7. [intermolecular Forces] Practice

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| By David Schouweiler
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David Schouweiler
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 5 | Total Attempts: 2,241
Questions: 12 | Attempts: 975

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NOTE THAT THIS IS THE PRACTICE QUIZ. TAKING THIS QUIZ WILL NOT AFFECT YOUR GRADE.

Questions and Answers
• 1.

A.) What geometric configuration would a molecule of  have?

• A.

Trigonal planar

• B.

Tetrahedral

• C.

Linear

• D.

Octahedral

Correct Answer
A. Trigonal planar
Explanation
Boron only has three valence electrons, which means that it can only form three covalent bonds. When it does, there are no nonbonding pairs to cause repulsion, so the 3-D shape is simply triangular and flat.

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• 2.

A.) What would the 3-D geometric configuration of the following Lewis structure be?

• A.

Bent (tetrahedral)

• B.

Trigonal planar

• C.

Linear

• D.

Octahedral

Correct Answer
A. Bent (tetrahedral)
Explanation
The nonbonding pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom cause repulsion from the hydrogen atoms, giving water its bent shape. Because there are four groups attached to the oxygen atom (two nonbonding electrons and two hydrogen atoms), the overall shape is said to be tetrahedral.

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• 3.

B.) Which of the following pairs of elements will likely form a polar covalent bond?

• A.

H + Cl

• B.

Na + Na

• C.

Na + Cl

• D.

H + H

Correct Answer
A. H + Cl
Explanation
Polar covalent bonds are formed between two nonmetal elements that do not share electrons evenly. In the case of Hydrogen and Chlorine, neither element is electronegative enough to remove electrons from the other. However, Chlorine is more electronegative than Hydrogen, so the electrons in the covalent bond that the two atoms share will spend more time orbiting Chlorine's nucleus.

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• 4.

B.) Which of the following pairs of elements will likely form a nonpolar covalent bond?

• A.

H + Cl

• B.

Na + Na

• C.

Na + Cl

• D.

H + H

Correct Answer
D. H + H
Explanation
Nonpolar covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share electrons evenly. In the case of two Hydrogen atoms (a diatomic element), the electrons are shared due to Hydrogen being a nonmetal with a relatively high electronegativity. Because the two atoms are likely identical, the electrons spend an equal amount of time orbiting both nuclei.

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• 5.

C.) If the H-F bond in the following molecule is polar, which of the following statements is true?

• A.

The molecule is a dipole.

• B.

The molecule is not a dipole.

• C.

The molecule is nonpolar.

• D.

The molecule has no dipole moment.

Correct Answer
A. The molecule is a dipole.
Explanation
If the bond between Hydrogen and Fluorine is polar, then the electrons will spend more time orbiting the fluorine nucleus. This means that the Fluorine atom will have a partial negative charge while the Hydrogen will be partially positive. If you were to split this molecule in half, there would be a positive end and a negative end, so this molecule is a dipole.

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• 6.

C.) If all of the bonds in the following molecules are polar, which compound will NOT be a dipole?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

Correct Answer
B. B
Explanation
Carbon dioxide molecules are symmetrical. If you were to cut the molecule in half, both sides would be partially negatively charged because the Oxygen atoms on both sides pull electrons to themselves. In order to be a dipole, a molecule has to have a positive and a negative side.

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• 7.

D.) Which of the following compounds will likely have the highest melting point?

• A.

NaCl (ionic)

• B.

CH4 (nonpolar)

• C.

CH3OH (slightly polar)

• D.

HCl (polar)

Correct Answer
A. NaCl (ionic)
Explanation
Intermolecular forces between dipoles (like HCl) are stronger than they are between nonpolar compounds. However, intermolecular forces are, at best, between two partially charged atoms (that is, they have charges with values < 1). Ionic compounds (like NaCl) are between atoms with a charge of at least 1, so their forces of attraction will be stronger than any intermolecular force.

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• 8.

D.) A drop of each of the following compounds was placed on a table and the amount of time required for the compound to evaporate was recorded.  Which of the compounds likely had the weakest intermolecular forces?CompoundTime to EvaporateA10 sB48 sC30 sD120 s

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

Correct Answer
A. A
Explanation
Intermolecular forces hold molecules together. When a substance evaporates, its molecules spread out to become a gas. The substance that evaporates the fastest is likely to have weak intermolecular forces.

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• 9.

E.) Solvent X is a highly polar solvent.  Which of the following would NOT dissolve in (or mix with) solvent X?

• A.

Vegetable oil

• B.

Table Salt

• C.

Water

• D.

HCl

Correct Answer
A. Vegetable oil
Explanation
"Like dissolves like", which means that nonpolar substances only dissolve in nonpolar solvents. Vegetable oil is a nonpolar substance, so it would no likely dissolve in solvent X. It is also worth mentioning that ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents because the partial positive and negative charges of the polar molecules are attracted to the charged ions of ionic compounds.

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• 10.

E.) Which of the following solvents could be used to dissolve sodium chloride?

• A.

Water

• B.

Vegetable Oil

• C.

Methanol

• D.

Acetone

Correct Answer
A. Water
Explanation
The charges of ionic compounds are attracted to the partial charges of polar molecules. Sodium chloride (an ionic compound) would therefore most likely dissolve in a polar solvent.

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• 11.

F.) Polystyrene (styrofoam) is made up of a chain of identical molecules (shown below).  Which of the following words could be used to describe polystyrene?

• A.

Both polymer and network solid

• B.

Both allotrope and macromolecule

• C.

Both polymer and allotrope

• D.

Both allotrope and element

Correct Answer
A. Both polymer and network solid
Explanation
Polystyrene is made up of a chain of repeating structures, making it a network solid (not a macromolecule). Because the repeating units are compounds (not elements), polystyrene is a polymer.

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• 12.

F.) Hemoglobin is a large molecule with no repeating structures.  Which of the following terms can be used to describe hemoglobin?

• A.

Macromolecule

• B.

Network Solid

• C.

Allotrope

• D.

Polymer

Correct Answer
A. Macromolecule
Explanation
A macromolecule is just a big molecule that does not have any repeating units.

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