Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review 2 (Spring 2014)

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Cp Bio 2 Final Exam Review 2 (Spring 2014) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ancient bipedal hominid called "Taung Child" is a member of which species?

    • A.

      Australopithecus aferensis

    • B.

      Australopithecus africanus

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    B. Australopithecus africanus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Australopithecus africanus. The Taung Child, also known as the Taung Baby, is the fossilized skull of a young Australopithecus africanus. It was discovered in 1924 in Taung, South Africa by Raymond Dart. This fossil is significant because it provided the first evidence that early hominids walked upright on two legs, challenging the prevailing belief at the time that humans evolved a large brain before bipedalism.

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  • 2. 

    The ancient bipedal hominid called "Lucy" is a member of which species?

    • A.

      Australopithecus aferensis

    • B.

      Australopithecus africanus

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    A. Australopithecus aferensis
    Explanation
    Lucy, the ancient bipedal hominid, is a member of the species Australopithecus aferensis.

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  • 3. 

    The ancient bipedal hominid called "Handy Man" is a member of which species?

    • A.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • B.

      Homo habilis

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    B. Homo habilis
    Explanation
    Homo habilis, also known as "Handy Man," is an ancient bipedal hominid species. This species is considered one of the earliest members of the Homo genus and is believed to have lived approximately 2.4 to 1.4 million years ago. Homo habilis is known for its tool-making abilities, which earned it the nickname "Handy Man." This species played a significant role in human evolution by demonstrating early signs of intelligence and innovation in tool use.

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  • 4. 

    Modern humans are members of which species?

    • A.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • B.

      Homo habilis

    • C.

      Homo sapiens

    • D.

      Homo erectus

    Correct Answer
    C. Homo sapiens
    Explanation
    Modern humans are members of the species Homo sapiens. Homo neanderthalensis, Homo habilis, and Homo erectus are all extinct species of humans that lived at different points in history. Homo sapiens is the only species that is still alive today and includes all modern humans.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not a monkey?

    • A.

      Homo sapiens

    • B.

      Baboon

    • C.

      Lemur

    • D.

      Tarsier

    Correct Answer
    A. Homo sapiens
    Explanation
    Homo sapiens is not a monkey because it belongs to the species of humans. Monkeys are a distinct group of primates that include baboons, lemurs, and tarsiers. While humans share a common ancestor with monkeys, they have evolved separately and belong to a different branch of the primate family tree. Therefore, Homo sapiens is not considered a monkey.

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  • 6. 

    The oldest living primate group are the ___.

    • A.

      Prosimians

    • B.

      Old world monkeys

    • C.

      Hominids

    • D.

      Gorillas

    Correct Answer
    A. Prosimians
    Explanation
    The correct answer is prosimians. Prosimians are considered the oldest living primate group. They are characterized by their smaller size, reliance on smell and hearing, and their nocturnal behavior. Examples of prosimians include lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. They are believed to have diverged from the ancestral primate group before monkeys and apes evolved.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of hominids?

    • A.

      Prehensile tails

    • B.

      Walking upright

    • C.

      Opposable thumbs

    • D.

      Large brains

    Correct Answer
    A. Prehensile tails
    Explanation
    Hominids are a group of primates that includes humans and their closest relatives. They are characterized by various traits that distinguish them from other primates. One of these characteristics is the presence of opposable thumbs, which allows them to grasp objects and manipulate their environment. Another characteristic is having large brains, which is associated with higher cognitive abilities. Additionally, hominids are known for walking upright, a unique form of locomotion that sets them apart from other primates. However, hominids do not possess prehensile tails, which are long and flexible tails that can be used for grasping objects. Therefore, the absence of prehensile tails is the correct answer as it is not a characteristic of hominids.

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  • 8. 

    What is the only hominid to co-exist with Homo sapiens in Europe?

    • A.

      Homo erectus

    • B.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • C.

      Homo habilis

    • D.

      Homo robustus

    Correct Answer
    B. Homo neanderthalensis
    Explanation
    Homo neanderthalensis is the correct answer because it is the only hominid species that co-existed with Homo sapiens in Europe. Neanderthals lived in Europe and parts of Asia from about 400,000 to 40,000 years ago. They were a closely related species to Homo sapiens and had a similar level of intelligence. The presence of Neanderthals in Europe during the same time period as Homo sapiens suggests that there was some interaction and possibly interbreeding between the two species.

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  • 9. 

    Humans are thought to be descendants of ___.

    • A.

      Homo erectus

    • B.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    • C.

      Homo habilis

    • D.

      Paranthropus boisei

    Correct Answer
    A. Homo erectus
    Explanation
    Homo erectus is believed to be the direct ancestor of modern humans. Fossil evidence suggests that Homo erectus lived from about 1.9 million to 143,000 years ago and had physical characteristics similar to modern humans. They were the first hominins to have body proportions similar to ours, with long legs and a short, broad pelvis. They also had a larger brain size compared to earlier hominins. Homo erectus is considered an important species in human evolution as they were the first to migrate out of Africa and spread to other parts of the world.

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  • 10. 

    What two groups are most hominid species classified into?

    • A.

      Australopithecus and Homo

    • B.

      Africanus and habilis

    • C.

      Homo and sapiens

    • D.

      Australopithecus and Anthropida

    Correct Answer
    A. Australopithecus and Homo
    Explanation
    Hominid species are classified into two main groups: Australopithecus and Homo. Australopithecus includes species such as Australopithecus afarensis, while Homo includes species like Homo habilis and Homo sapiens. These two groups represent different stages in the evolution of hominids, with Australopithecus being an earlier group and Homo representing more advanced species.

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  • 11. 

    In searching for the origins of humanity, what characteristic did scientists identify as the first step in human evolution?

    • A.

      Bipedal locomotion

    • B.

      Language

    • C.

      Art and imagination

    • D.

      Large brain

    Correct Answer
    A. Bipedal locomotion
    Explanation
    Scientists have identified bipedal locomotion as the first step in human evolution. Bipedal locomotion refers to the ability to walk on two legs, which is a distinct characteristic of humans. This adaptation allowed our early ancestors to free their hands for other tasks, such as tool use and carrying objects. Bipedalism also played a crucial role in the development of other human traits, such as increased brain size and the ability to communicate through language. Therefore, bipedal locomotion is considered a fundamental characteristic that set humans apart in the evolutionary timeline.

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  • 12. 

    Why is it most common to find only the skull of an ancient hominid?

    • A.

      They only buried the heads of the dead.

    • B.

      Scavengers can carry off the smaller bones much more easily.

    • C.

      Skulls tend to look more like rocks.

    • D.

      Other hominids cannibalize their dead.

    Correct Answer
    B. Scavengers can carry off the smaller bones much more easily.
    Explanation
    The most common reason for finding only the skull of an ancient hominid is that scavengers can carry off the smaller bones much more easily. This is because smaller bones are lighter and easier to transport, making them more susceptible to being carried away by scavengers. In contrast, the skull is a larger and heavier bone, making it more difficult for scavengers to carry off. Therefore, it is more likely to be left behind and preserved, leading to a higher frequency of finding only the skull of an ancient hominid.

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  • 13. 

    Scientist often take dirt samples from the area around the fossil find. They do this to ....

    • A.

      Help determine the relative age of the fossil

    • B.

      Keep the fossil from rotting

    • C.

      Provide visual context for where the fossil was found

    • D.

      Provide a keep-sake of the discovery

    Correct Answer
    A. Help determine the relative age of the fossil
    Explanation
    Scientists often take dirt samples from the area around the fossil find to help determine the relative age of the fossil. By analyzing the layers of soil and sediment around the fossil, scientists can establish the geological context and determine the age of the fossil relative to the surrounding materials. This information is crucial in understanding the timeline of Earth's history and the evolution of species.

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  • 14. 

    To help unravel the mysteries of human evolution, paleoanthropologists use all of the following except ___.

    • A.

      Fossilized bones

    • B.

      Endocasts of the brains

    • C.

      Molecular clocks

    • D.

      Written historical records

    Correct Answer
    D. Written historical records
    Explanation
    Paleoanthropologists study human evolution by examining various sources of evidence. Fossilized bones provide physical remains that can be analyzed to understand the physical characteristics of ancient humans. Endocasts of the brains offer insights into the size and structure of the brain. Molecular clocks help estimate the timing of evolutionary events based on genetic data. However, written historical records are not used in the study of human evolution because they only extend back a few thousand years and do not provide direct evidence of ancient humans.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following facts supporting evolution would be found in the study of paleontology?

    • A.

      Embryos of very different organisms have very similar developmental stages.

    • B.

      A bats wing and a whales flipper have very similar bone structure.

    • C.

      Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).

    • D.

      More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.

    Correct Answer
    D. More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.
    Explanation
    Paleontology is the study of fossils, which are the preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms. The fact that more primitive fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers supports the concept of evolution. According to the principle of superposition, in undisturbed rock layers, the lower layers are older than the upper layers. This means that the fossils found in lower layers represent organisms that lived earlier in time and were less complex, while the fossils found in higher layers represent organisms that lived later and were more complex. This pattern of fossil distribution aligns with the idea of gradual changes and increasing complexity over time, which is a key concept in evolutionary theory.

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  • 16. 

    All of the following branches of science provide evidence for evolution EXCEPT ___.

    • A.

      Biogeography

    • B.

      Embriology

    • C.

      Paleontology

    • D.

      Oncology

    Correct Answer
    D. Oncology
    Explanation
    Oncology is the study of cancer, which focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. It does not directly provide evidence for evolution as it does not explore the changes in species over time or the common ancestry of organisms. On the other hand, biogeography studies the distribution of species, embryology investigates the development of embryos, and paleontology examines fossils to understand the history of life on Earth. These three branches of science provide evidence for evolution through their respective fields of study.

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  • 17. 

    Modern whales have vestigieal pelvic bones and lungs instead of gills. What does this evidence suggest about whale ancestors?

    • A.

      Whale ancestors lived on land.

    • B.

      Whale ancestors did not evolve.

    • C.

      Whale ancestors lived 850 million years ago.

    • D.

      Whale ancestors ate opossums.

    Correct Answer
    A. Whale ancestors lived on land.
    Explanation
    The presence of vestigial pelvic bones and lungs in modern whales suggests that their ancestors lived on land. These features are remnants of their terrestrial heritage, indicating that whales evolved from land-dwelling mammals. The transition from land to water occurred over millions of years, with whales gradually adapting to an aquatic lifestyle. This evidence supports the theory of evolution and the idea that species can change and adapt over time.

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  • 18. 

    The wing of an ostrich would be classified as a(n) ___.

    • A.

      Homologous structure

    • B.

      Analogous structure

    • C.

      Vestigial structure

    • D.

      Fossil structure

    Correct Answer
    C. Vestigial structure
    Explanation
    The wing of an ostrich would be classified as a vestigial structure because it is a reduced or underdeveloped organ that no longer serves its original function, which is flying. Ostriches are flightless birds, and their wings have evolved to be small and non-functional for flight. These vestigial wings are remnants of their ancestors' fully functional wings, indicating a common ancestry with flying birds.

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  • 19. 

    Charles Darwin's poetic grandfather was ___.

    • A.

      Erasmus Darwin

    • B.

      Eugene Darwin

    • C.

      Carolus Linnaeus

    • D.

      Georges de Buffon

    Correct Answer
    A. Erasmus Darwin
    Explanation
    Erasmus Darwin was Charles Darwin's poetic grandfather. Erasmus was a renowned physician, naturalist, and poet who had a significant influence on Charles Darwin's scientific thinking. He was known for his writings on evolution and natural history, which laid the foundation for Charles Darwin's later work on the theory of evolution. Erasmus Darwin's poetic and scientific pursuits inspired Charles Darwin and shaped his intellectual development. Therefore, Erasmus Darwin is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 20. 

    The process of biological change over time by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors is called ___.

    • A.

      Evolution

    • B.

      Artificial selection

    • C.

      Uniformitarianism

    • D.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    A. Evolution
    Explanation
    Evolution is the correct answer because it refers to the process of biological change over time, where descendants gradually differ from their ancestors. This process occurs through mechanisms such as natural selection, genetic mutation, and genetic drift. Evolution is a fundamental concept in biology that explains the diversity of life on Earth and how species have adapted to their environments over millions of years.

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  • 21. 

    Charles Darwin found fossils that looked like ancient versions of living species. From this evidence Darwin suggested that Earth was

    • A.

      Only 6000 years old.

    • B.

      Only 2000 years old.

    • C.

      Less than 6000 years old.

    • D.

      Much more than 6000 years old.

    Correct Answer
    D. Much more than 6000 years old.
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin found fossils that looked like ancient versions of living species. This suggests that these species had evolved over a long period of time, indicating that Earth must be much more than 6000 years old. This is because the process of evolution takes a significant amount of time for new species to emerge from older ones. Therefore, Darwin's discovery of these fossils supports the idea that Earth is much older than 6000 years.

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  • 22. 

    Which theory states that floods and earthquakes have occurred often in Earth's history?

    • A.

      Catastrophism

    • B.

      Uniformitarianism

    • C.

      Gradualism

    • D.

      Natural selection

    Correct Answer
    A. Catastrophism
    Explanation
    Catastrophism is the theory that states that floods and earthquakes have occurred often in Earth's history. This theory suggests that major geological events are the result of sudden and catastrophic events rather than gradual processes. It proposes that these events have shaped the Earth's landscape and have had a significant impact on the development of life on the planet. This theory contrasts with uniformitarianism, which suggests that geological processes occur slowly and gradually over long periods of time. Gradualism and natural selection are unrelated to the occurrence of floods and earthquakes.

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  • 23. 

    Which scientist developed a classification system for organisms?

    • A.

      Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

    • B.

      Carolus Linnaeus

    • C.

      Charles Darwin

    • D.

      Georges de Buffon

    Correct Answer
    B. Carolus Linnaeus
    Explanation
    Carolus Linnaeus developed a classification system for organisms. He is often referred to as the "Father of Taxonomy" for his work in creating a system to organize and categorize living organisms based on their similarities and differences. Linnaeus introduced the use of binomial nomenclature, assigning a two-part scientific name to each species, which is still widely used in biology today. His classification system laid the foundation for modern taxonomy and greatly contributed to our understanding of the diversity and relationships among different species.

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  • 24. 

    What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?

    • A.

      Variation

    • B.

      Adaptation

    • C.

      Homologous structure

    • D.

      Vestigial structure

    Correct Answer
    B. Adaptation
    Explanation
    Adaptation refers to a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment. This can include physical traits, behaviors, or physiological processes that enhance an organism's ability to find food, avoid predators, reproduce, or withstand environmental conditions. Adaptations are the result of natural selection acting on heritable variations within a population over time, leading to the better adaptation of individuals to their specific environment.

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  • 25. 

    If an organism has a vestigial structure, that structure likely once had a function in a(n)

    • A.

      Earlier ancestor.

    • B.

      Close relative.

    • C.

      Unrelated organism.

    • D.

      Embryological stage.

    Correct Answer
    A. Earlier ancestor.
    Explanation
    If an organism has a vestigial structure, it means that the structure is present in the organism but no longer serves a function. This suggests that the structure was functional in an earlier ancestor but has become reduced or obsolete over time. Therefore, the correct answer is "earlier ancestor."

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is a term for a group of similar organisms that can reproduce and produce fertile offspring?

    • A.

      Individual

    • B.

      Population

    • C.

      Species

    • D.

      Fossil

    Correct Answer
    C. Species
    Explanation
    A species is a term used to describe a group of similar organisms that have the ability to reproduce with each other and produce fertile offspring. This is because members of the same species share similar genetic traits and can interbreed successfully. In contrast, individuals refer to single organisms, populations refer to groups of individuals of the same species in a specific area, and fossils are the preserved remains or traces of past organisms.

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  • 27. 

    The difference in the physical traits of an individual from those of other individuals in a group is called a(n)

    • A.

      Variation.

    • B.

      Change.

    • C.

      Adaptation.

    • D.

      Species.

    Correct Answer
    A. Variation.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is variation. Variation refers to the differences in physical traits among individuals within a group. It can include variations in characteristics such as height, eye color, or hair texture. Change refers to the process of becoming different over time, while adaptation refers to the process by which organisms adjust to their environment. Species refers to a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is a fossil?

    • A.

      A plant that has recently died

    • B.

      A group of similar organisms that can reproduce

    • C.

      A structure or organ that no longer functions

    • D.

      A trace of an organism that existed in the past

    Correct Answer
    D. A trace of an organism that existed in the past
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a trace of an organism that existed in the past". A fossil is any preserved evidence of an organism that lived in the past, such as bones, shells, footprints, or imprints. It provides valuable information about ancient life forms and the history of the Earth.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following facts supporting evolution would be found in the study of biogeography?

    • A.

      Embryos of very different organisms have very similar developmental stages.

    • B.

      A bats wing and a whales flipper have very similar bone structure.

    • C.

      Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).

    • D.

      More primative fossils are found below more complex fossils in the rock layers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Large, flightless birds are found on different continents: Australia (Emu), Africa (Ostrich), and Rhea (South America).
    Explanation
    The fact that large, flightless birds are found on different continents supports the theory of evolution through biogeography. This is because the presence of similar species in geographically isolated areas suggests that they evolved from a common ancestor and then diverged due to geographical barriers. The distribution of these birds across different continents indicates that they have adapted to different environments and evolved independently in response to local conditions. This observation aligns with the principles of evolution and biogeography, providing evidence for the theory.

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  • 30. 

    The differences between members of the same species are known as ___.

    • A.

      Variations

    • B.

      Adaptations

    • C.

      Mutations

    • D.

      Genetic isolation

    Correct Answer
    A. Variations
    Explanation
    Variations refer to the differences that exist between members of the same species. These differences can be observed in various traits such as physical appearance, behavior, or genetic makeup. Variations can occur due to genetic factors, environmental factors, or a combination of both. They play a crucial role in the process of natural selection, as individuals with certain variations may be better adapted to their environment and have a higher chance of survival and reproduction.

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  • 31. 

    A ___ is a group of individuals of the same species in the same geographic area.

    • A.

      Population

    • B.

      Species

    • C.

      Breeding family

    • D.

      Community

    Correct Answer
    A. Population
    Explanation
    A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species that inhabit the same geographic area. This term specifically focuses on a particular species and their collective presence within a given region. It does not include other species or groups such as breeding families or communities, which encompass a wider range of organisms.

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  • 32. 

    The process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than others is known as ___.

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Sexual selection

    • C.

      Genetic drift

    • D.

      Gene flow

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural selection
    Explanation
    Natural selection is the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment have a higher chance of surviving and reproducing, passing on their advantageous traits to future generations. This leads to the gradual accumulation of beneficial traits in a population over time. Sexual selection refers to the selection of mates based on certain traits, genetic drift refers to random changes in gene frequencies, and gene flow refers to the transfer of genes between different populations.

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  • 33. 

    Bipedalism is an important adaptive advantage for all of the following reasons EXCEPT ___.

    • A.

      Bipedalism frees the hands to use tools

    • B.

      Bipedalism frees the hands to carry food

    • C.

      Bipedalism frees the hands to carry young

    • D.

      Bipedalism frees the hands to walk faster

    Correct Answer
    D. Bipedalism frees the hands to walk faster
    Explanation
    Bipedalism is an important adaptive advantage for several reasons. It allows the hands to be freed up, enabling the use of tools, carrying food, and carrying young. However, the statement that bipedalism frees the hands to walk faster is incorrect. Bipedalism primarily allows for efficient and energy-saving locomotion, but it does not necessarily result in faster walking speed.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is NOT a type of fossil?

    • A.

      Cast of a brain

    • B.

      Mold of a foot

    • C.

      Fossilized "droppings"

    • D.

      A dead tree

    Correct Answer
    D. A dead tree
    Explanation
    A dead tree is not considered a type of fossil because it does not meet the criteria for fossilization. Fossils are formed when the remains or traces of organisms are preserved in sedimentary rock over long periods of time. A dead tree, on the other hand, decomposes relatively quickly and does not undergo the same processes of fossilization. While dead trees can leave behind impressions or imprints in sedimentary rock, these are not classified as fossils in the same way as the other options provided.

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  • 35. 

    In natural selection, the selective agent is ___.

    • A.

      The environment

    • B.

      A breeder

    • C.

      Mutation

    • D.

      A virus

    Correct Answer
    A. The environment
    Explanation
    Natural selection is a process in which certain traits become more or less common in a population over time based on their ability to survive and reproduce. The selective agent refers to the factor that determines which traits are advantageous or disadvantageous in a particular environment. In this case, the correct answer is "the environment" because it is the primary factor that determines which traits are selected for or against. The environment includes various factors such as climate, availability of resources, predation, and competition, which influence the survival and reproduction of individuals with different traits.

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  • 36. 

    Which term means the crossing of two different species that share common genes?

    • A.

      Hybridization

    • B.

      Mutation

    • C.

      Natural selection

    • D.

      Sexual selection

    Correct Answer
    A. Hybridization
    Explanation
    Hybridization refers to the crossing of two different species that share common genes. This process can result in offspring with a combination of traits from both parent species. It is a common method used in breeding to create new varieties or hybrids with desirable characteristics. This term specifically highlights the genetic exchange between species, distinguishing it from other processes such as mutation, natural selection, or sexual selection.

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  • 37. 

    Genetic variation can arise from a random change in the DNA of a gene. This change is called a(n) ___.

    • A.

      Mutation

    • B.

      Gene flow

    • C.

      Gene pool

    • D.

      Allele

    Correct Answer
    A. Mutation
    Explanation
    Genetic variation can occur when there is a random change in the DNA of a gene, which is known as a mutation. Mutations can lead to the formation of new alleles, resulting in differences in traits within a population. This variation is essential for evolution to occur, as it provides the raw material for natural selection to act upon. Gene flow refers to the movement of genes between different populations, gene pool refers to the total collection of genes in a population, and allele refers to different versions of a gene.

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  • 38. 

    The development by scientists of a new color in a rose is the result of

    • A.

      Artificial selection

    • B.

      Natural selection

    • C.

      Descent with modification

    • D.

      Overproduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Artificial selection
    Explanation
    The development of a new color in a rose through artificial selection means that scientists intentionally bred roses with specific traits, including color, to create a new variety. This process involves selecting individuals with the desired color and breeding them together, repeating the process over generations until the desired color is achieved. Natural selection refers to the process where individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, leading to the evolution of a population. Descent with modification refers to the passing of traits from parent to offspring over generations. Overproduction refers to the production of more offspring than can survive, leading to competition for resources and natural selection.

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  • 39. 

    Two organisms that are closeley related would have ___.

    • A.

      Very similar DNA sequences

    • B.

      Exactly the same DNA sequences

    • C.

      No proteins in common

    • D.

      Completely different DNA sequences

    Correct Answer
    A. Very similar DNA sequences
    Explanation
    Two organisms that are closely related would have very similar DNA sequences because DNA is the genetic material that carries the instructions for all the traits and characteristics of an organism. Organisms that are closely related share a common ancestor and therefore have a high degree of similarity in their DNA sequences. This similarity in DNA sequences reflects their evolutionary relationship and the genetic similarities they have inherited from their common ancestor.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is the oldest of this group?

    • A.

      Australopithecus aferensis

    • B.

      Australopithecus africanus

    • C.

      Homo erectus

    • D.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    Correct Answer
    A. Australopithecus aferensis
    Explanation
    Australopithecus aferensis is the oldest of this group because it is the earliest known species in the genus Australopithecus. It lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago, while Australopithecus africanus lived between 3 and 2 million years ago. Homo erectus lived between 1.9 million and 143,000 years ago, and Homo neanderthalensis lived between 400,000 and 40,000 years ago. Therefore, Australopithecus aferensis predates all the other species in the group, making it the oldest.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is the youngest of this group?

    • A.

      Australopithecus aferensis

    • B.

      Australopithecus africanus

    • C.

      Homo erectus

    • D.

      Homo neanderthalensis

    Correct Answer
    D. Homo neanderthalensis
    Explanation
    Homo neanderthalensis is the youngest of this group because it is the most recent species to have lived. Australopithecus aferensis and Australopithecus africanus are both extinct hominin species that lived millions of years ago. Homo erectus is an extinct species that lived between 1.9 million and 70,000 years ago. Homo neanderthalensis, on the other hand, lived between 400,000 and 40,000 years ago, making it the most recent species among the options given.

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  • 42. 

    Approximately how long has Homo sapiens been on Earth?

    • A.

      2000 years

    • B.

      6 million years

    • C.

      6000 years

    • D.

      200,000 years

    Correct Answer
    D. 200,000 years
    Explanation
    Homo sapiens has been on Earth for approximately 200,000 years. This is supported by scientific evidence such as fossil records and genetic studies. These studies indicate that Homo sapiens evolved in Africa around this time and gradually spread across the globe. The 200,000-year timeline aligns with the emergence of anatomically modern humans and their migration patterns. It is important to note that the other options provided (2000 years, 6 million years, and 6000 years) are incorrect and do not correspond to the established scientific consensus.

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  • 43. 

    Homo erectus is considered to be the most successful hominid species ever because it survived for ___.

    • A.

      2 million years

    • B.

      2 thousand years

    • C.

      6 million years

    • D.

      6 thousand years

    Correct Answer
    A. 2 million years
    Explanation
    Homo erectus is considered to be the most successful hominid species ever because it survived for 2 million years. This is an exceptionally long period of time compared to other hominid species, indicating their ability to adapt and thrive in various environments. Their longevity suggests that Homo erectus possessed advanced cognitive and physical abilities, allowing them to successfully navigate and survive in different landscapes and climates. This extended survival also allowed Homo erectus to spread across different regions, further contributing to their success as a species.

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  • 44. 

    In the following scientific name, which word indicates the genus of the organism? Panthera tigris

    • A.

      Panthera

    • B.

      Tigris

    • C.

      Both words

    • D.

      Neither word

    Correct Answer
    A. Panthera
    Explanation
    The word "Panthera" indicates the genus of the organism in the scientific name "Panthera tigris". In binomial nomenclature, the genus is the first part of the name and it represents a group of closely related species. In this case, "Panthera" refers to the genus that includes big cats such as lions, tigers, and leopards. "Tigris" is the species name, specifically referring to the tiger. Therefore, the correct answer is "Panthera".

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  • 45. 

    If two organisms belong to the same order, what other taxonomic group must they have in common?

    • A.

      Species

    • B.

      Genus

    • C.

      Phylum

    • D.

      Family

    Correct Answer
    C. Phylum
    Explanation
    If two organisms belong to the same order, they must also have the same phylum in common. The taxonomic hierarchy starts with the broadest category, kingdom, and narrows down to phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Organisms in the same order share similar characteristics and are more closely related than those in the same phylum. Therefore, if two organisms are in the same order, they must also belong to the same phylum.

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  • 46. 

    How many domains are there in the current tree of life?

    • A.

      Five

    • B.

      Six

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Four

    Correct Answer
    C. Three
    Explanation
    The correct answer is three because the question is asking about the number of domains in the current tree of life. In biology, the three domains of life are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. These domains represent the highest level of classification and encompass all known organisms. Therefore, there are three domains in the current tree of life.

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  • 47. 

    Both plants and green algae have cell walls made of ___.

    • A.

      Silica

    • B.

      Chitin

    • C.

      Cellulose

    • D.

      Agar

    Correct Answer
    C. Cellulose
    Explanation
    Both plants and green algae have cell walls made of cellulose. Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that provides structural support to the cell walls of these organisms. It is a rigid and strong material that helps maintain the shape and integrity of the cell. Silica is more commonly found in the cell walls of diatoms, chitin is found in the cell walls of fungi and arthropods, and agar is a gelatinous substance derived from algae that is used in laboratories for culturing microorganisms.

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  • 48. 

    Which description distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes?

    • A.

      Eukaryotes have a cell wall.

    • B.

      Eukaryotes are multicellular.

    • C.

      Eukaryotes are photosynthetic.

    • D.

      Eukaryotes have a nucleus.

    Correct Answer
    D. Eukaryotes have a nucleus.
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes are distinguished from prokaryotes by the presence of a nucleus. Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, lack a nucleus and their genetic material is not enclosed within a membrane-bound structure. In contrast, eukaryotes, which include plants, animals, fungi, and protists, have a well-defined nucleus that houses their DNA. The presence of a nucleus allows for more complex cellular processes, such as transcription and replication, to occur within the eukaryotic cell.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 20, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 16, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Christopher Mack
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