Pharm Chapter 44; Drugs For Diabetes

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Diabetes Drug Quizzes & Trivia

Pharm chapter 44; drugs for diabetes


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The pancreas is essential to both the endocrine and exorcrine system. what other statement are true regarding the pancreas and those systems

    • A.

      Insulin released when blood glucose increases

    • B.

      Glucagon released when blood glucose decreases

    • C.

      Glucagon and insulin are same substance

    • D.

      Alpha cells secrete insulin

    • E.

      Beta cells secrete glucagon

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Insulin released when blood glucose increases
    B. Glucagon released when blood glucose decreases
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas when blood glucose levels increase. It helps to lower blood glucose by promoting the uptake of glucose into cells for energy production or storage. On the other hand, glucagon is also released by the pancreas, but when blood glucose levels decrease. Glucagon acts to increase blood glucose levels by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen in the liver, releasing glucose into the bloodstream. Therefore, both insulin and glucagon play crucial roles in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis, but they have opposite effects on blood glucose levels.

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  • 2. 

    Type 1 diabetes......

    • A.

      Caused by absolute lack of insulin secretion due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells

    • B.

      Can result in cardiovascular damage

    • C.

      Can result in nervous system damage

    • D.

      Treated with insulin therapy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Caused by absolute lack of insulin secretion due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells
    B. Can result in cardiovascular damage
    C. Can result in nervous system damage
    D. Treated with insulin therapy
    Explanation
    Type 1 diabetes is a condition that occurs when there is a complete absence of insulin secretion. This is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet cells, which are responsible for producing insulin. Without insulin, the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels, leading to various complications. One of these complications is cardiovascular damage, as high blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease. Additionally, type 1 diabetes can also cause damage to the nervous system, leading to neuropathy and other neurological complications. The main treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin therapy, where insulin is administered to replace the hormone that the body is unable to produce.

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  • 3. 

    Type II diabetes.......

    • A.

      Caused by Lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors at target cells (insulin resistance)

    • B.

      Deficiency in insulin secretion

    • C.

      If untreated, results in same chronic conditions as type 1 DM

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Caused by Lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors at target cells (insulin resistance)
    B. Deficiency in insulin secretion
    C. If untreated, results in same chronic conditions as type 1 DM
    Explanation
    Type II diabetes is caused by a combination of factors. One of the main causes is a lack of sensitivity of insulin receptors at target cells, which is known as insulin resistance. This means that the cells in the body do not respond properly to insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. Another cause is a deficiency in insulin secretion, where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. If left untreated, Type II diabetes can lead to the same chronic conditions as Type 1 diabetes, such as heart disease, kidney problems, and nerve damage.

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  • 4. 

    Almost all insulin today is made from animals

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    human insulin. Made by recombinant DNA technology
    More effective, fewer allergies, less resistance
    Modified to be more rapid (Humalog) or have prolonged action (Lantus)

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  • 5. 

    Human regular insulin( humulin R, novolin R).......

    • A.

      Promotes cellular uptake of glucose

    • B.

      Because it is short acting, it should not be used in conjunction with long acting insulin

    • C.

      Can be used for emergency treatment of DKA

    • D.

      Can be used for gestational diabetes

    • E.

      The only type of insulin that can be given IV

    • F.

      Wieght gain is a possible side effect

    • G.

      Can be used in conjunction with , asa, MAOIs, alcohol and anabolic steroids

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Promotes cellular uptake of glucose
    C. Can be used for emergency treatment of DKA
    D. Can be used for gestational diabetes
    E. The only type of insulin that can be given IV
    F. Wieght gain is a possible side effect
    Explanation
    Human regular insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R) promotes cellular uptake of glucose, making it an effective treatment for diabetes. It can be used for emergency treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a life-threatening condition characterized by high blood sugar levels and ketone buildup. It is also safe to use during pregnancy for gestational diabetes. Regular insulin is the only type that can be given intravenously, allowing for rapid action in emergency situations. Weight gain is a possible side effect of insulin therapy. Regular insulin can be used in conjunction with aspirin (ASA), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), alcohol, and anabolic steroids.

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  • 6. 

    Wich can result from hypoglycemia?

    • A.

      Tachycardia

    • B.

      Confusion

    • C.

      Sweating

    • D.

      Drowsiness, coma

    • E.

      Convulsions, death

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tachycardia
    B. Confusion
    C. Sweating
    D. Drowsiness, coma
    E. Convulsions, death
    Explanation
    Hypoglycemia refers to low blood sugar levels, which can lead to various symptoms and complications. Tachycardia, or a rapid heartbeat, can occur as the body tries to compensate for the low blood sugar. Confusion may arise due to the brain not receiving enough glucose for proper functioning. Sweating is a common symptom of hypoglycemia as the body tries to regulate its temperature. Drowsiness can occur as a result of the brain not receiving enough energy. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can lead to coma, convulsions, and even death if left untreated.

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  • 7. 

    Fasting blood glucose greater than 126 is a sign of hyperglycemia

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    also Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
    Glucosuria, weight loss/gain, fatigue

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  • 8. 

    Clear insulin must be drawn into the syrenge first, then cloudy last

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Clear insulin must be drawn into the syringe first, then cloudy insulin last because clear insulin is a fast-acting insulin that needs to be injected immediately, while cloudy insulin is a long-acting insulin that needs to be mixed before administration. Drawing clear insulin first ensures that it is not contaminated with any residues from the cloudy insulin, and allows for accurate dosing of each type of insulin.

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  • 9. 

    At what blood glucose level should urinary ketones be monitored

    • A.

      Over 300

    • B.

      Uder 150

    • C.

      Between 200-250

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Over 300
    Explanation
    Blood glucose should be monitored daily
    Urinary ketones should be monitored if blood glucose is over 300 mg/dl

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  • 10. 

    Oral hypoglycemic drugs do not work for type 1 DM

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    People with type II diabetes mellitus should have a preprandial blood sugar below 110 mg/dl

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  • 11. 

    Sulfonylureas are oral hypoglycemic drugs. which are answers true?

    • A.

      Inhibit release of insulin from pancreatic islet cells

    • B.

      Increase sensitivity of insulin receptors on target cells

    • C.

      Most common adverse effect is hypoglycemia

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Increase sensitivity of insulin receptors on target cells
    C. Most common adverse effect is hypoglycemia
    Explanation
    Stimulate release of insulin from pancreatic islet cells
    Increase sensitivity of insulin receptors on target cells
    Most common adverse effect is hypoglycemia
    Usually caused by taking too much medication or not eating enough food

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  • 12. 

    Which are true about binguanides?

    • A.

      Metformin (Glucophage), is the only drug in this class

    • B.

      Decreases hepatic production of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and reduces insulin resistance

    • C.

      promotes insulin release from pancreas

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Metformin (Glucophage), is the only drug in this class
    B. Decreases hepatic production of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and reduces insulin resistance
    Explanation
    Metformin (Glucophage), only drug in this class
    Decreases hepatic production of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and reduces insulin resistance
    Does not promote insulin release from pancreas

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  • 13. 

    What is true about the pro drug Metformin(fortamet, glucophage, glumetza, others)

    • A.

      Is the preferred oral hypoglycemic drug due to its effectiveness and safety

    • B.

      Can not be used with other oral drugs in its class or insulin

    • C.

      Does not cause hypoglycemia

    • D.

      Inefective in pts who no longer secrete insulin

    • E.

      Also lowers tryglycerides, ldls and promotes wieght loss!!

    • F.

      Can be used to restore menstrual cycles and ovulation

    • G.

      Adverse effects include metalic tast and anorexia

    • H.

      Often causes hypoglycemia and wieght gain

    • I.

      Cannot be used by pt with impaired renal function, heart failure or liver failure

    • J.

      Garlic and genseng may increase effects

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Is the preferred oral hypoglycemic drug due to its effectiveness and safety
    C. Does not cause hypoglycemia
    E. Also lowers tryglycerides, ldls and promotes wieght loss!!
    F. Can be used to restore menstrual cycles and ovulation
    G. Adverse effects include metalic tast and anorexia
    I. Cannot be used by pt with impaired renal function, heart failure or liver failure
    J. Garlic and genseng may increase effects
    Explanation
    Most side effects are minor and GI-related
    New extended-release formulation of metformin (Glumetza) allows for once-daily dosing

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  • 14. 

    Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors

    • A.

      Speeds up the digestion of glucose

    • B.

      Block enzymes in small intestine responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates into monosaccharides

    • C.

      Usually well tolerated with minimal side effects related to the GI system

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Block enzymes in small intestine responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates into monosaccharides
    C. Usually well tolerated with minimal side effects related to the GI system
    Explanation
    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are a type of medication that block the enzymes in the small intestine responsible for breaking down complex carbohydrates into monosaccharides. By inhibiting these enzymes, the digestion of glucose is slowed down, leading to a more gradual release of glucose into the bloodstream. These inhibitors are usually well tolerated and have minimal side effects related to the gastrointestinal system.

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  • 15. 

    Thiazolidinediones optimal lowering of blood glucose may take 3 to 4 months of therapy

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Reduce blood glucose by decreasing insulin resistance and inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis
    Optimal lowering of blood glucose may take 3 to 4 months of therapy
    Most common adverse effects: fluid retention, headache, weight gain
    Hypoglycemia does not occur with drugs in this class

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  • 16. 

    Meglitinides have a long duration of action of 24 to 36 hrs

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Newer class of oral hypoglycemics
    Act by stimulating release of insulin from pancreatic islet cells
    Both agents in this class have short durations of action of 2–4 hours
    Efficacy equal to that of sulfonylureas
    Well tolerated
    Hypoglycemia most common adverse effect

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  • 17. 

    Byetta mimics the effects of incretins

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Two new drugs entered market in 2005
    Exenatide (Byetta): injectable drug that belongs to class of drugs called incretin mimetics
    Mimic effects of incretins—hormones released into blood by intestine in response to food
    Pramlintide (Symlin): injectable drug for type 1 and type 2; resembles human amylin
    Hormone produced by pancreas after meals; helps body regulate blood glucose

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  • 18. 

    Insulins block entry of glucose into cells

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Prototype drug: regular insulin
    Mechanism of action: to promote entry of glucose into cells
    Primary use: short-acting insulin, with an onset of 30 to 60 minutes, a peak effect at 2 to 3 hours, and a duration of 5 to 7 hours to quickly decrease blood glucose
    Also for emergency management of ketoacidosis
    Adverse effects: hypoglycemia

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  • 19. 

    Oral hypoglycemics stimulate pancreas to secrete more insulin

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prototype drug: glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL)
    Mechanism of action: to stimulate pancreas to secrete more insulin
    Also increases sensitivity of insulin receptors at target tissues
    Primary use: for treatment of type 2 diabetes
    Adverse effects: hypoglycemia, rashes, photosensitivity possible
    Some clients experience nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite

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  • 20. 

    At what level should insulin dose be held and reported to HC provider

    • A.

      90 or below

    • B.

      70 or below

    • C.

      Above 120

    • D.

      90 or above

    Correct Answer
    B. 70 or below
    Explanation
    Feed client simple sugar at first sign of hypoglycemia
    Rotate insulin administration sites weekly
    Change insulin pump subcutaneous catheters every 2 to 3 days to prevent infections at the site of insertion

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  • 21. 

    How long fter exercise should you monitor for hypoglycemia

    • A.

      48 hrs

    • B.

      24hrs

    • C.

      12hrs

    • D.

      4hrs

    Correct Answer
    A. 48 hrs
    Explanation
    Monitor for hypoglycemia up to 48 hours after exercise
    If symptoms of hypoglycemia are noted, provide a quick-acting carbohydrate source (e.g., juice or other simple sugar)
    Monitor for hypoglycemia more frequently in patients on concurrent beta-blocker therapy

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  • 22. 

    How is type 1 diabetes treated??

    • A.

      Dietary restrictions

    • B.

      Exercise

    • C.

      Insulin therapy

    • D.

      Amputations

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dietary restrictions
    B. Exercise
    C. Insulin therapy
    Explanation
    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition where the body does not produce enough insulin. Insulin therapy is a crucial treatment for type 1 diabetes, as it involves injecting insulin into the body to regulate blood sugar levels. Additionally, dietary restrictions play a significant role in managing type 1 diabetes. Individuals with this condition need to monitor their carbohydrate intake and follow a balanced diet. Regular exercise is also essential for managing blood sugar levels and maintaining overall health. Amputations are not a treatment for type 1 diabetes and are not relevant to managing the condition.

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  • 23. 

    Type 2 diabetes is controlled through lifestyle changes and oral hypoglycemic drugs

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Type 2 diabetes can be managed and controlled through lifestyle changes such as adopting a healthy diet, regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight. Additionally, oral hypoglycemic drugs can be prescribed by healthcare professionals to help regulate blood sugar levels. Therefore, the statement that type 2 diabetes is controlled through lifestyle changes and oral hypoglycemic drugs is true.

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