TExES Generalist Ec-6 191 Exam (Practice Test I)

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TExES Generalist Ec-6 191 Exam (Practice Test I) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Identify the number of syllables and the number of phonemes present in the word thought.

    • A.

      Two syllables and three phonemes

    • B.

      One syllable and three phonemes

    • C.

      Three syllables and six phonemes

    • D.

      Two syllables and three phonemes

    Correct Answer
    C. Three syllables and six phonemes
    Explanation
    The word thought is a long word, even though it is monosyllabic. It has three phonemes. The word contains two consonant diagraphs, th and ght, and a vowel digraph, ou, representing one sound each for a total of three sounds. Competency 001

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  • 2. 

    All of the following are characteristics of emergent readers EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Use illustrations in the texts they are reading to aid in their comprehension

    • B.

      Develop awareness of the story structure

    • C.

      Represent the stories read through the use of visual images and drawings

    • D.

      Engage in self correction when text does not make sense to them

    Correct Answer
    D. Engage in self correction when text does not make sense to them
    Explanation
    Emergent readers will make use of various strategies for understanding print and make meaningful use of texts. They begin to develop the awareness of the story's structures. They will also use illustrations to understand what they are reading and use visual imagery to represent their stories. Although some emergent readers may begin to use self-correction, it is typically not a characteristic of emergent readers. Competency 003

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  • 3. 

    When teaching English to ELLs of Spanish background, Ms. Rico introduced a list of Greek and Latin prefixes common to Spanish and English. She explained the spelling patterns and the meaning of each of the prefixes. She presented examples of words that contain the prefixes, and led students to decode these based on the meaning of the prefixes. What decoding strategy is Ms. Rico using?

    • A.

      Contextual

    • B.

      Structural

    • C.

      Pictorial

    • D.

      Syntactic

    Correct Answer
    B. Structural
    Explanation
    The analysis of the structure of the words for decoding and comprehension is definitely part of structural analysis. Competency 005

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  • 4. 

    Perform the indicated operation: (–36) – 11.

    • A.

      47

    • B.

      25

    • C.

      -47

    • D.

      -25

    Correct Answer
    C. -47
    Explanation
    When subtraction involves any negative numbers, a good rule to use is, "Don't subtract the second number. Instead, add its opposite." Using that rule, the original expression, (–36) – 11 becomes (–36) + -11. To be "in debt" by 36, then to be further "in debt" by 11, puts one "in debt" by 47, shown as –47.Competency 013

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  • 5. 

    If a can weighs 14 oz., how many cans would you need to have a ton? (Round your answer to the nearest ones place and pick the best answer.)

    • A.

      2,285

    • B.

      2,286

    • C.

      2,287

    • D.

      2,300

    Correct Answer
    B. 2,286
    Explanation
    An easy way to solve this problem is to use basic algebra. Knowing that there are 16 oz. in a pound and that there are 2,000 lbs. in a ton helps ease the difficulty of the problem. We want to find out the number of cans x it will take to obtain a ton. Therefore, we have . If both sides of the equation are multiplied by 16 and then we divide both sides by 14, we will obtain the approximate number of cans it will take to obtain one ton. . We see that many of the answers are close to this value. When we round this number, we will obtain 2,286. Competency 015

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is LEAST likely to lead to illness and disease?

    • A.

      Stress

    • B.

      Hydration

    • C.

      Dietary sugar

    • D.

      Isolation

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydration
    Explanation
    The only answer that is not risky behavior for causing illness and disease is (B) keeping the body hydrated by drinking a lot of water. All other answers put the body at risk for illness and/or disease. Competency 044

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  • 7. 

    To apply the concept of time zones, students need to have a clear understanding of

    • A.

      The International Date Line.

    • B.

      The Earth's yearly revolution.

    • C.

      The concept of the meridians of longitude.

    • D.

      The concept of the parallels of latitude.

    Correct Answer
    C. The concept of the meridians of longitude.
    Explanation
    The Earth is divided into 24 zones based on the meridians of longitude, which are determined using the rotation of the Earth and its exposure to sunlight. This rotation creates day and night, and consequently the concept of time. Competency 021

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  • 8. 

    Mr. Chapman is a third-grade teacher who is working at a school that is implementing a balanced reading program. He will use all of the following reading strategies in his classroom EXCEPT

    • A.

      Reading to students (read aloud).

    • B.

      Implementing shared reading, guided reading, and reading workshops.

    • C.

      Having students engage in independent reading.

    • D.

      Having students independently decode words in reading and writing.

    Correct Answer
    D. Having students independently decode words in reading and writing.
    Explanation
    A balanced reading program is one in which the teaching of reading requires solid skill instruction, including several techniques for decoding unknown words. However, having students decode words on their own is not considered to be the cornerstone of such a program. Competency 004

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  • 9. 

    Identify the statement that best describes the country of Iraq.

    • A.

      It is a linguistically and ethnically homogeneous Muslim nation.

    • B.

      It is a Muslim nation with multiple ethnic groups within its borders.

    • C.

      It is located in Southeast Asia.

    • D.

      It is a province of Pakistan.

    Correct Answer
    B. It is a Muslim nation with multiple ethnic groups within its borders.
    Explanation
    Iraq is a Muslim nation with multiple ethnic groups within its borders. The largest groups are the Arabs, consisting of Shiite and Sunni Muslims. The Kurds are the largest minority group. Competency 021

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  • 10. 

    The Mayflower Compact was one of the earliest agreements to

    • A.

      Establish a political body and to give that political body the power to act for the good of the colony.

    • B.

      Establish rules for farming and trading.

    • C.

      Establish a plan to implement plantation systems.

    • D.

      Establish a policy for settlement.

    Correct Answer
    A. Establish a political body and to give that political body the power to act for the good of the colony.
    Explanation
    The Mayflower Compact was drawn up and signed by the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower. They pledged to consult one another to make decisions and to act by the will of the majority. It is one of the earliest agreements to establish a political body and to give that political body the power to act for the good of the colony. Competency 023

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  • 11. 

    Scenario: Mr. Jetter organized a lesson to introduce sixth-grade students to the concept of marine habitats. As a focus activity he presented two 25-gallon aquariums. Aquarium A has a variety of aquatic plants, 10 snails, and 25 unique varieties of small fishes. Aquarium B contains a variety of aquatic plants, three snails, and five small fish of the same variety. To implement the lesson, he organized the students in groups of five. Once the groups were formed, students were asked to discuss the appropriateness of the combination of aquatic plants and number of animals. The ultimate goal is to predict the success of the habitats, including successful breeding among animals. What is the main science objective of Mr. Jetter's lesson?

    • A.

      Guide students to communicate with peers.

    • B.

      Promote scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills using scientific data.

    • C.

      Work in cooperative groups.

    • D.

      Keep students engaged and interested in the scientific concepts presented in class.

    Correct Answer
    B. Promote scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills using scientific data.
    Explanation
    Using high-interest activities like observing live animals and plants in an aquarium, students can be guided to used scientific inquiry and problem-solving skills. Competency 035

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  • 12. 

    Scenario: Mr. Jetter organized a lesson to introduce sixth-grade students to the concept of marine habitats. As a focus activity he presented two 25-gallon aquariums. Aquarium A has a variety of aquatic plants, 10 snails, and 25 unique varieties of small fishes. Aquarium B contains a variety of aquatic plants, three snails, and five small fish of the same variety. To implement the lesson, he organized the students in groups of five. Once the groups were formed, students were asked to discuss the appropriateness of the combination of aquatic plants and number of animals. The ultimate goal is to predict the success of the habitats, including successful breeding among animals. After a lengthy discussion, students agreed that Aquarium B had a better chance to establish and maintain a successful habitat. What information led students to arrive at this conclusion?

    • A.

      The size of the aquarium

    • B.

      The ratio of plants to animals

    • C.

      The number of plants

    • D.

      The number of fish

    Correct Answer
    B. The ratio of plants to animals
    Explanation
    A healthy aquatic system should have sufficient space and conditions to support life. Aquarium A has a large number of animals for a small 25-gallon aquarium. Overpopulation can pollute the environment and affect the balance of the ecosystem. The size of the aquarium Competency 035

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  • 13. 

    Scenario: Mr. Jetter organized a lesson to introduce sixth-grade students to the concept of marine habitats. As a focus activity he presented two 25-gallon aquariums. Aquarium A has a variety of aquatic plants, 10 snails, and 25 unique varieties of small fishes. Aquarium B contains a variety of aquatic plants, three snails, and five small fish of the same variety. To implement the lesson, he organized the students in groups of five. Once the groups were formed, students were asked to discuss the appropriateness of the combination of aquatic plants and number of animals. The ultimate goal is to predict the success of the habitats, including successful breeding among animals. Students also agreed that Aquarium B has a better chance of successful breeding among the fish. What information did students use to arrive at this conclusion

    • A.

      The ratio of plants to fish

    • B.

      The number of fish in each tank

    • C.

      The size of the tanks

    • D.

      The types of fishes in each tank

    Correct Answer
    D. The types of fishes in each tank
    Explanation
    Fish of the same kind have a better chance of reproducing themselves. Aquarium B contains fish of the same kind, while aquarium A has different varieties. Competency 035

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  • 14. 

    By second grade, students are generally guided to discontinue the practice of pointing to the words being read. What is the rationale for this change of strategy?

    • A.

      Students get tired of pointing to the words while reading.

    • B.

      Students find this practice annoying and typical of younger children.

    • C.

      This practice can interfere with the development of reading fluency.

    • D.

      This practice is archaic and does not seem to help in the reading process.

    Correct Answer
    C. This practice can interfere with the development of reading fluency.
    Explanation
    Pointing to the words as they are read is designed to establish the connection between speech and print. However, after the skill has been mastered, it is discontinued so students can engage in fluent reading. (A) and (B) are incorrect because they offer non-substantial reasons for the strategy change. (D) is incorrect because the practice of pointing to the words as they are being read is not archaic; it is indeed an effective practice for beginning readers. Competency 005

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  • 15. 

    Vocabulary development is a key predictor of success in reading. Identify a strategy that parents can use with preschool children to promote vocabulary development in a fun and relaxed environment.

    • A.

      Use flash cards and concrete objects to introduce vocabulary words.

    • B.

      Play a game in which the parent and the child teach each other a new word every day.

    • C.

      Play games in which children have to name antonyms and synonyms.

    • D.

      Ask children to memorize a list of vocabulary words every day.

    Correct Answer
    A. Use flash cards and concrete objects to introduce vocabulary words.
    Explanation
    The use of flash cards with pictures representing concepts and concrete objects can definitely be effective in teaching vocabulary to preschool children. (B) is incorrect because parents can teach a word every day to the child, but the child might not be able to participate effectively because preschoolers generally do not have the vocabulary development to teach parents new words. (C) is also incorrect because preschoolers might not have the necessary vocabulary development to participate in a game dealing with antonyms and synonyms. (D) is incorrect because the practice of memorizing vocabulary is quite boring and ineffective for children of all ages. Competency 005

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  • 16. 

    Characteristics of emergent writers include the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Dictating of an idea or a complete story.

    • B.

      Using initial sounds in their writing.

    • C.

      Using pictures and scribbles.

    • D.

      Using conventional spelling in their writing.

    Correct Answer
    A. Dictating of an idea or a complete story.
    Explanation
    Students who are becoming literate are not yet writing conventionally. However, answers (A), (B), and (C) all represent features and characteristics of emergent writers. As young writers grasp the concept of the alphabetic principle and are able to better map speech onto print in conventional ways, their spelling will become closer approximations to conventional spelling. Competency 009

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  • 17. 

    What causes earthquakes?

    • A.

      Thermal activity in the core

    • B.

      The movement of continental plates

    • C.

      The melting of rocks and minerals

    • D.

      The movement or rotation of Earth

    Correct Answer
    B. The movement of continental plates
    Explanation
    The movement of the plates causes intense seismological activity near the faults, resulting in earthquakes. (A) and (C) have some merit because thermal activity can have some implications, but these choices do not provide specific answers to the question. (D) is totally incorrect; there is no known connection between the rotation of the Earth and earthquakes. Competency 039

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  • 18. 

    A two-year-old child using a crayon to scribble on manila paper is focusing on

    • A.

      Expressing his thoughts and ideas.

    • B.

      Drawing personal symbols that represent objects in the environment.

    • C.

      The texture of the paper and the color and shape of the marks being made.

    • D.

      Repeating themes to achieve photographic realism.

    Correct Answer
    C. The texture of the paper and the color and shape of the marks being made.
    Explanation
    Two-year-old children are primarily concerned with sensory experiences in their earliest art activities. (A) is incorrect because children do not begin to self-express in their artwork until around age five years. (B) is incorrect because children do not begin to use personal symbols in their artwork until around age four years. (D) is incorrect because children do not begin to repeat themes or be concerned with photographic realism until the middle years of elementary school. Competency 042

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  • 19. 

    What song has the same rhythm as Happy Birthday?

    • A.

      America

    • B.

      The Star-Spangled Banner

    • C.

      Take Me Out to the Ballgame

    • D.

      America the Beautiful

    Correct Answer
    B. The Star-Spangled Banner
    Explanation
    The rhythm is typically called the melodic rhythm or word rhythm found in the song. The beginning of Happy Birthday ("Happy birthday to you") has the same word rhythm as "Oh, say can you see." (A) is incorrect because the word rhythm "My country 'tis of thee" is not the same as "Happy Birthday to you." (C) is incorrect because the word rhythm "Take me out to the ball game" is not the same as "Happy Birthday to you." (D) is also incorrect because "Oh beautiful for spacious skies" is not the same as "Happy Birthday to you." Competency 043

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  • 20. 

    Based on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), children with crutches or any other types of assistive devices should

    • A.

      Not be allowed to participate in physical education activities.

    • B.

      Be allowed to participate like any other student.

    • C.

      Be provided with appropriate modification for participation in physical education activities.

    • D.

      Be provided with a special physical education class designed for them.

    Correct Answer
    C. Be provided with appropriate modification for participation in physical education activities.
    Explanation
    The ADA required school districts to place special education children in the least restrictive educational environment; thus, an orthopedic handicapped student would be placed in mainstream classrooms. Students are required to receive physical education using appropriate accommodations to allow their successful participation. (A) is incorrect because only in extreme cases are special education children excluded from participating in the school curriculum. (B) is partially correct, but it fails to mention the need to make accommodations for successful participation in physical education activities. (D) is incorrect because it adopts an extreme position not applicable to limited mobility. Competency 045

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  • 21. 

    The Virginia House of Burgesses was established in Jamestown to

    • A.

      Function as the official body of the U.S. government.

    • B.

      Regulate trading among colonies.

    • C.

      Function as a form of representative government.

    • D.

      Regulate the establishments of religions.

    Correct Answer
    C. Function as a form of representative government.
    Explanation
    The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first legislature established in the English colonies. It was established in 1619 and became the first form of government in the colony. (A) is incorrect because the U.S. government did not exist during this time (1619). (B) is incorrect because England regulated trading with the colonies. (D) is incorrect because, there was no official entity in the colony to regulate the establishment of religions. Competency 023

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  • 22. 

    A globe is a scale model of the Earth shaped like a sphere. A globe shows sizes and shapes more accurately than

    • A.

      A compass rose.

    • B.

      A Mercator projection map.

    • C.

      A map scale.

    • D.

      A thematic map.

    Correct Answer
    B. A Mercator projection map.
    Explanation
    A globe is a scale model of the Earth shaped like a sphere. Because a globe is the same shape as the Earth, it shows sizes and shapes more accurately than a Mercator projection map (a flat representation of the Earth). (A) is incorrect because a compass rose is a design used to show orientation and not a representation of the Earth. (C) is incorrect because a map scale is used to show the distance between two places in the world. (D) is incorrect because thematic maps are not used to show the size and shape of the Earth. Competency 021

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  • 23. 

    Two paper bags are each filled with four blue marbles and four red marbles. What is the probability of selecting a blue marble from the first bag and a blue marble from the second bag?

    • A.

      1/4

    • B.

      2/16

    • C.

      1/2

    • D.

      4/8

    Correct Answer
    A. 1/4
    Explanation
    There are equal numbers of blue and red marbles in each bag. For a single bag on a single draw, the probability of pulling a red or a blue marble is equal to 4/8 or 1/2 . Selecting a marble from one bag does not affect the probability of selecting a specific marble from the other bag, therefore these events are said to be independent. When dealing with the probability of independent events, one may multiply the probabilities together to obtain the overall probability. In this case, we know the probability of selecting a blue marble is 1/2 for the first bag and it is also 1/2 for the second bag. Therefore, the overall probability of the independent events is 1/4. Competency 017

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  • 24. 

    Running records, teacher observations, and speaking checklists are examples of what type of assessment?

    • A.

      Teacher-developed assessment instruments

    • B.

      Informal literacy assessment

    • C.

      Formal literacy assessment

    • D.

      Objective literacy instruments

    Correct Answer
    B. Informal literacy assessment
    Explanation
    All three instruments, running records, teacher observations, and the checklist, are examples of informal assessment. (A) is incorrect because at least one of the instruments, running records, is not a teacher-developed instrument. (C) is incorrect based on the information previously stated. (D) is incorrect because all three instruments require some level of subjectivity. Competency 012

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  • 25. 

    Identify the statement that best represents the rationale for the implementation of initial reading instruction in the student's native language.

    • A.

      Reading skills are transferable from L1 to L2.

    • B.

      Reading skills are identical in L1 and L2.

    • C.

      Reading skills are confusing for English language learners (ELLs).

    • D.

      Reading skills affect the cognitive process in bilingual students.

    Correct Answer
    A. Reading skills are transferable from L1 to L2.
    Explanation
    Research on second language acquisition suggests that a strong literacy development in L1 can facilitate the acquisition of similar levels of proficiency in L2. Some language specific variables together with literacy and metacognitive strategies can also transfer from L1 to L2. Reading skills are not identical in L1 and L2; (B) does not explain the rationale for implementing instruction in L1. (C) is probably an accurate statement, reading can be confusing for ELLs, but this statement does not address the question. (D) represents an opinion that fails to provide the rationale for the implementation of initial reading instruction in L1. Competency 007

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  • 26. 

    How many lines of symmetry do all non-square rectangles have?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      8

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    If you can fold a two-dimensional figure so that one side exactly matches or folds onto the other side, the fold line is a line of symmetry. The figure in the problem is a non-square rectangle meaning two of the sides are longer than the other two. Because of this, the shape only has two lines of symmetry. Folding the object from one corner to its opposite corner would not result in a fold where the sides were on top of each other. Competency 016

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  • 27. 

    One of the best known models of scientific inquiry is the 5-E model. In this model, students go through five steps: engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate. What is the main purpose of the "explore" component of the process?

    • A.

      To guide students begin experimenting and gathering data about a scientific concept.

    • B.

      To increase interest in the scientific principle studied

    • C.

      To guide students present and share data with their classmates

    • D.

      To capture the curiosity of the students

    Correct Answer
    A. To guide students begin experimenting and gathering data about a scientific concept.
    Explanation
    In the "explore" component of the 5-E Model, students begin to have hands-on exposure to the topic. In this stage, students are guided to make observations and gather data about the scientific project. (B) is incorrect because it describes the initial stage of the process, "engage," in which students begin to conceptualize the topic of the study. (C) describes the process of concept invention or explanation, through which a teacher-guided discussion presents the findings of the study. (D) is incorrect, because it describes the "engage" step of the process, in which students are motivated to learn about the scientific concept. Competency 025

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  • 28. 

    Identify the most appropriate strategy(ies) to meet the needs of children at the emerging stage of writing development.

    • A.

      Identify errors in the writing sample and guide children to self-correct.

    • B.

      Provide a prompt and guide children to write a composition based on it.

    • C.

      Read stories and ask children to retell the story while you write it down.

    • D.

      Allow the child to read for at least 30 minutes every day.

    Correct Answer
    C. Read stories and ask children to retell the story while you write it down.
    Explanation
    Reading a story and asking a child to retell it promotes interest in writing. When the teacher writes down the dictated story, the child can see the connection of oral and written work. (A) and (B) are incorrect because the children at the emerging stage don't have sufficient command of written language to correct their own writing or write a composition based on prompts. (D) is incorrect because reading for 30 minutes a day without any kind of explicit or implicit writing support might not be effective for children at the emerging stage for writing. Competency 009

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  • 29. 

    In which grade should pupils' experiences in critically evaluating their own art and the art of others begin?

    • A.

      Kindergarten

    • B.

      First grade

    • C.

      Second grade

    • D.

      Third grade

    Correct Answer
    A. Kindergarten
    Explanation
    The state curriculum states that experiences in critical evaluation for kindergartners should include expressing ideas about personal artworks, and the artworks of peers or professional artists. Critical evaluation is one of the four strands in the state curriculum for fine arts and visual arts. (B) is incorrect because the standards indicate that experiences in critical evaluation should begin in kindergarten rather than first grade. (C) is incorrect because the standards indicate that experiences in critical evaluation should begin in kindergarten rather than second grade. (D) is incorrect because the standards indicate that experiences in critical evaluation should begin in kindergarten rather than third grade. Competency 042

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  • 30. 

    Xylophones, metallophones, and glockenspiels are instruments associated with what classroom musical approach?

    • A.

      Orff

    • B.

      Kodály

    • C.

      Mariachi

    • D.

      Tejano

    Correct Answer
    A. Orff
    Explanation
    The Orff approach uses both unpitched rhythm instruments (e.g., wood blocks, triangles, etc.) and melodic or barred instruments (e.g., xylophones, metallophones, and glockenspiels). The Kodály Method (B) is incorrect because the primary goal is to teach music literacy and singing is the vehicle to achieve this goal. Mariachi (C) is a group of musicians that play violins, trumpets, a Spanish guitar, and a guitarrón. Tejano music (D) features the accordion, and the Tejano orchestra has been influenced by Mexican, Cuban, German, and Czech brass bands. Competency 043

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  • 31. 

    The most appropriate exercises for kindergarten and first-grade students are

    • A.

      Jogging and walking.

    • B.

      Contact sports.

    • C.

      Games that require endurance.

    • D.

      Fun games that require physical activity.

    Correct Answer
    D. Fun games that require physical activity.
    Explanation
    Fun games involving physical activity are the best way to exercise children in kindergarten. (A) is incorrect because, traditionally, jogging for fitness might be inappropriate for children at this early age. (B) and (C) are incorrect because contact sports and activities that require skill and/or endurance are not developmentally appropriate for kindergarten or first-grade students. Competency 045

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  • 32. 

    Germaine, a fourth-grade student, notices that the shape of South America is similar to the shape of Africa. To demonstrate this, he cut out the South American map, placed it next to the map of Africa, and found an almost perfect match. He was amazed by his discovery and asked the teacher if Africa was once part of South America. What type of theory or scientific principle can the teacher introduce to make Germaine’s discovery a teachable moment?

    • A.

      Theory of evolution of the species

    • B.

      Theory of intelligent design

    • C.

      Theory of transcontinental migration

    • D.

      Theory of plate tectonics

    Correct Answer
    D. Theory of plate tectonics
    Explanation
    The teacher can discuss the theory of continental drift, which gave rise to the current theory of plate tectonics. According to this theory, the crust of the Earth is broken down into several floating tectonic plates, which move and change locations. (A) is incorrect because it describes how organisms evolve throughout history. It also alludes to the work of Charles Darwin. (B) is incorrect because it refers to the religious belief that the universe was created by a supreme being. (C) describes the process by which organisms living on one continent manage to migrate to other continents or to other regions within a continent. Competency 038

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  • 33. 

    Luke’s mother has commented that her two-year-old is constructing sentences with only two or three words at a time. For instance, she says that Luke responds by saying, “no more play” and “mommy milk more.” She suggests that he has heard his brothers use phrases like these. Luke uses these two phrases frequently. Based on the information above, in which stage of language acquisition is Luke at this point?

    • A.

      Babbling stage

    • B.

      Holophrastic stage

    • C.

      Two word stage

    • D.

      Telegraphic stage

    Correct Answer
    A. Babbling stage
    Explanation
    As seen in the scenario, Luke is clearly in the telegraphic stage. He is using chunks of words and phrases he has heard others use and is including them in his linguistic repertoire. Based on this explanation, options (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect. Competency 002

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  • 34. 

    Mr. Obama uses monosyllabic words to present the concept of onset and rimes. Identify the pair of words that best represents this concept.

    • A.

      Want-ed—walk-ed

    • B.

      Very—berry

    • C.

      Think-ing—eat-ing

    • D.

      S-ank—b-ank

    Correct Answer
    D. S-ank—b-ank
    Explanation
    Onsets represent the first phoneme of a syllable or a monosyllabic word like the words presented in choice (D). Rimes follow the onset and are linked to the concept of word families. The rime ank can be used to create multiple words, like blank, tank, rank, and flank. Choices (A) and (C) are generally used to represent verb tenses and cannot be considered the typical rime or word family. Choice (B) is incorrect because the two words do not represent onset and rimes. Instead, the example of very-berry represents a minimal pair—two words that differ in only one phoneme. Competency 003

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  • 35. 

    Newly fluent readers can read with relative fluency and comprehension. Which cuing system is NOT one they would use to obtain meaning from print?

    • A.

      Semantic cuing systems

    • B.

      Structural cuing systems

    • C.

      Visual cuing systems

    • D.

      Punctuation cuing systems

    Correct Answer
    D. Punctuation cuing systems
    Explanation
    Semantic, structural, and visual cuing systems are all used by newly fluent readers to aid in their comprehension of texts. They also make use of graphophonemic cuing systems. These are used to self-monitor what they are reading as well as to begin to correct their errors without much support. Competency 003

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  • 36. 

    Simplify to a single term in scientific notation: (2 · 10)3 · (6 · 104).

    • A.

      .12 · 107

    • B.

      12 · 107

    • C.

      4.8 · 108

    • D.

      4.8 · 107

    Correct Answer
    C. 4.8 · 108
    Explanation
    To solve this problem, one again must use PEMDAS first on the exponential term. Once this is done, one obtains (2 · 10)3 = 11 · 103(2 · 10)3 = 11 · 103. Then, multiplying the two single-digit numbers (8 and 6), one gets 48. Continuing with the solution, we now can multiply 103 with 104 to obtain 107 by adding the exponents (this can be done because each number has a common base, 10). We are now left with 48 · 107. However, the last step is to write the answer in scientific notation, which is 4.8 · 108. Competency 013

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  • 37. 

    Identify the mathematical properties involved in the following problem: (6 + 2) + 5 = 6 + (2 + 5).

    • A.

      Distributive property

    • B.

      Associative property of addition

    • C.

      Property of zero

    • D.

      Associative property of multiplication

    Correct Answer
    B. Associative property of addition
    Explanation
    One of the basic properties of addition is that it can be carried out in any order. Therefore, since addition is the only operation that is performed in this exercise, one knows the correct answer is the associate property of addition. Competency 013

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  • 38. 

    Identify the statement that best describes the relationship between the eight social studies strands and the TEKS in the implementation of the Texas curriculum.

    • A.

      There is no connection between the TEKS and the social studies strands.

    • B.

      The social studies strands have been used as a foundation for the development of the state curriculum.

    • C.

      The strands apply to programs at the university level and the TEKS applies to K–12 curricula.

    • D.

      The strands apply to programs at the high school level, while the TEKS applies to all grade levels.

    Correct Answer
    B. The social studies strands have been used as a foundation for the development of the state curriculum.
    Explanation
    The social studies strands are systematically integrated throughout the social studies state curriculum in grades K–12. (A) is incorrect based on the previous explanation. (C) and (D) are incorrect because the social studies strands are used in public education as well as in higher education. Competency 019

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  • 39. 

    In what grade does the state curriculum officially introduce children to Texas history?

    • A.

      Prekindergarten

    • B.

      First grade

    • C.

      Third grade

    • D.

      Fourth grade

    Correct Answer
    D. Fourth grade
    Explanation
    TEKS introduces social studies beginning with what the child knows to what the child does not know. Students begin studying about themselves and from there they study the school, community, and, finally, the state. The focus on TEKS for fourth grade is the history of Texas. (A) is incorrect because TEKS is available only in K–12. For prekindergarten, teachers use instructional guidelines. (B) is incorrect because the focus of first grade is the school and the community. (C) is incorrect because in grade 3 the focus is the individual and how each affects the community. Competency 019

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  • 40. 

    To make the science curriculum cognitively accessible to English language learners in grades K–2, teachers use thematic units and incorporate

    • A.

      Techniques from various foreign language methods.

    • B.

      Scientific exploration and hands-on activities.

    • C.

      A variety of instructional strategies and sophisticated scientific tools.

    • D.

      The use of chemicals and human specimens used by scientists.

    Correct Answer
    B. Scientific exploration and hands-on activities.
    Explanation
    The state curriculum requires students to engage in scientific exploration in grades K–12. Hands-on experimentation promotes active learning and is beneficial to all students, but it is especially important and developmentally appropriate for children in grades K–2. Choice (A) is incorrect because the incorporation of foreign language methods is a very broad statement, and it does not say specifically which method will be used or how it will be implemented. (C) is also incorrect because the statement is vague and does not describe the types of sophisticated tools. Traditionally, in K–2, the tools used are very simple and concrete. (D) is incorrect because the state curriculum does not require the use of chemicals and human specimens in the early grades. Competency 028

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  • 41. 

    Probably as a response to the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cut the production of oil. As a result of this action, the cost of gasoline increased to almost $3.00 per gallon in 2005. What is the economic principle or statement that is best represented by this situation?

    • A.

      During war, the prices of fossil fuels increase.

    • B.

      The American economy is dependent on foreign oil.

    • C.

      The law of supply and demand determines the prices of goods and services.

    • D.

      OPEC was boycotting the United States.

    Correct Answer
    C. The law of supply and demand determines the prices of goods and services.
    Explanation
    Reducing the production of oil while keeping the same demand for the product creates an imbalance between supply and demand. This imbalance results in a price increase. (A) is incorrect. (B) is incorrect because the statement does not explain the economic principle required in the question. Generally speaking, war increases the demand and prices of many things, not only the price of fossil fuels. (B) just presents a true statement—the American economy depends on foreign oil. (D) presents an opinion that fails to address the true question. Competency 022

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  • 42. 

    In the problem, , what is the first operation which should be performed according to the order of operations?

    • A.

      Exponent

    • B.

      Multiply

    • C.

      Subtract

    • D.

      Add

    Correct Answer
    A. Exponent
    Explanation
    Using the acronym PEMDAS as a mnemonic device to remember the order of operations, it allows us to see that the first operation required in the problems is multiplication. That is, the acronym calls for the following order: percentages, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction. However, since the problem does not contain percentages or exponents, the first operation required in the problem is multiplication. Competency 018

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  • 43. 

    Which answer about your metabolism is FALSE?

    • A.

      More total calories are expended during rest (Basal Metabolic Rate) than exercise.

    • B.

      "Fasting" (not eating for long periods of time) speeds up your metabolism.

    • C.

      Exercise stimulates your metabolism.

    • D.

      Adjustments in metabolism are slow and take place over long periods of time.

    Correct Answer
    B. "Fasting" (not eating for long periods of time) speeds up your metabolism.
    Explanation
    The only incorrect answer about metabolism is choice (B) fasting speeds up your metabolism. Fasting does not speed up metabolism; it shuts metabolism down in order to conserve energy due to little or no calories getting into the body. (A) is true because your basal metabolism (basal metabolic rate) is constantly burning calories and converting energy. (C) is correct because physical activity always stimulates metabolic function. (D) is correct in that metabolism slowly adjusts to the demands placed on the body over long periods of time. Competency 044

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  • 44. 

    Why might children in prekindergarten and kindergarten have problems understanding how the Earth is represented in globes and flat representations?

    • A.

      They might not be developmentally ready to understand symbolic representations.

    • B.

      They might pay more attention to the colors and features of globes and maps than the concepts being taught.

    • C.

      They might not be interested in maps and globes.

    • D.

      They might have problems recognizing the Earth's features presented on the 12-inch globe representation.

    Correct Answer
    A. They might not be developmentally ready to understand symbolic representations.
    Explanation
    Maps use symbolic representation, and children at that age rely mostly on concrete experiences for learning. The abstraction typical of maps' legends and other symbolic representations might not be developmentally appropriate for this age group. (B) is a plausible statement but not the best answer. Children initially will be inclined to use the globe as toys and pay attention to colors, but eventually they will understand its function through classroom instruction. (C) is incorrect because it presents an opinion not supported in the scenario. (D) is probably a true statement: Children will have problems conceptualizing how the Earth can be represented in a small 12-inch globe, but this choice is not the best answer because it addresses only one component of the question—globe representation. Competency 019

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following words can be used as a good example for homonyms?

    • A.

      To – tube

    • B.

      Club – club

    • C.

      To – toe

    • D.

      To – two

    Correct Answer
    B. Club – club
    Explanation
    Homonyms are words that have the same spelling and pronunciation, but have different meanings. The only pair of words that is a true homonym is (B). In this case, the word club can refer to a night club or a wooden stick. Option (A) and (C) are incorrect because they represent two different words. Option (D) represents an example of homophones, words that are pronounced in the same way, have different meanings, and are spelled differently. Competency 002

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  • 46. 

    The state curriculum for fine arts and for visual arts is organized around the following four strands:

    • A.

      Art production, art appreciation, art advocacy, and art evaluation.

    • B.

      Sensory awareness, creativity, art production, and crafts.

    • C.

      Perception, creative expression, historical/cultural heritage, and critical evaluation.

    • D.

      Creative expression, art appreciation, art evaluation, and cultural crafts.

    Correct Answer
    C. Perception, creative expression, historical/cultural heritage, and critical evaluation.
    Explanation
    Perception, creative expression, historical/cultural heritage, and critical evaluation are precisely the four strands identified in the state curriculum for fine arts and visual arts. (A) is incorrect because, although art production, appreciation, and evaluation may be included in the four strands under slightly different terminology, art advocacy is not. (B) is incorrect because, although sensory awareness, creativity, and art production may be included in the four strands under slightly different terminology, crafts are not. (D) is incorrect because the wording of each strand has been changed. Competency 042

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  • 47. 

    Scenario: Corals are invertebrates that generally live in a symbiotic relationship with algae. Some of them build reefs, others do not. Most of them filter water to obtain nutrients for survival. Based on this description, corals belong to which of the following kingdoms?

    • A.

      Monera

    • B.

      Animal

    • C.

      Plant

    • D.

      Fungi

    Correct Answer
    C. Plant
    Explanation
    Corals are invertebrates that fall under the animal kingdom. These small organisms can reproduce themselves sexually or asexually. (A) is incorrect because unlike corals, the kingdom Monera is made up of unicellular organisms with very rudimentary cellular organization. (C) and (D) are incorrect because corals are described in the question as invertebrates, a classification used exclusively for members of the animal kingdom. Competency 036

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  • 48. 

    Scenario: Corals are invertebrates that generally live in a symbiotic relationship with algae. Some of them build reefs, others do not. Most of them filter water to obtain nutrients for survival. The term symbiotic in this case means that corals

    • A.

      Are parasites attached to algae.

    • B.

      Share the same environment with algae.

    • C.

      Exchange services with other organisms.

    • D.

      Are living organisms.

    Correct Answer
    C. Exchange services with other organisms.
    Explanation
    Corals live in a symbiotic relationship with algae because both exchange nutrients or other kinds of services in order for both to survive. (A) is incorrect because corals are not parasites living off algae. Instead, parasites and corals provide support services to each other for their mutual survival. (B) and (D) might be true statements, but they do not define the term symbiosis. Competency 036

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  • 49. 

    Newspapers and magazines have traditionally been considered what type of media?

    • A.

      Electric media

    • B.

      Visual media

    • C.

      Print media

    • D.

      Electronic media

    Correct Answer
    C. Print media
    Explanation
    Newspapers and magazines have been considered print media. (B) is incorrect because images are often used to complement texts being displayed in such mediums. (A) is incorrect because there is no such a thing as "electric" media; the correct term is "electronic" media. Competency 011

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  • 50. 

    Mrs. Thompson has requested that their students create a PowerPoint presentation on the history of visual media. Before working on such a presentation, students need to pick a topic to create their presentation. Which of the following would be the most appropriate topic for such a presentation?

    • A.

      The evolution of billboards on the highway

    • B.

      Using Twitter in school

    • C.

      The internet is a super highway

    • D.

      You email me, I email you

    Correct Answer
    A. The evolution of billboards on the highway
    Explanation
    The most appropriate topic would be for students to research the evolution of billboards on the highway (A). (B), (C), and (D) are incorrect because they represent examples of electronic media, not visual media. Competency 011

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