Cell Reproduction - A.L.E.

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| By John Mitchell
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John Mitchell
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Quizzes Created: 102 | Total Attempts: 129,119
Questions: 35 | Attempts: 145

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Cell Reproduction - A.L.E. - Quiz

Welcome to the E. L. E. (Electronic Learning Environment) for Advanced Biology course. This active learning exercise will cover cell cycle, mitosis, and meiosis cycles. The cells of all living things grow and multiply through a cycle. I hope this activity will stimulate your thinking of cell growth, repair, and reproduction.
You are given an unlimited number of attempts at "cellular reproduction" to increase knowledge and test-taking skills. Each attempt have questions and answers that are randomly sorted. GOOD LUCK!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The cell cycle take place over different periods of time in different types of cells, in human fibroblast cells, the cell cycle may take about 15 hours.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the cell cycle duration can vary depending on the type of cell. In human fibroblast cells, the cell cycle takes approximately 15 hours. This means that from the time a fibroblast cell is formed to the point it divides into two daughter cells, it takes around 15 hours. However, it is important to note that the duration of the cell cycle can vary in different types of cells and under different conditions.

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  • 2. 

    The cell cycle has two (2) major periods, please identify them from the list below.

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      M phase

    • C.

      G1 phase

    • D.

      G2 phase

    • E.

      S phase

    • F.

      Cytokinesis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Interphase
    B. M phase
    Explanation
    The cell cycle consists of two major periods: interphase and M phase. Interphase is the longest period, during which the cell grows and carries out its normal functions. It is further divided into three phases: G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase. The M phase, also known as mitosis, is the period where the cell divides into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis, the process of dividing the cytoplasm, occurs after the M phase.

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  • 3. 

    The cell cycle has three (3) shorter phases that make up the interphase period, please identify them from the list below.

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      M phase

    • C.

      G1 phase

    • D.

      G2 phase

    • E.

      S phase

    • F.

      Cytokinesis

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. G1 phase
    D. G2 phase
    E. S phase
    Explanation
    The correct answer is G1 phase, G2 phase, S phase. The cell cycle consists of interphase and M phase. Interphase is the longer phase where the cell prepares for division. It is further divided into three shorter phases: G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase. G1 phase is the first gap phase where the cell grows and performs normal functions. S phase is the synthesis phase where DNA replication occurs. G2 phase is the second gap phase where the cell continues to grow and prepares for division. M phase is the phase where cell division occurs, including mitosis and cytokinesis.

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  • 4. 

    Identify in the list below, all three checkpoints found in mitosis.

    • A.

      Cell growth (G1)

    • B.

      DNA Synthesis (G2)

    • C.

      Mitosis

    • D.

      Cytokinesis

    • E.

      Interphase

    • F.

      Metaphase

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cell growth (G1)
    B. DNA Synthesis (G2)
    C. Mitosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Cell growth (G1), DNA Synthesis (G2), and Mitosis. These three checkpoints are all stages in the cell cycle, specifically in the process of mitosis. G1 is the phase where the cell grows and prepares for DNA synthesis. G2 is the phase where DNA synthesis occurs and the cell prepares for mitosis. Mitosis is the phase where the cell divides into two daughter cells. These three checkpoints are crucial for the proper regulation and control of cell division.

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  • 5. 

    What is the name of the process by which the cell's cytoplasm divides? (Please enter your answer in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer(s)
    cytokinesis
    Explanation
    Cytokinesis is the process by which the cytoplasm of a cell divides. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasmic contents are evenly distributed between the two daughter cells, resulting in the formation of two separate and distinct cells. This process typically occurs after the nuclear division (mitosis or meiosis) and is crucial for the completion of cell division.

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  • 6. 

    Name the process by which prokaryotic cells divide. (Please enter your answer in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer(s)
    binary fission
    Explanation
    Binary fission is the process by which prokaryotic cells divide. In this process, the cell replicates its DNA and then divides into two identical daughter cells. First, the DNA is duplicated, and then the cell membrane and cell wall grow inward to separate the two copies of DNA. Finally, the cell splits into two separate cells, each containing a copy of the DNA. This process is how prokaryotic organisms, such as bacteria, reproduce and increase their population.

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  • 7. 

    During _____ this time period, metabolism is occurring at a high rate, many proteins are synthesized, and cell growth is vigorous.

    • A.

      G1 Phase

    • B.

      G2 Phase

    • C.

      Synthesis Phase

    • D.

      Active Growth Phase

    • E.

      G3 Phase

    Correct Answer
    A. G1 Phase
    Explanation
    During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, metabolism is occurring at a high rate, many proteins are synthesized, and cell growth is vigorous. This phase is also known as the first gap phase, where the cell prepares for DNA replication and cell division. It is a period of intense activity and growth, where the cell accumulates the necessary resources and energy for the upcoming synthesis phase.

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  • 8. 

    What does the letter "S" that is the second phase of interphase mean? (Please enter your answer in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    synthesis
    Explanation
    The letter "S" in the second phase of interphase stands for synthesis. This phase is characterized by DNA replication, where the genetic material is duplicated to prepare for cell division. During synthesis, the DNA strands unwind and new complementary strands are synthesized, resulting in two identical copies of the original DNA molecule. This process is crucial for the accurate transmission of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division.

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  • 9. 

    Which one of the steps does not belong to S phase?

    • A.

      Heredity material is copied

    • B.

      DNA is produced during this phase

    • C.

      Two daughter cells are formed

    • D.

      DNA proteins are formed

    Correct Answer
    C. Two daughter cells are formed
    Explanation
    During the S phase of the cell cycle, the hereditary material (DNA) is copied in a process called DNA replication. This ensures that each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the genetic material. DNA proteins are also formed during the S phase, as these proteins are necessary for the proper functioning of DNA. However, the formation of two daughter cells occurs during the later stage of the cell cycle, known as the M phase or mitosis. Therefore, the step "Two daughter cells are formed" does not belong to the S phase.

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  • 10. 

    Centrioles used for cell division complete their replication during the ______ phase.

    • A.

      G1 Phase

    • B.

      G2 Phase

    • C.

      Synthesis Phase

    • D.

      Active Growth Phase

    • E.

      G3 Phase

    Correct Answer
    B. G2 Phase
    Explanation
    Centrioles are involved in cell division and play a crucial role in the formation of the mitotic spindle. During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, centrioles complete their replication. This means that they duplicate themselves so that each daughter cell will have its own pair of centrioles during cell division. Therefore, the correct answer is G2 Phase.

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  • 11. 

    Not all cells continue the cell cycle at this point; some cells leave the cell cycle and do not undergo cell division.  Which cells are being discussed?

    • A.

      Erythrocytes

    • B.

      Nerve cells

    • C.

      Bone cells

    • D.

      Skin cells

    • E.

      Muscle cells

    • F.

      RNA molecules

    Correct Answer
    A. Erythrocytes
    Explanation
    Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, are being discussed in this question. The explanation is that not all cells continue the cell cycle at a certain point, and some cells, including erythrocytes, leave the cell cycle and do not undergo cell division. This is because erythrocytes have a specialized function of carrying oxygen in the bloodstream and do not require the ability to divide like other cells in the body.

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  • 12. 

    At the conclusion of the G2 phase, the cell enters its _____ phase of cell division.

    • A.

      G1 Phase

    • B.

      G2 Phase

    • C.

      Synthesis Phase

    • D.

      Active Growth Phase

    • E.

      G3 Phase

    Correct Answer
    B. G2 Phase
    Explanation
    After the G2 phase, the cell enters the next phase of cell division, which is the synthesis phase (S phase). In this phase, the cell replicates its DNA in preparation for cell division. The G2 phase occurs after the G1 phase, during which the cell grows and prepares for DNA synthesis. The G2 phase is followed by the M phase, which includes mitosis and cytokinesis. The G3 phase mentioned in the options is not a recognized phase of the cell cycle.

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  • 13. 

    During _____, distinct chromosomes appear as a result of the  uncoiling of the chromatin material found in the cell's nucleus.

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    • E.

      Cytokinesis

    • F.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    A. Prophase
    Explanation
    During prophase, distinct chromosomes appear as a result of the uncoiling of the chromatin material found in the cell's nucleus. This is the first stage of mitosis, where the nuclear membrane starts to break down, and the chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes. The chromosomes become more tightly coiled and can be observed under a microscope. This stage prepares the cell for the subsequent stages of mitosis, such as metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, where the chromosomes align, separate, and reform into new nuclei. Cytokinesis, on the other hand, is the final stage where the cytoplasm divides, resulting in two daughter cells. Interphase is the resting phase where the cell prepares for division.

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  • 14. 

    During _____, the chromosomes line up along the equator or the cell.

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    • E.

      Cytokinesis

    • F.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase
    Explanation
    Metaphase is the correct answer because during this stage of cell division, specifically in mitosis and meiosis, the chromosomes align themselves along the equator of the cell. This alignment is necessary for the proper separation of chromosomes during the subsequent stage of cell division.

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  • 15. 

    During _____, the chromosomes separate, and one member of each pair moves to opposite poles of the cell.

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    • E.

      Cytokinesis

    • F.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    C. Anaphase
    Explanation
    During anaphase, the chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. This is facilitated by the contraction of the spindle fibers attached to the centromeres of the chromosomes. As a result, each daughter cell will receive a complete set of chromosomes. Anaphase is a crucial stage in cell division as it ensures the proper distribution of genetic material to the daughter cells.

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  • 16. 

    During _____, the chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles of the cell and two distinct nuclei begin to form.

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    • E.

      Cytokinesis

    • F.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    D. Telophase
    Explanation
    During telophase, the chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles of the cell and two distinct nuclei begin to form. This is the final stage of mitosis, where the nuclear envelope reforms around the separated chromosomes. The cytoplasm also starts to divide during telophase, leading to the formation of two separate daughter cells.

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  • 17. 

    The processess that take place during the M phase of the cell cycle lead to new cells that are referred to as _____ _____. Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    daughter cells
    Explanation
    During the M phase of the cell cycle, the cell undergoes mitosis, which is the process of cell division. This results in the formation of two identical daughter cells. These daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell and are referred to as daughter cells. They are produced to ensure growth, repair, and replacement of damaged or old cells in the body.

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  • 18. 

    A single _____ _____ has passed through the G1, S, G2 phases and enter cell division to produce two daughter cells. (Please enter your answers in allow lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    mother cell
    Explanation
    The term "mother cell" refers to a cell that has completed the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is ready to undergo cell division. During cell division, the mother cell divides into two daughter cells, each containing a complete set of genetic material. Therefore, the answer "mother cell" accurately describes a cell that has passed through the necessary phases and is about to divide.

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  • 19. 

    The process of mitosis, occurs in cells that are reproducing during _____, and wound healing, and the replacement of dead cells. (Please choose the most correct answer for the blank.)

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Dead cells

    • C.

      Wound healing

    • D.

      Production of haploid cells

    • E.

      Production of tetraploid cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Growth
    Explanation
    Mitosis is a process that occurs in cells during growth, wound healing, and the replacement of dead cells. It is a type of cell division that results in the formation of two identical daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Therefore, the correct answer is growth, as mitosis is essential for the growth and development of an organism.

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  • 20. 

    The process of mitosis, occurs in cells that are reproducing during growth, and _____ _____, and the replacement of dead cells. (Please choose the most correct answer(s) for the blank.)

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Dead cells

    • C.

      Wound healing

    • D.

      Production of haploid cells

    • E.

      Production of tetraploid cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Wound healing
    Explanation
    The process of mitosis occurs in cells that are reproducing during growth, and wound healing, and the replacement of dead cells. Mitosis is a type of cell division that results in two identical daughter cells. During growth, mitosis is necessary to increase the number of cells in an organism. Additionally, when there is an injury or wound, mitosis plays a crucial role in the healing process by replacing damaged or dead cells with new ones. Therefore, wound healing is a valid explanation for the blank.

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  • 21. 

    The process of mitosis, occurs in cells that are reproducing during growth, and wound healing, and the replacement of _____  _____. (Please choose the most correct answer(s) for the blank.)

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Dead cells

    • C.

      Wound healing

    • D.

      Production of haploid cells

    • E.

      Production of tetraploid cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Dead cells
    Explanation
    The process of mitosis occurs in cells that are reproducing during growth, wound healing, and the replacement of dead cells.

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  • 22. 

    What does (N) stand for when speaking about chromosomes numbers?

    • A.

      Haploid

    • B.

      Diploid

    • C.

      Polyploid

    • D.

      Triploid

    • E.

      Hexaploid

    Correct Answer
    A. Haploid
    Explanation
    The letter (N) represents the haploid number of chromosomes in an organism. Haploid refers to a cell or organism that has only one set of chromosomes, which is half the number of chromosomes found in a diploid cell or organism. In humans, the haploid number is 23, while the diploid number is 46. Therefore, (N) stands for haploid in the context of chromosome numbers.

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  • 23. 

    What does (2N) stand for when speaking about chromosomes numbers?

    • A.

      Haploid

    • B.

      Diploid

    • C.

      Polyploid

    • D.

      Triploid

    • E.

      Hexaploid

    Correct Answer
    B. Diploid
    Explanation
    (2N) refers to diploid, which means that the organism has two sets of chromosomes. In diploid organisms, one set of chromosomes is inherited from each parent. This is in contrast to haploid organisms, which have only one set of chromosomes, and polyploid organisms, which have multiple sets of chromosomes. Triploid and hexaploid organisms have three and six sets of chromosomes, respectively. Therefore, diploid is the correct answer as it accurately represents the (2N) notation for chromosome numbers.

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  • 24. 

    What does (3N) stand for when speaking about chromosomes numbers?

    • A.

      Haploid

    • B.

      Diploid

    • C.

      Polyploid

    • D.

      Triploid

    • E.

      Hexaploid

    Correct Answer
    D. Triploid
    Explanation
    (3N) refers to triploid, which means that there are three sets of chromosomes in the cell. In triploid organisms, each chromosome is present in three copies instead of the usual two copies found in diploid organisms. This can result from the fusion of two haploid gametes with a diploid gamete or from errors during cell division. Triploid organisms often exhibit unique characteristics and can have difficulties with reproduction due to the imbalance in chromosome numbers.

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  • 25. 

    Meiosis takes place in the _____ _____ and results in cells that are used during reproduction. (Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    reproductive organs
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs. It is a crucial process in sexual reproduction, as it produces cells called gametes that have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cells. These gametes, such as sperm and eggs, are used during reproduction to combine genetic material from two individuals and create offspring with genetic diversity. Therefore, the correct answer is reproductive organs.

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  • 26. 

    Meiosis takes place in the reproductive organs and results in cells that are used during reproduction. These cells, which are egg and sperm cells, are called _____.

    • A.

      Spermatids

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    H. Gametes
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs of organisms, resulting in the formation of gametes. Gametes are specialized cells that are used during reproduction, and they include both egg cells (ovum) and sperm cells (spermatozoa). Therefore, the correct answer is "gametes."

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  • 27. 

    Meiosis takes place in the reproductive organs and results in cells that are used during reproduction. These cells, which are egg and sperm cells, are called _____.

    • A.

      Spermatids

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    H. Gametes
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs, specifically in the testes and ovaries. It results in the formation of gametes, which are specialized cells used during sexual reproduction. Gametes include both egg cells (ovum) in females and sperm cells (spermatozoa) in males. Therefore, the correct answer is "gametes."

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  • 28. 

    Meiosis takes place in the reproductive organs and results in cells that are used during reproduction. In the testes, meiosis is involved in the production of male gametes known as _____ or spermatozoa.

    • A.

      Sperm cells

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    A. Sperm cells
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs and is responsible for the production of gametes. In the testes, meiosis specifically produces sperm cells, also known as spermatozoa. Sperm cells are the male gametes that are necessary for sexual reproduction. Therefore, the correct answer is "sperm cells".

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  • 29. 

    Meiosis takes place in the reproductive organs and results in cells that are used during reproduction. In the testes, meiosis is involved in the production of male gametes known as sperm cells or _____.

    • A.

      Sperm cells

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    B. Spermatozoa
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the process of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs, such as the testes, and is responsible for producing gametes used in reproduction. In the case of the testes, meiosis specifically produces male gametes, which are called sperm cells or spermatozoa. Therefore, the correct answer is "spermatozoa".

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  • 30. 

    Meiosis takes place in the reproductive organs and results in cells that are used during reproduction. In the ovaries, meiosis is involved in the production of female gametes known as _____.

    • A.

      Sperm cells

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    C. Oogenesis
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs and is responsible for the production of gametes, which are the reproductive cells. In the ovaries, meiosis specifically produces female gametes, which are called ova or eggs. Therefore, the correct answer is oogenesis.

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  • 31. 

    In the ovaries, meiosis is involved in the production of female gametes known as oogenesis. A diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to produce one mature egg cell or ______.

    • A.

      Sperm cells

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    E. Ovum
    Explanation
    In the ovaries, meiosis is involved in the production of female gametes known as oogenesis. A diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to produce one mature egg cell or ovum.

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  • 32. 

    In the ovaries, meiosis is involved in the production of female gametes known as oogenesis. A diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to produce one mature egg cell or four ______  _____.

    • A.

      Sperm cells

    • B.

      Spermatozoa

    • C.

      Oogenesis

    • D.

      Polar bodies

    • E.

      Ovum

    • F.

      Male

    • G.

      Female

    • H.

      Gametes

    Correct Answer
    D. Polar bodies
    Explanation
    During oogenesis, a diploid reproductive cell undergoes meiosis to produce one mature egg cell or four polar bodies. The polar bodies are non-functional cells that do not develop into gametes. They are produced as a result of the unequal division of cytoplasm during meiosis, and their main function is to provide nutrients and support for the developing egg cell. Therefore, the correct answer is polar bodies.

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  • 33. 

    Haploid gametes are produced through meiosis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive cells of organisms. It involves two rounds of division, resulting in the formation of four haploid cells called gametes. Haploid gametes contain half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell, allowing for the fusion of gametes during fertilization to restore the diploid chromosome number in the offspring. Therefore, it is correct to say that haploid gametes are produced through meiosis.

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  • 34. 

    Genetic variation is decreased through crossing-over.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Genetic variation is actually increased through crossing-over. Crossing-over is a process that occurs during meiosis, where genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes. This exchange of genetic material leads to the creation of new combinations of alleles, increasing genetic variation within a population. Therefore, the statement that genetic variation is decreased through crossing-over is incorrect.

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  • 35. 

    Oogenesis produces sperm cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Oogenesis is the process by which female gametes, or eggs, are produced in the ovaries. It does not produce sperm cells, which are produced through a separate process called spermatogenesis in the testes. Therefore, the statement that "Oogenesis produces sperm cells" is incorrect.

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