Increased muscle tension
Decreased intestinal persistalsis
Safety and Security
Love and Belonging
Increase in sebaceous gland activity
Deterioration of joint cartilage
Loss of social support system
Decreased hearing acuity
Increased need for sleep
Work on establishing a friendship with the patient
Use humor to defuse emotionally charged topics of discussion
Sympathize with the patient when the patient shares sad feelings
Demonstrate respect when discussion emotionally charged topics
"Let's talk about your concerns regarding the test."
"I'll see if the doctor will let you have some ice chips."
"The doctor will review the results of the test as soon as possible."
"As soon as the test is over, I'll get you whatever you would like to drink."
"Everyone will remember her because she was so cute. She was one of our favorites."
"As hard as this is, it is probably for the best because she was in a lot of pain."
"She put up the good fight but now she is out of pain and in heaven."
"I feel so sad. It can be hard to deal with such a precious loss."
Environment in which communication takes place.
Role of the nurse in the particular clinical setting.
Skill level of the nurse in the situation.
Concerns of the patient.
"She might be upset if you don't call her."
"What does your daughter do that makes her so busy?"
"Is there someone else that you would like me to call for you?"
"I can't imagine that your daughter wouldn't want to know that you are sick."
Limit background noise.
Exaggerate lip movements.
Raise the pitch of your voice.
Stand directly in front of the patient while speaking.
Raise the volume of your voice while speaking directly toward the patient's good ear.
"How do you feel about doing this procedure?"
"Would you like to try to insert the cone yourself today?"
"You did a great job managing the instillation fluid today."
"I am here to help you learn how to irrigate your colostomy."
"I'll arrange for a home care nurse to visit you in your home when you are discharged."
Reassess the patient
Examine the 'r/t' factors
Analyze the 'secondary to' factors
Review the defining characteristics
Diagnose if the patient is at risk for falls
Ensure that the patient's skin is intact
Establish a therapeutic relationship
Identify important data
Be taught how to use a urinal when on bed rest."
Experience fewer incontinence episodes at night."
Be assisted on the toilet every two hours and whenever necessary."
Transfer independently and safely to a commode before discharge."
"I am hungry."
"I feel very warm."
"I ate half my lunch."
I have the urge to urinate."
Have a lower temperature
Be given aspirin every eight hours prn
Be taught how to take an accurate temperature
Maintain fluid intake sufficient to prevent dehydration
Write a patient-centered goal
Formulate a nursing diagnosis
Design a plan of nursing interventions
Determine the significance of the information
Surgical creation of a colostomy
First-degree burn on the back
Puncture of the foot by a nail
Paper cut on the finger
Tears in the eyes
Alkalinity of gastric secretions
Bile in the gastrointestinal system
Moist environment of the epidermis
Positioning an indwelling urine collection bag below the level of the patient's pelvis
Enclosing a urine specimen in a biohazardous transport bag
Wearing clean gloves when handling a patient's excretions
Handwashing after the removal of soiled protective gloves