Shoulder Complex Trivia Quiz

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Shoulder Complex Trivia Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding upward rotation of the scapula?

    • A.

      Occurs as a natural component of shoulder extension

    • B.

      Occurs as a natural component of raising one's arm overhead

    • C.

      Occurs primarily through activation of the teres major and teres minor muscles

    • D.

      Results in the inferior tip of the scapula pointing medially

    Correct Answer
    B. Occurs as a natural component of raising one's arm overhead
    Explanation
    The upward rotation of the scapula occurs as a natural component of raising one's arm overhead. When we lift our arm overhead, the scapula needs to rotate upward in order to allow for the movement. This upward rotation is facilitated by the coordinated action of several muscles, including the trapezius, serratus anterior, and upper fibers of the pectoralis major. These muscles work together to rotate the scapula upward and create the necessary space for the arm to move freely overhead.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding the glenohumeral joint? Check all that apply.

    • A.

      The glenohumeral joint has a ball-and-socket joint structure

    • B.

      The glenohumeral joint allows motion in all three planes

    • C.

      The glenohumeral joint is formed by the greater tubercle articulating with the distal clavicle

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The glenohumeral joint has a ball-and-socket joint structure
    B. The glenohumeral joint allows motion in all three planes
    Explanation
    The glenohumeral joint is a true ball-and-socket joint, which allows for a wide range of motion in all three planes - sagittal, frontal, and transverse. This joint is formed by the articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula. The greater tubercle of the humerus does not articulate with the distal clavicle, but rather serves as a site for muscle attachment.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following joints is a saddle joint?

    • A.

      Glenohumeral

    • B.

      Sternoclavicular

    • C.

      Acromioclavicular

    • D.

      Scapulothoracic

    Correct Answer
    B. Sternoclavicular
    Explanation
    The sternoclavicular joint is a saddle joint. A saddle joint is a type of synovial joint that allows movement in two planes, similar to the movement of a rider on a saddle. The sternoclavicular joint is located between the sternum and the clavicle, and it allows for movements such as elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, and rotation of the clavicle. This joint is unique in its ability to provide a wide range of movement and stability to the shoulder girdle.

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  • 4. 

    Without upward rotation of the scapula, full shoulder abduction would be limited to approximately:

    • A.

      60 degrees

    • B.

      80 degrees

    • C.

      120 degrees

    • D.

      170 degrees

    Correct Answer
    C. 120 degrees
    Explanation
    Without upward rotation of the scapula, the range of motion for shoulder abduction would be limited. Upward rotation of the scapula is an important movement that allows the shoulder joint to move more freely. It occurs when the scapula rotates upward and outward, allowing the arm to lift away from the body. Without this movement, the arm would only be able to abduct to a limited extent. Therefore, the correct answer is 120 degrees, as full shoulder abduction would be restricted without upward rotation of the scapula.

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  • 5. 

    The acromion is a structure associated with which bone?

    • A.

      Humerus

    • B.

      Scapula

    • C.

      Clavicle

    • D.

      Sternum

    Correct Answer
    B. Scapula
    Explanation
    The acromion is a bony process that extends from the scapula, or shoulder blade. It forms the highest point of the shoulder and connects to the clavicle, or collarbone, to create the acromioclavicular joint. The humerus is the bone of the upper arm, while the sternum is the breastbone. Therefore, the correct answer is the scapula.

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  • 6. 

    A muscle that performs shoulder flexion:

    • A.

      Must have a line of pull anterior to the medial-lateral axis of rotation of the shoulder

    • B.

      Must course posterior to the medial-lateral axis of rotation of the shoulder

    • C.

      Must also extend the elbow

    • D.

      Is likely innervated by the radial nerve

    Correct Answer
    A. Must have a line of pull anterior to the medial-lateral axis of rotation of the shoulder
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that a muscle that performs shoulder flexion must have a line of pull anterior to the medial-lateral axis of rotation of the shoulder. This means that the muscle must pull in a direction towards the front of the body, which is necessary for flexing the shoulder joint. If the line of pull is posterior to the axis of rotation, it would result in shoulder extension rather than flexion. The other statements in the question are not relevant to shoulder flexion.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following best describes the scapulohumeral rhythm?

    • A.

      For every 3 degrees of scapular upward rotation, 1 degree of glenohumeral adduction must occur.

    • B.

      For ever 2 degrees of glenohumeral flexion or abduction, 1 degree of scapular upward rotation must occur.

    • C.

      The scapulohumeral rhythm only occurs during passive flexion and extension motions of the shoulder

    • D.

      Protraction of the scapula must be accompanied by horizontal abduction of the humerus

    Correct Answer
    B. For ever 2 degrees of glenohumeral flexion or abduction, 1 degree of scapular upward rotation must occur.
    Explanation
    The scapulohumeral rhythm refers to the coordinated movement between the scapula and the humerus during shoulder flexion or abduction. This answer correctly describes the relationship between the two movements, stating that for every 2 degrees of glenohumeral flexion or abduction, 1 degree of scapular upward rotation must occur. This means that as the arm moves upward or away from the body, the scapula must rotate upward to maintain proper alignment and stability. This rhythm helps to optimize shoulder function and prevent impingement or instability.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following muscles is NOT part of the force-couple that produces upward rotation of the scapula?

    • A.

      Serratus anterior

    • B.

      Upper trapezius

    • C.

      Rhomboids

    • D.

      Lower trapezius

    Correct Answer
    C. Rhomboids
    Explanation
    The rhomboids are not part of the force-couple that produces upward rotation of the scapula. The force-couple for upward rotation involves the serratus anterior and the upper and lower trapezius muscles. The rhomboids, on the other hand, are responsible for retracting the scapula, not upward rotation.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following muscles does not attach to the humerus (proximally or distally)?

    • A.

      Teres minor

    • B.

      Anterior deltoid

    • C.

      Serratus anterior

    • D.

      Subscapularis

    Correct Answer
    C. Serratus anterior
    Explanation
    The serratus anterior muscle does not attach to the humerus either proximally or distally. It originates from the outer surface of the upper nine ribs and inserts into the medial border of the scapula. Its main function is to protract and stabilize the scapula, allowing for movements of the shoulder joint.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following muscles if NOT part of the rotator cuff?

    • A.

      Supraspinatus

    • B.

      Teres minor

    • C.

      Infraspinatus

    • D.

      Upper trapezius

    Correct Answer
    D. Upper trapezius
    Explanation
    The upper trapezius muscle is not part of the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and allowing for rotational movement. The supraspinatus, teres minor, and infraspinatus muscles are all part of the rotator cuff and play a role in shoulder movement and stability. However, the upper trapezius muscle is located in the upper back and is responsible for movements such as shrugging the shoulders and tilting the head. It is not directly involved in the rotator cuff.

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  • 11. 

    Winging of the scapula is indicative of:

    • A.

      Anterior deltoid weakness

    • B.

      Posterior deltoid weakness

    • C.

      Serratus anterior weakness

    • D.

      Teres major and latissimus dorsi weakness

    Correct Answer
    C. Serratus anterior weakness
    Explanation
    Winging of the scapula refers to the abnormal protrusion or sticking out of the shoulder blade from the back. This condition is commonly caused by weakness or paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle, which is responsible for stabilizing the scapula against the rib cage. When the serratus anterior is weak, it is unable to hold the scapula in its normal position, resulting in winging. Therefore, the correct answer is serratus anterior weakness.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding shoulder depression? Check all that apply

    • A.

      Incorporates scapulothoracic depression and glenohumeral depression

    • B.

      Can be used in a closed-chain to elevate the trunk

    • C.

      Relies mostly on the combined action of the upper and middle trapezius muscles

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Incorporates scapulothoracic depression and glenohumeral depression
    B. Can be used in a closed-chain to elevate the trunk
    Explanation
    Shoulder depression incorporates both scapulothoracic depression and glenohumeral depression, meaning it involves the movement of both the shoulder blade and the shoulder joint. It can be used in a closed-chain exercise to elevate the trunk, which means that the exercise involves the feet or hands being in a fixed position while the body moves. The statement does not mention the specific muscles involved in shoulder depression, so we cannot determine whether it relies mostly on the combined action of the upper and middle trapezius muscles.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding the deltoid muscles?

    • A.

      The anterior deltoid performs shoulder flexion

    • B.

      The posterior deltoid perform shoulder extension

    • C.

      All heads of the deltoid are innervated by the axillary nerve

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the statements regarding the deltoid muscles are true. The anterior deltoid performs shoulder flexion, the posterior deltoid performs shoulder extension, and all heads of the deltoid are innervated by the axillary nerve.

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  • 14. 

    What is the common similarity among the latissimus dorsi, posterior deltoid, and long head of the triceps?

    • A.

      All three of these muscles attach to the humerus

    • B.

      All three of these muscles are strong internal rotators of the shoulder

    • C.

      All three of these muscles are innervated by the radial nerve

    • D.

      All three of these muscles can extend the shoulder

    Correct Answer
    D. All three of these muscles can extend the shoulder
    Explanation
    The common similarity among the latissimus dorsi, posterior deltoid, and long head of the triceps is that all three muscles can extend the shoulder.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following describes the common function of the rotator cuff muscles?

    • A.

      All four muscles perform internal rotation of the shoulder

    • B.

      All four muscles help to stabilize the humeral head within the glenoid fossa

    • C.

      All four muscles produce a force-couple that upwardly rotates the scapula

    • D.

      All four muscles prevent excessive external rotation of the glenohumeral joint

    Correct Answer
    B. All four muscles help to stabilize the humeral head within the glenoid fossa
    Explanation
    The rotator cuff muscles help to stabilize the humeral head within the glenoid fossa. This means that they work together to keep the upper arm bone centered and secure within the shoulder socket. This stability is important for maintaining proper shoulder function and preventing dislocation or other injuries.

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  • 16. 

    If the shoulder is abducted to 150 degrees, according to the scapulohumeral rhythm, how much upward rotation of the scapula has occurred?

    • A.

      50 degrees

    • B.

      100 degrees

    • C.

      120 degrees

    • D.

      25 to 30 degrees

    Correct Answer
    A. 50 degrees
    Explanation
    According to the scapulohumeral rhythm, for every 2 degrees of shoulder abduction, there is 1 degree of scapular upward rotation. Therefore, if the shoulder is abducted to 150 degrees, there would be 75 degrees of scapular upward rotation. However, the question asks for the amount of upward rotation, not the total rotation. So, if the shoulder is abducted to 150 degrees, 50 degrees of upward rotation of the scapula has occurred.

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  • 17. 

    Impingement can best be described as:

    • A.

      Reduced activation of the internal rotators of the shoulder

    • B.

      A superior migration of the humerus resulting in the humeral head colliding with the acromion

    • C.

      The combined actions of scapular depression and glenouhumeral protraction

    • D.

      Complete rupture of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments

    Correct Answer
    B. A superior migration of the humerus resulting in the humeral head colliding with the acromion
  • 18. 

    Performing abduction in the scapular plane helps avoid impingement because:

    • A.

      The teres minor and teres major are put on slack

    • B.

      The greater tuberosity is positioned under the highest point of the acromion

    • C.

      The scapula becomes fixed to the medial aspect of the posterior thorax

    • D.

      The subscapularis becomes an external rotator of the shoulder in this position

    Correct Answer
    B. The greater tuberosity is positioned under the highest point of the acromion
    Explanation
    Performing abduction in the scapular plane helps avoid impingement because positioning the greater tuberosity under the highest point of the acromion allows for more space and reduces the risk of compression and irritation of the structures in the shoulder joint. This position helps to maintain proper alignment and prevents impingement of the rotator cuff tendons and other soft tissues between the humerus and the acromion.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following muscles is NOT an internal rotator of the shoulder?

    • A.

      Pectoralis major

    • B.

      Latissimus dorsi

    • C.

      Infraspinatus

    • D.

      Teres major

    Correct Answer
    C. Infraspinatus
    Explanation
    The infraspinatus muscle is not an internal rotator of the shoulder. It is actually an external rotator. The pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and teres major muscles are all internal rotators of the shoulder.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding external rotation of the shoulder? Check all that apply.

    • A.

      Occurs in frontal plane

    • B.

      Occurs about a longitudinal axis of rotation

    • C.

      Performed by two of the four rotator cuff muscles

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Occurs about a longitudinal axis of rotation
    C. Performed by two of the four rotator cuff muscles
    Explanation
    External rotation of the shoulder occurs about a longitudinal axis of rotation, meaning that the rotation happens around an imaginary line running vertically through the shoulder joint. Additionally, it is performed by two of the four rotator cuff muscles, specifically the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles.

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  • 21. 

    The serratus anterior is a primary upward rotator of the scapula.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The serratus anterior is a muscle located on the side of the ribcage and is responsible for upwardly rotating the scapula. This muscle plays a vital role in stabilizing the shoulder joint and allowing for proper movement of the arm. Therefore, it is correct to say that the serratus anterior is a primary upward rotator of the scapula.

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  • 22. 

    A muscle that performs glenohumeral abduction must have a line of pull superior to the anterior-posterior axis of rotation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    To perform glenohumeral abduction, the muscle needs to pull the humerus away from the midline of the body. This movement occurs in a plane that is superior to the anterior-posterior axis of rotation, meaning it is above the axis. Therefore, the muscle must have a line of pull that is superior to the axis in order to produce this movement. Thus, the statement is true.

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  • 23. 

    The shoulder complex is equipped with more external rotators than internal rotator muscles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The shoulder complex is not equipped with more external rotators than internal rotator muscles. In fact, it is the opposite. The shoulder complex has more internal rotator muscles than external rotators. These internal rotators include muscles like the subscapularis, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi, while the external rotators include muscles like the infraspinatus and teres minor.

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  • 24. 

    During abduction of the shoulder, the arthrokinematic roll and slide occur in the same direction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    During abduction of the shoulder, the arthrokinematic roll and slide do not occur in the same direction. In abduction, the humeral head rolls superiorly and slides inferiorly on the glenoid fossa. This movement allows for the arm to be raised away from the body. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 25. 

    Horizontal abduction of the humerus is generally accompanied by the retraction of the scapula.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When the humerus is horizontally abducted (moved away from the midline of the body), it is typically accompanied by the retraction of the scapula (pulling the shoulder blades together). This is because the scapula acts as a stabilizer for the humerus, and when the humerus moves away from the midline, the scapula naturally retracts to provide support and maintain proper alignment. Therefore, it is true that horizontal abduction of the humerus is generally accompanied by the retraction of the scapula.

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  • 26. 

    The supraspinatus and the middle deltoid are both innervated by the same nerve.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The supraspinatus and the middle deltoid are not innervated by the same nerve. The supraspinatus muscle is innervated by the suprascapular nerve, while the middle deltoid muscle is innervated by the axillary nerve. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 27. 

    The rhomboids and pectoralis minor are primary downward rotators of the scapula.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The rhomboids and pectoralis minor are muscles that play a crucial role in the movement of the scapula. They are primarily responsible for downward rotation of the scapula. This means that when these muscles contract, they pull the scapula downward, helping to stabilize the shoulder joint and allowing for proper movement of the arm. Therefore, the statement that the rhomboids and pectoralis minor are primary downward rotators of the scapula is true.

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  • 28. 

    A pulling motion such as  a "wide grip pull-up" will involve strong activation of the latissimus dorsi.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A wide grip pull-up is a type of exercise that primarily targets the muscles in the back, specifically the latissimus dorsi. This muscle is responsible for pulling movements and is heavily activated during wide grip pull-ups. Therefore, the statement that a wide grip pull-up involves strong activation of the latissimus dorsi is true.

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  • 29. 

    Shoulder impingement is likely to occur if the scapula does not upwardly rotate as the shoulder is actively abducted.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shoulder impingement is likely to occur if the scapula does not upwardly rotate as the shoulder is actively abducted. This is because upward rotation of the scapula is necessary for proper alignment and movement of the shoulder joint. When the scapula does not upwardly rotate during abduction, it can cause compression and pinching of the soft tissues, such as the rotator cuff tendons, between the scapula and the head of the humerus. This can lead to pain, inflammation, and limited range of motion in the shoulder. Therefore, it is true that shoulder impingement is likely to occur if the scapula does not upwardly rotate as the shoulder is actively abducted.

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  • 30. 

    The latissimus dorsi and lower trapezius often work together to depress the entire shoulder.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The latissimus dorsi and lower trapezius are both muscles located in the back. The latissimus dorsi is a large muscle that spans from the lower back to the upper arm, while the lower trapezius is a smaller muscle located in the lower part of the trapezius muscle. When these two muscles contract, they work together to pull the shoulder blades downward and depress the entire shoulder. Therefore, the statement that the latissimus dorsi and lower trapezius often work together to depress the entire shoulder is true.

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