Pathophysiology Ch 51 Review

41 Questions | Total Attempts: 93

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Pathophysiology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Interferes with delivery of oxygen and glucose as well as the removal of metabolic wastes
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 2. 
    Decreased oxygen levels in all brain tissue
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 3. 
    Excessive activity of the excitatory neurotransmitters and their receptor-mediated effects
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 4. 
    Increase in intercranial tissue causing an increase in intracranial pressure
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 5. 
    Displacement of brain tissue under the falx cerebri or through the tentorial notch or incisura of the tentorium cerebelli
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 6. 
    Swelling of the brain
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 7. 
    An abnormal increase in cerebrospinal fluid volume in any part or all of the ventricular system
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 8. 
    Generalized depressant effect on the brain
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 9. 
    Can be focal or global, with only one part of the brain being underperfused or all of the brain being compromised
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 10. 
    Neuronal cell injury and death
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 11. 
    Tissue perfusion becomes inadequate, cellular hypoxia results, and neuronal death can occur.
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 12. 
    Clouding of consciousness, bilaterally small pupils (approx 2 mm in diameter) with a full range of constriction, and motor responses to pain that are purposeful or semipurposeful (localizing) and often asymmetric
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 13. 
    Depends on the brain's compensatory mechanisms and the extent of the swelling
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 14. 
    Cerebral hemispheres become enlarged, and the ventricular system beyond the point of obstruction is dilated. The sulci on the surface of the brain become effaced and shallow, and the white matter is reduced in volume
    • A. 

      Hypoxic

    • B. 

      Ischemic

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic

    • D. 

      Increased intracranial volume and pressure

    • E. 

      Brain herniation

    • F. 

      Cerebral edema

    • G. 

      Hydrocephalus

  • 15. 
    Global and focal brain injuries manifest differently. What is almost always a manifestation of a global brain injury?
    • A. 

      Altered level of consciousness

    • B. 

      Change in behavior

    • C. 

      Respiratory instability

    • D. 

      Loss of eye movement reflexes

  • 16. 
    Several types of brain injuries can occur. What are the primary (or direct) brain injuries? Check all that apply
    • A. 

      Focal lesions of laceration

    • B. 

      Contusion

    • C. 

      Hypoxic

    • D. 

      Diffuse axonal

    • E. 

      Hemorrhage

  • 17. 
    You are the PA caring for a 31-year-old trauma victim admitted to the neurologic intensive care unit (ICU). During your initial assessment, you find that the patient is flexing arms, wrists, and fingers. There is abduction of the upper extremities with internal rotation and plantar flexion of the lower extremities. How would you describe this in your notes?
    • A. 

      Decerebrate posturing

    • B. 

      Decorticate posturing

    • C. 

      Extensor posturing

    • D. 

      Diencephalon posturing

  • 18. 
    Brain death is the term used when irreversible loss of function of the entire brain occurs. A clinical examination must be done and repeated at least 6 hours later with the same findings for brain death to be declared. What is not assessed in the clinical examination for brain death?
    • A. 

      Blink reflex

    • B. 

      Responsiveness

    • C. 

      Electrocardiographic (ECG) findings

    • D. 

      Respiratory effort

  • 19. 
    The regulation of cerebral blood flow is accomplished through both autoregulation and local regulation. This allows for the brain to meet its metabolic needs. What is the low parameter for blood pressure before cerebral blood flow becomes severely compromised?
    • A. 

      30 mm Hg

    • B. 

      40 mm Hg

    • C. 

      50 mm Hg

    • D. 

      60 mm Hg

  • 20. 
    Much as with brain death, there are criteria for the diagnosis of a persistent vegetative state, and the criteria have to have lasted for more than 1 month. What are the criteria for the diagnosis of persistent vegetative state? Check all that apply
    • A. 

      Bowel and bladder incontinence

    • B. 

      Ability to open eyes

    • C. 

      Lack of language comprehension

    • D. 

      Lack of sufficient hypothalamic function to maintain life

    • E. 

      Variable preserved cranial nerve reflexes

  • 21. 
    Intracranial aneurysms that rupture cause subarachnoid hemorrhage in the patient. How is the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage made?
    • A. 

      Lumbar puncture

    • B. 

      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    • C. 

      Loss of cranial nerve reflexes

    • D. 

      Venography

  • 22. 
    When the suspected diagnosis is bacterial meningitis, what assessment technique can assist in determining the presence of meningeal irritation?
    • A. 

      Kernig sign and chadwick sign

    • B. 

      Brudzinski sign and kernig sign

    • C. 

      Brudzinski sign and chadwick sign

    • D. 

      Chvostek sign and guedel sign

  • 23. 
    Manifestations of brain tumors are focal disturbances in brain function and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). What causes the focal disturbances manifested by brain tumors?
    • A. 

      Tumor infiltration and increased blood pressure

    • B. 

      Brain compression and decreased ICP

    • C. 

      Brain edema and disturbances in blood flow

    • D. 

      Tumor infiltration and decreased ICP

  • 24. 
    No identifiable cause can be determined
    • A. 

      Unprovoked

    • B. 

      Complex partial seizures

    • C. 

      Generalized onset

    • D. 

      Absence seizures

    • E. 

      Atonic

    • F. 

      Tonic-clonic

  • 25. 
    Begins in a localized area of the brain but may progress rapidly to involve both hemispheres
    • A. 

      Unprovoked

    • B. 

      Complex partial seizures

    • C. 

      Generalized onset

    • D. 

      Absence seizures

    • E. 

      Atonic

    • F. 

      Tonic-clonic

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