • A. 

      Is a laxative which acts within 1-2 days

    • B. 

      Dilates the gallbladder and relaxes the sphincter of Oddi

    • C. 

      Increases the secretion of cholecystokinin

    • D. 

      Increases gastric, intestinal and pancreatic secretion

    • E. 

      Should be given in dilute solution to a fasting individual

  • 7. 
    Glycosides of senna:
    • A. 

      Their laxative effect is limited mainly to the large intestine

    • B. 

      Naturally occuring glycosides are completely absorbed from the gut

    • C. 

      After absorption they are secreted in the bile, breast milk and colon

    • D. 

      Prior to absorption Senna glycosides are hydrolyzed to active principles

    • E. 

      Their hydrolysis into the sennosides A and B is due to colonic bacteria

  • 8. 
    Senna alcaloids (anthraquinones, the sennosides A and B)
    • A. 

      Act directly on the intramucosal plexus of the gut wall

    • B. 

      Take about 8 minutes to produce an effect

    • C. 

      Should not be given to pregnant women

    • D. 

      Should not be given to nursing mothers

    • E. 

      Can induce diarrhea with excessive loss of water and electrolytes

  • 9. 
    Glycerol (in the form of rectal suppositories)
    • A. 

      Is useful if a rapid effect is required

    • B. 

      Acts as a rectal stimulant due to local irritant action

    • C. 

      Cannot be used in children

    • D. 

      Rectal suppositories promote colonic evacuation in 30 minutes

    • E. 

      Exerts severe diarrhea with loss of water and electrolytes

  • 10. 
    Changes after prolonged use of laxatives:
    • A. 

      The colon becomes dilated and atonic

    • B. 

      The colon exerts increased activity

    • C. 

      Sodium depletion can be induced (hypotension, secondary aldosteronism)

    • D. 

      Hyperkalemia can be induced (weakness, polyuria)

    • E. 

      Changes are due to prolonged use of stimulant laxatives

  • 11. 
    In the treatment of acute diarrhea
    • A. 

      Antibiotics are best avoided in non-pathogenic diarrhea

    • B. 

      Antibiotics are best avoided in viral gastroenteritis

    • C. 

      Oral rehydration should be used for initial therapy

    • D. 

      Electrolytes and glucose should be supplemented for initial therapy

    • E. 

      Oral rehydration and electrolytes supplementation are required particularly in children and in the elderly

  • 12. 
    In patients with diarrhea the following can be used:
    • A. 

      Antibiotics to treat systemic illness

    • B. 

      Antibiotics in evidence of bacterial infection

    • C. 

      Antidiarrheal drugs decreasing intestinal transit time

    • D. 

      Antidiarrheal drugs increasing bulk and viscosity of the gut contents

    • E. 

      Opioids, antimuscarinics

  • 13. 
    Drugs increasing intestinal transit time are:
    • A. 

      Codeine (an opioid)

    • B. 

      Morphine (an opioid)

    • C. 

      Loperamide

    • D. 

      Diphenoxylate

    • E. 

      Fysostigmin

  • 14. 
    Peptic ulcer disease
    • A. 

      Is a chronic disorder

    • B. 

      Characterized by frequent recurrences

    • C. 

      Comprises duodenal and peptic ulcers

    • D. 

      The incidence of duodenal ulcers is four to five times lower than that of gastric ulcer

    • E. 

      Affects approximately 50% of the population

  • 15. 
    These are major factors of known importance for the etiology of ulceration:
    • A. 

      Acid-pepsin secretion

    • B. 

      Mucosal resistance to attack by acid and pepsin

    • C. 

      The age

    • D. 

      Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    • E. 

      The presence of Helicobacter pylori

  • 16. 
    Acid secretion
    • A. 

      Is produced by endocrine cells in the gastric antrum cells

    • B. 

      Is stimulated by gastrin

    • C. 

      Is inhibited by acetylcholine

    • D. 

      Is inhibited by histamine

    • E. 

      Is stimulated by prostaglandin E

  • 17. 
    Prostaglandin E2
    • A. 

      Is the principal prostaglandin synthesized in the stomach

    • B. 

      Is an important gastroprotective mediator

    • C. 

      Inhibits secretion of acid

    • D. 

      Inhibits secretion of protective mucus

    • E. 

      Causes vasoconstriction of submucosal layer

  • 18. 
    Mucus layer is impaired by
    • A. 

      Bicarbonate

    • B. 

      Milk

    • C. 

      Bile

    • D. 

      Ethanol

    • E. 

      Salicylates

  • 19. 
    Helicobacter pylori
    • A. 

      Is a bacterium strongly linked to the development of gastric ulcer

    • B. 

      Is usually found in the gastric antrum

    • C. 

      Cannot colonize other areas of stomach and patches of gastric metaplasia on the duodenum

    • D. 

      Is a common cause of antral gastritis

    • E. 

      May alleviate symptoms in dyspeptic patients

  • 20. 
    Helicobacter pylori
    • A. 

      Is present in the stomach of 5% of patients with duodenal ulcer

    • B. 

      Clearance of H.pylori in ulcer patients is accompanied by a reduced rate of relapse

    • C. 

      Its reappearance is associated with recurrent ulceration

    • D. 

      Antral gastritis (caused by H.p.) is closely associated with duodenal ulcer

    • E. 

      Cannot by eradicated using antibiotics

  • 21. 
    Principles of ulcer management:
    • A. 

      Symptomatic relief

    • B. 

      Promotion of ulcer healing

    • C. 

      Prevention of reccurence once healing has occured

    • D. 

      Prevention of complication

    • E. 

      Surgical approach

  • 22. 
    General management of peptic ulcer disease:
    • A. 

      Bed rest

    • B. 

      Stopping smoking

    • C. 

      Avoidance of strong coffee or tea

    • D. 

      Avoidance of alcohol and non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs

    • E. 

      Drug therapy of peptic ulcer

  • 23. 
    Healing of ulcers shoud be confirmed by:
    • A. 

      Increased activity of AST, ALT

    • B. 

      Repeat endoscopy

    • C. 

      Decrease in creatininemia

    • D. 

      Increase in natremia

    • E. 

      Biopsy is recommended to exclude malignancy in the case of gastric ulcer.

  • 24. 
    Antacids:
    • A. 

      React with gastric acid to form a neutral salt

    • B. 

      Produce prompt pain relief

    • C. 

      Are very effective at healing duodenal ulcer

    • D. 

      Are very effective at healing gastric ulcers

    • E. 

      Its effect on acid secretion lasts for long (5 hours)

  • 25. 
    Antacids involve:
    • A. 

      Sodium bicarbonate

    • B. 

      Magnesium salts (oxide, trisilicate, hydroxide)

    • C. 

      Cimetidine

    • D. 

      Sucralfate

    • E. 

      Aluminium salts (hydroxide, phosphate, glycinate)

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