Westward Expansion Quiz 7th

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Westward Expansion Quiz 7th - Quiz

36a - analyze the establishment and growth of the University of Georgia, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist and Methodist churches. 36b - evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia to include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo land fraud. 36c - defend how technological developments impacted Georgia’s growth to include the cotton gin and railroads. 36d - analyze the events that led to the removal of the Creeks and Cherokees including the roles of Alexander McGillivray, William McIntosh, Sequoyah, John Ross, the Dahlonega Gold Rush, Worcester v. Georgia, Andrew Jackson, John Read moreMarshall, and the Trail of Tears


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The capital of Georgia has changed five times in the history of the state.  In what two directions has the capital city moved?

    • A.

      West and North

    • B.

      East and North

    • C.

      West and South

    • D.

      East and South

    Correct Answer
    A. West and North
    Explanation
    The capital of Georgia has changed five times in its history, indicating that it has moved multiple times. The answer "West and North" suggests that the capital city has moved in both the western and northern directions. This implies that the capital city has shifted geographically within the state of Georgia, potentially due to various factors such as population growth, economic development, or political considerations.

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  • 2. 

    Why was Louisville chosen as Georgia’s capital in 1786?

    • A.

      Louisville was the state’s largest city

    • B.

      Louisville was more centrally located

    • C.

      Louisville was the most important center for trade

    • D.

      Louisville played an important role in the American Revolution

    Correct Answer
    B. Louisville was more centrally located
    Explanation
    Louisville was chosen as Georgia's capital in 1786 because it was more centrally located. This would have made it easier for people from different parts of the state to travel to the capital. Additionally, being centrally located would have allowed for more equal representation and accessibility for all citizens.

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  • 3. 

    Which denomination of Christianity used traveling ministers called circuit riders to spread Christianity throughout the frontier region?

    • A.

      Baptist

    • B.

      Catholic

    • C.

      Anglican

    • D.

      Methodist

    Correct Answer
    D. Methodist
    Explanation
    The Methodist denomination of Christianity used traveling ministers called circuit riders to spread Christianity throughout the frontier region. These circuit riders would travel on horseback from town to town, preaching and leading worship services. They played a crucial role in bringing Christianity to areas that had limited access to regular church services, helping to establish Methodist congregations and spread the faith to new communities.

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  • 4. 

    Which statement BEST describes a “land grant university”, such as the University of Georgia?

    • A.

      The land for the college was donated by the federal government

    • B.

      The land could not be used for any purpose other than a college

    • C.

      The college was a public university with free tuition to state residents

    • D.

      The college was established as an agricultural college to improve farming

    Correct Answer
    A. The land for the college was donated by the federal government
    Explanation
    A "land grant university" refers to a college or university that was established on land donated by the federal government. This means that the land on which the University of Georgia was built was given to the institution by the federal government.

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  • 5. 

    Name the five Georgia cities that have served as the capital of Georgia.

    • A.

      Savannah, Augusta, Louisville, Milledgeville, and Atlanta

    • B.

      Waycross, Athens, Macon Savannah, and Dalton

    • C.

      Atlanta, Macon, Savannah, Augusta and Columbus

    • D.

      Clarksville, Albany, Atlanta, Macon and Savannah

    Correct Answer
    A. Savannah, Augusta, Louisville, Milledgeville, and Atlanta
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Savannah, Augusta, Louisville, Milledgeville, and Atlanta. These five cities have all served as the capital of Georgia at different points in history. Savannah was the first capital when Georgia was founded in 1733. Augusta became the capital in 1785 and remained so until 1795. Louisville served as the capital from 1796 to 1806, followed by Milledgeville from 1807 to 1868. Finally, Atlanta became the capital in 1868 and has remained so ever since.

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  • 6. 

    Explain why the capital of Georgia kept moving?

    • A.

      Politicians kept accepting bribes to move the capital

    • B.

      As the population of Georgia continued to expand westward and farther from Savannah and the coast, the capital moved to be more centrally located

    • C.

      The Georgia Constitution stated that the capital should move every 5 years

    • D.

      The towns that served as capitals asked to no longer serve as the capital of the state due to the overwhelming number of politicians that flooded into their peaceful cities

    Correct Answer
    B. As the population of Georgia continued to expand westward and farther from Savannah and the coast, the capital moved to be more centrally located
    Explanation
    The capital of Georgia kept moving because as the population of Georgia expanded towards the west and away from Savannah and the coast, it became necessary to relocate the capital to a more centrally located area. This would ensure that the government was easily accessible to the growing population and could effectively serve the needs of the entire state.

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  • 7. 

    What were the two largest church denominations in Georgia by 1860?

    • A.

      Baptist and Jewish

    • B.

      Methodist and Baptist

    • C.

      Episcopal and Catholic

    • D.

      Episcopal and Methodist

    Correct Answer
    B. Methodist and Baptist
    Explanation
    By 1860, the two largest church denominations in Georgia were the Methodist and Baptist. This can be attributed to the fact that both denominations had a strong presence and influence in the region during that time. Methodism gained popularity due to its emphasis on personal piety and social justice, while the Baptist denomination grew rapidly through evangelical efforts and its emphasis on individual conversion and baptism. These factors contributed to the Methodist and Baptist denominations becoming the dominant religious groups in Georgia during the mid-19th century.

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  • 8. 

    What was the purpose of the headright system in Georgia?

    • A.

      It distributed Indian lands to new settlers

    • B.

      It administered voting and election districts

    • C.

      It established a method of counting population

    • D.

      It provided an organized system of collecting taxes

    Correct Answer
    A. It distributed Indian lands to new settlers
    Explanation
    The purpose of the headright system in Georgia was to distribute Indian lands to new settlers. This system allowed individuals to claim a certain amount of land for themselves, encouraging settlement and expansion into Native American territories. By distributing these lands, the headright system played a significant role in the displacement and removal of Native American tribes from their ancestral lands.

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  • 9. 

    What scandal took place when Georgia’s governor and some legislators were bribed to sell public land to private developers at cheap prices?

    • A.

      Georgia’s land lottery

    • B.

      Yazoo Land Fraud

    • C.

      Mississippi Land Fraud

    • D.

      Trail of Tears

    Correct Answer
    B. Yazoo Land Fraud
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Yazoo Land Fraud. This scandal occurred when Georgia's governor and legislators were bribed to sell public land to private developers at low prices. This unethical practice led to public outrage and legal challenges, ultimately resulting in the nullification of the land sales. The Yazoo Land Fraud had a significant impact on Georgia's political landscape and its land distribution policies.

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  • 10. 

    What was the purpose of the land lottery?

    • A.

      The state wanted good citizens to settle western lands that were once Cherokee and farm them

    • B.

      The state wanted to establish good relationships with the Indians through agriculture

    • C.

      The state wanted the people to introduce new crops

    • D.

      Georgia wanted to build a defense buffer between its settlers, and California

    Correct Answer
    A. The state wanted good citizens to settle western lands that were once Cherokee and farm them
    Explanation
    The purpose of the land lottery was for the state to encourage good citizens to settle and farm the western lands that were previously owned by the Cherokee. This would not only help in the development and utilization of the land but also ensure that responsible and productive individuals were occupying the territory.

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  • 11. 

    Which was NOT a requirement to participate in the land lottery?

    • A.

      White male

    • B.

      Age 21

    • C.

      Black male

    • D.

      Widow

    Correct Answer
    C. Black male
    Explanation
    The land lottery required participants to be white males, aged 21 or older, or widows. However, being a black male was not a requirement to participate in the land lottery.

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  • 12. 

    As a result of the Yazoo land fraud, the state of Georgia lost legitimate claims to lands in present-day Alabama and Mississippi.  The new western boundary of Georgia moved from the Mississippi River to the

    • A.

      Savannah River

    • B.

      Chattahoochee River

    • C.

      Oconee River

    • D.

      Ocmulgee River

    Correct Answer
    B. Chattahoochee River
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Chattahoochee River. The Yazoo land fraud refers to a corrupt land deal in the late 18th century where Georgia legislators were bribed to sell large tracts of land in present-day Alabama and Mississippi to private companies at extremely low prices. The fraud was eventually exposed, and the state of Georgia was forced to nullify the land sales. As a result, the western boundary of Georgia was moved from the Mississippi River to the Chattahoochee River, as the state had lost its legitimate claims to the lands beyond that point.

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  • 13. 

    Which answer choice is a reasonable conclusion about the statement below? This system needs to be replaced!  It is unfair that because my wife and I only had two children we only get 300 acres of land.

    • A.

      The statement is criticizing the land lottery.

    • B.

      The statement is criticizing the headright system.

    • C.

      The statement is supporting fact that the headright system is more fair than the land lottery.

    • D.

      The statement is explaining why slavery should be made illegal.

    Correct Answer
    B. The statement is criticizing the headright system.
    Explanation
    The statement expresses dissatisfaction with the fact that the speaker and their wife only received 300 acres of land because they only had two children. This suggests that the speaker believes the system is unfair. Since the headright system is the one mentioned in the statement, it can be concluded that the statement is criticizing the headright system.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following people would have been eligible to participate in the land lottery?

    • A.

      A woman whose husband was still alive and gave her a ticket for the land lottery

    • B.

      The daughter of a wealthy farmer who still lived at home with her parents.

    • C.

      A 40 year old man who had fought in the Revolutionary War.

    • D.

      A 16 year old boy who wanted to move off of his parents’ farm and start his own business.

    Correct Answer
    C. A 40 year old man who had fought in the Revolutionary War.
    Explanation
    The land lottery was a system used in the past to distribute land to eligible participants. In this case, the only person who would have been eligible to participate in the land lottery is the 40-year-old man who had fought in the Revolutionary War. This is because the land lottery was often used as a way to reward veterans for their service. The other individuals mentioned in the question do not meet the eligibility criteria for the land lottery.

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  • 15. 

    How can the following be categorized? ·         Many of Georgia’s legislators were eventually removed from office. ·         The federal government paid $1.25 million for Georgia to cede its western land. ·         Georgia lost land      

    • A.

      Results of the Yazoo Land Fraud

    • B.

      Results of the Oconee War

    • C.

      Causes of the Yazoo Land Fraud

    • D.

      Reasons why Georgia wanted to declare independence from Great Britain

    Correct Answer
    A. Results of the Yazoo Land Fraud
    Explanation
    The given statements suggest the consequences or outcomes of the Yazoo Land Fraud, where many of Georgia's legislators were removed from office and the federal government paid a significant amount for Georgia to give up its western land. This indicates that the statements are related to the results of the Yazoo Land Fraud.

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  • 16. 

    What is the benefit of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin?

    • A.

      It was used as a disinfectant in surgeries

    • B.

      It separated the seeds from cotton fiber

    • C.

      It made farm labor less needed

    • D.

      It allowed many farmers to retire

    Correct Answer
    B. It separated the seeds from cotton fiber
    Explanation
    Eli Whitney's cotton gin benefited by separating the seeds from cotton fiber. This invention revolutionized the cotton industry by significantly speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton, which had previously been a labor-intensive task. The cotton gin increased efficiency, reduced labor needs, and allowed for the mass production of cotton.

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  • 17. 

    The cotton gin had which of the following effects on Georgia?

    • A.

      It made harvesting cotton easier so that slaves were no longer needed

    • B.

      It made cleaning cotton more efficient and increased the state’s dependence on slavery

    • C.

      It caused many mills to close and go out of business

    • D.

      It made it harder for large plantation owners to make money

    Correct Answer
    B. It made cleaning cotton more efficient and increased the state’s dependence on slavery
    Explanation
    The cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry by making the process of cleaning cotton much more efficient. This increased the demand for cotton and subsequently increased the state's dependence on slavery. With the ability to process cotton more quickly, plantation owners needed more enslaved laborers to keep up with the demand. Therefore, the correct answer is that the cotton gin made cleaning cotton more efficient and increased the state's dependence on slavery.

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  • 18. 

    In the early 1800’s, what development allowed the South’s economy to grow the most?

    • A.

      Mechanical reaper

    • B.

      Cow milking technology

    • C.

      Railroads

    • D.

      Automobiles

    Correct Answer
    C. Railroads
    Explanation
    Railroads allowed the South's economy to grow the most in the early 1800s. Railroads played a crucial role in the transportation of goods and people, facilitating trade and commerce. They provided a faster and more efficient means of transportation, connecting different regions and enabling the expansion of markets. This led to increased economic activity, growth in industries, and improved access to resources. The development of railroads revolutionized the South's economy by enhancing connectivity and promoting economic development.

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  • 19. 

    What is the comment below referring to?   “After our cotton was loaded into the train containers, the conductor said it would reach its destination in only 7 hours. It would have taken 4 days to reach the same destination just one year ago.”

    • A.

      The speed and efficiency of the railroads

    • B.

      The amount of money that a conductor makes in a day

    • C.

      The long wait farmers had to get their mail

    • D.

      Cotton being transported at a slow pace

    Correct Answer
    A. The speed and efficiency of the railroads
    Explanation
    The comment is referring to the speed and efficiency of the railroads. It highlights how the cotton was able to reach its destination in just 7 hours, whereas it would have taken 4 days to reach the same destination in the past. This suggests that the railroads have improved in terms of speed and efficiency, allowing for faster transportation of goods.

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  • 20. 

    The first gold rush in America took place in Georgia.  What is the name of the location where those looking to get rich could find the large deposits of gold?

    • A.

      Dahlonega

    • B.

      Dalton

    • C.

      Blue Ridge

    • D.

      New Echota

    Correct Answer
    A. Dahlonega
    Explanation
    During the first gold rush in America, the large deposits of gold were found in Dahlonega, Georgia.

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  • 21. 

    In the U.S. Supreme Court case of Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ______________

    • A.

      Said that Georgia had the right to take Cherokee lands.

    • B.

      Said that President Jackson should make a ruling in this case.

    • C.

      Said that the Cherokee Nation had no right to sue in the United States’ courts.

    • D.

      Said that Georgia laws do not apply in the Cherokee territory.

    Correct Answer
    D. Said that Georgia laws do not apply in the Cherokee territory.
    Explanation
    In the U.S. Supreme Court case of Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall stated that Georgia laws do not apply in the Cherokee territory. This implies that the Cherokee Nation has the right to govern themselves and that their territorial boundaries are separate from those of the state of Georgia. Marshall's ruling affirmed the sovereignty of Native American tribes and established the principle that they have the right to self-government and are not subject to state laws within their territories.

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  • 22. 

    The Treaty of Indian Springs ceded the last of the Creeks’ lands in Georgia to the federal government.  Which Creek leader signed the Treaty of Indian Springs and was later killed by his own people for signing this treaty?

    • A.

      John Ross

    • B.

      Elias Boudinot

    • C.

      William McIntosh

    • D.

      Alexander McGillivray

    Correct Answer
    C. William McIntosh
    Explanation
    William McIntosh, a Creek leader, signed the Treaty of Indian Springs which resulted in the ceding of the Creeks' lands in Georgia to the federal government. However, his decision to sign this treaty was highly controversial and opposed by many Creek people. As a result, McIntosh was later killed by his own people for betraying their interests and signing the treaty.

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  • 23. 

    What was one effect of the Trail of Tears?

    • A.

      The Cherokee capital was moved to New Echota.

    • B.

      The Cherokee were granted full rights as citizens.

    • C.

      The Cherokee were removed from their land in Georgia.

    • D.

      The Cherokee published the first Native American newspaper.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Cherokee were removed from their land in Georgia.
    Explanation
    The Trail of Tears refers to the forced relocation of thousands of Cherokee Native Americans from their ancestral lands in Georgia to designated Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. This relocation was a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, signed into law by President Andrew Jackson. The Cherokee were forcibly removed from their land, leading to immense suffering, displacement, and loss of life. This event is considered a dark chapter in American history and had a profound and devastating effect on the Cherokee people.

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  • 24. 

    Which Cherokee Chief went to Washington, DC to fight the removal of the Cherokee form north Georgia?

    • A.

      John Ross

    • B.

      William McIntosh

    • C.

      John Marshall

    • D.

      Alexander McGillivray

    Correct Answer
    A. John Ross
    Explanation
    John Ross is the correct answer because he was a prominent Cherokee Chief who led the resistance against the removal of the Cherokee from north Georgia. He fought for the rights and sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation and advocated for their land rights in Washington, DC. Ross played a crucial role in the legal battles and negotiations with the US government, ultimately leading to the infamous Trail of Tears.

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  • 25. 

    Working with President George Washington, which Creek leader signed the Treaty of New York, giving up all of the Creek’s land east of the Oconee River?

    • A.

      John Ross

    • B.

      Elias Boudinot

    • C.

      William McIntosh

    • D.

      Alexander McGillivray

    Correct Answer
    D. Alexander McGillivray
    Explanation
    Alexander McGillivray is the correct answer because he was a Creek leader who signed the Treaty of New York, which resulted in the Creek giving up all of their land east of the Oconee River. He worked with President George Washington during this time. John Ross, Elias Boudinot, and William McIntosh are not the correct answers because they were not involved in the signing of this specific treaty.

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  • 26. 

    What would be the next likely event in the sequence:   Sequoyah is interested in “talking leaves” -> Began work on a syllabary -> Completed 85 symbols ->  

    • A.

      The Cherokee Phoenix began printing.

    • B.

      The Trail of Tears began.

    • C.

      Sequoyah was killed by his own people.

    • D.

      Sequoyah began teaching his syllabary at the University of Georgia.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Cherokee Phoenix began printing.
    Explanation
    The sequence provided is describing the events related to Sequoyah's creation of a syllabary. After Sequoyah completed 85 symbols, the next likely event would be the Cherokee Phoenix, a newspaper written in the Cherokee language using Sequoyah's syllabary, beginning printing. This is the most logical progression in the sequence, as it follows the development and completion of the syllabary.

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  • 27. 

    The state of Georgia began to try to remove the Cherokee for which reason?

    • A.

      The Cherokee were a fierce, warlike tribe whom settlers feared.

    • B.

      Missionaries to the Cherokee said they needed to be relocated.

    • C.

      The Cherokee tried to take land belonging to the white settlers.

    • D.

      White settlers wanted the land on which the Cherokee lived.

    Correct Answer
    D. White settlers wanted the land on which the Cherokee lived.
    Explanation
    White settlers wanted the land on which the Cherokee lived. This suggests that the state of Georgia began to try to remove the Cherokee in order to gain control of their land.

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  • 28. 

    The Treaty of Indian Springs was to the Creeks, as ___________________ was to the Cherokee.

    • A.

      Worcester v. Georgia

    • B.

      Treaty of New Echota

    • C.

      Treaty of New York

    • D.

      Marshall v. Jackson

    Correct Answer
    B. Treaty of New Echota
    Explanation
    The Treaty of New Echota was to the Cherokee, as it was a controversial agreement signed in 1835 by a small faction of Cherokee leaders, known as the Treaty Party, without the consent of the majority of the Cherokee Nation. This treaty resulted in the forced removal of the Cherokee people from their ancestral lands in what became known as the Trail of Tears. Similarly, the Treaty of Indian Springs was also a controversial agreement that led to the cession of Creek lands to the United States, causing significant division and conflict within the Creek Nation.

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  • 29. 

    Who is best described by the following descriptions? ·         President of the United States ·         Ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling in Worcester v. Georgia ·         Sent troops to forcibly remove the Cherokee from their lands  

    • A.

      John Marshall

    • B.

      Andrew Jackson

    • C.

      Thomas Jefferson

    • D.

      John Adams

    Correct Answer
    B. Andrew Jackson
    Explanation
    Andrew Jackson is best described by the given descriptions because he was the President of the United States, he ignored the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia, and he sent troops to forcibly remove the Cherokee from their lands. John Marshall, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams did not fit all of these descriptions.

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  • 30. 

    Causes
    • White settlers are hungry to grow more cotton
    • Georgia is giving away land in the western section of the state.  
    • Gold is discovered in the mountains of Georgia.
    28.) Which statement BEST describes the effect of these causes?

    • A.

      The University of Georgia is created to offer white males a college level education.

    • B.

      The legislature gets involved with the Yazoo land fraud case and loses land for Georgia.

    • C.

      Religious circuit riders do not have to travel as far to either start new churches or spread their religious messages.

    • D.

      The Creeks and Cherokees are forced to give up the lands that have belonged to them for generations.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Creeks and Cherokees are forced to give up the lands that have belonged to them for generations.
    Explanation
    The causes mentioned in the question, including the hunger of white settlers for more cotton, the land giveaway in Georgia, and the discovery of gold in the mountains, ultimately led to the forced removal of the Creeks and Cherokees from their ancestral lands. This effect is the most closely related to the causes provided.

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  • 31. 

       In what year did the Creeks first cede land to the Europeans?

    • A.

      1835

    • B.

      1827

    • C.

      1793

    • D.

      1733

    Correct Answer
    D. 1733
    Explanation
    In 1733, the Creeks first ceded land to the Europeans.

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  • 32. 

    By what year had Europeans completed the removal of the Creeks from Georgia?

    • A.

      1763

    • B.

      1814

    • C.

      1827

    • D.

      1835

    Correct Answer
    D. 1835
    Explanation
    By the year 1835, Europeans had completed the removal of the Creeks from Georgia.

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  • 33. 

    The largest land cession from the Cherokee was in what year?  

    • A.

      1763

    • B.

      1814

    • C.

      1821

    • D.

      1835- 1836

    Correct Answer
    B. 1814
    Explanation
    In 1814, the largest land cession from the Cherokee occurred. This means that during this year, the Cherokee tribe gave up a significant amount of their land. The question is asking for the specific year in which this land cession took place, and the correct answer is 1814.

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  • 34. 

    There are several popular stories of the beginning of Georgia’s gold rush, but in fact, no one is really certain who made the first discovery or when.  According to one story, John Witherwoods found a three-ounce nugget along Duke’s Creek in White County.  Another says that Jesse Hogan, a prospector from North Carolina, found gold on Ward’s Creek near Dahlonega.  Yet another finds a young Benjamin Parks kicking up an unusual stone while on the lookout for deer west of the Chestatee River in 1828.  Regardless of who actually found the first gold, once word got out about the discovery, the first major gold rush in U.S. history began in the hills of North Georgia and the Cherokee Indians’ time in Georgia was coming to an end. Based on the passage, what was a cause for Indian removal from Georgia?

    • A.

      Benjamin Parks was hunting so many deer that food became scarce.

    • B.

      The need for more land by white Georgians moving west led to conflict.

    • C.

      None of those who claimed to discover the gold were Cherokee.

    • D.

      Gold was discovered in North Georgia

    Correct Answer
    D. Gold was discovered in North Georgia
    Explanation
    The passage mentions that once word got out about the discovery of gold in North Georgia, the first major gold rush in U.S. history began. This suggests that the discovery of gold was a cause for Indian removal from Georgia, as the influx of white settlers seeking to profit from the gold rush would have led to conflict and a need for more land.

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  • 35. 

    There are several popular stories of the beginning of Georgia’s gold rush, but in fact, no one is really certain who made the first discovery or when.  According to one story, John Witherwoods found a three-ounce nugget along Duke’s Creek in White County.  Another says that Jesse Hogan, a prospector from North Carolina, found gold on Ward’s Creek near Dahlonega.  Yet another finds a young Benjamin Parks kicking up an unusual stone while on the lookout for deer west of the Chestatee River in 1828.  Regardless of who actually found the first gold, once word got out about the discovery, the first major gold rush in U.S. history began in the hills of North Georgia and the Cherokee Indians’ time in Georgia was coming to an end. What was the significance of the claims made by the three men discovering gold?

    • A.

      Although there were conflicting claims, they generated enough interest that led to the first major gold rush.

    • B.

      Since there were conflicting stories, interest in North Georgia was slow to grow.

    • C.

      Cherokees were relieved to know that gold was found on their land.

    • D.

      Gold discovered in North Georgia lead to a partnership between the Cherokee and the white Georgia settle

    Correct Answer
    A. Although there were conflicting claims, they generated enough interest that led to the first major gold rush.
    Explanation
    The claims made by the three men discovering gold were significant because they generated enough interest to lead to the first major gold rush. Despite the conflicting stories, the news of gold being found in North Georgia sparked curiosity and excitement, attracting many prospectors and settlers to the area. This influx of people seeking gold ultimately resulted in the beginning of the first major gold rush in U.S. history.

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