Team Z Science: Astronomy Quiz: Reach For The Stars

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Team Z Science: Astronomy Quiz: Reach For The Stars - Quiz

Hello my little starlets,
Today is your day to SHINE! But will you be a BROWN DWARF? Or perhaps a GIGANTIC NUCLEAR FURNACE? Try not to be NEBULOUS!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Ms. Lindgren will show you a picture of the life cycle of stars. Use the word bank on the board to match the word to the picture. 1. Picture A represents a  _____________________.

    Explanation
    Picture A represents a nebula, which is a cloud of gas and dust in space. Nebulas are often the birthplaces of stars, as the gas and dust within them can collapse under gravity to form new stars. Nebulas can also be remnants of dying stars, where the outer layers of the star are expelled into space.

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  • 2. 

    2. Picture E represents a  _____________________.

  • 3. 

    3. Picture H represents a _____________________.

    Explanation
    Picture H represents a nova.

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  • 4. 

    4. Picture J represents a _____________________.

    Explanation
    Picture J represents a neutron star. A neutron star is the remnant core of a massive star that has undergone a supernova explosion. It is incredibly dense, with a mass greater than that of the Sun packed into a sphere only about 10 kilometers in diameter. Neutron stars are composed mostly of neutrons and have extremely strong gravitational forces. They emit radiation, including X-rays, and can also produce powerful bursts of energy called gamma-ray bursts.

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  • 5. 

    5. Picture I represents a _____________________.

    Explanation
    Picture I represents a black hole. A black hole is a region in space where the gravitational pull is so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from it. It is formed when a massive star collapses under its own gravity. The intense gravitational force causes a distortion in spacetime, creating a singularity at the center of the black hole. The event horizon, depicted in the picture, marks the boundary beyond which no information or matter can escape. The black hole's immense gravitational pull and mysterious nature make it a fascinating object of study in astrophysics.

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  • 6. 

    6. Picture D represents a _____________________.

    Explanation
    Picture D represents a planetary nebula. A planetary nebula is a glowing shell of gas and dust that is ejected by a dying star in its final stages of evolution. The gas and dust are illuminated by the central star, creating a beautiful and colorful display. This stage occurs after the star has exhausted its nuclear fuel and has shed its outer layers, leaving behind a hot, dense core known as a white dwarf.

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  • 7. 

    Astronomers measure the diameter of stars using what unit?

    • A.

      Light-years

    • B.

      S.r. solar radius

    • C.

      Kilometers

    • D.

      Parsecs

    Correct Answer
    B. S.r. solar radius
    Explanation
    Astronomers measure the diameter of stars using the unit s.r. solar radius. The solar radius is a unit of measurement that represents the radius of the Sun. By comparing the size of a star to the size of the Sun, astronomers can determine its diameter in solar radii. This unit is commonly used because it provides a convenient scale for comparing the sizes of different stars.

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  • 8. 

    One characteristic of stars that scientists look is LUMINOSITY. What do you think the latin root LUMEN means?

    • A.

      Light

    • B.

      White

    • C.

      Energy

    • D.

      Color

    Correct Answer
    A. Light
    Explanation
    The Latin root "lumen" means light. This is evident from the context of the question, where scientists are looking for the characteristic of stars called luminosity. Luminosity refers to the total amount of light emitted by a star, making "light" the correct answer.

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  • 9. 

    Stars are composed mainly of:

    • A.

      Oxygen and Nitrogen

    • B.

      Nitrogen and Helium

    • C.

      Oxygen and Hydrogen

    • D.

      Hydrogen and Helium

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrogen and Helium
    Explanation
    Stars are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and is the primary fuel for nuclear fusion reactions that occur within stars. Helium is the second most abundant element and is also involved in the fusion process. Other elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen, may be present in smaller quantities, but hydrogen and helium are the dominant elements in stars.

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  • 10. 

    Three or more stars that are bound by gravity are called

    • A.

      Multiple systems

    • B.

      Nebulae

    • C.

      Stellar nurseries

    • D.

      Constellations

    Correct Answer
    A. Multiple systems
    Explanation
    Three or more stars that are bound by gravity are called multiple systems. This term refers to a group of stars that are mutually attracted to each other and orbit around a common center of mass. These systems can range from binary systems (two stars) to larger groups with three or more stars. The gravitational force between the stars keeps them together and influences their motion within the system. Multiple systems are common in the universe and provide valuable insights into stellar evolution and dynamics.

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  • 11. 

    What makes something a star, and not a brown dwarf?

    • A.

      The temperatures reaches 6000 C

    • B.

      The electrons in the core elements are lost

    • C.

      Nuclear fusion begins

    • D.

      Stars have planets orbiting it

    Correct Answer
    C. Nuclear fusion begins
    Explanation
    When nuclear fusion begins, it distinguishes a star from a brown dwarf. Nuclear fusion is the process in which hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This process is what powers a star, causing it to shine brightly. Brown dwarfs, on the other hand, do not have enough mass to sustain nuclear fusion and therefore do not emit significant light or heat. So, the onset of nuclear fusion is the defining factor that categorizes something as a star rather than a brown dwarf.

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  • 12. 

    An astronomer uses a telescope to look at a star. She observes that the color of the star is similar to the color of the sun. Using this information, what can she infer about the star?

    • A.

      The star is hotter than most stars in our galaxy

    • B.

      The star and the sun have similar surface temperatures and sizes

    • C.

      The star will end its life as a neutron star

    • D.

      The star is a white dwarf

    Correct Answer
    B. The star and the sun have similar surface temperatures and sizes
    Explanation
    Based on the information given, the astronomer can infer that the star and the sun have similar surface temperatures and sizes. Since the color of the star is similar to the color of the sun, it suggests that both objects emit similar amounts of light and have similar temperatures. Additionally, since the question does not provide any information about the star's lifecycle or type, we cannot make any inferences about it being hotter than most stars in our galaxy, ending its life as a neutron star, or being a white dwarf.

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  • 13. 

    Dillon examined several photos of stars. Looking at the color of the stars, he organized them from coolest to hottest. Which of these answers shows the correct order?

    • A.

      Red, yellow, white, blue

    • B.

      White, blue, yellow, red

    • C.

      Blue, white, yellow, red

    • D.

      Yellow, red, blue, white

    Correct Answer
    A. Red, yellow, white, blue
    Explanation
    The correct order of stars from coolest to hottest is red, yellow, white, blue. This is because the color of a star is directly related to its temperature. Red stars are the coolest, followed by yellow stars, then white stars, and finally blue stars, which are the hottest.

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  • 14. 

    At the end of its life-cycle, a high mass star sometimes leaves behind an invisible object in which gravity is so strong that light cannot escape. What do we call this object?

    • A.

      A supergiant

    • B.

      A neutron star

    • C.

      A black hole

    • D.

      A black dwarf

    Correct Answer
    C. A black hole
    Explanation
    A black hole is formed at the end of the life-cycle of a high mass star when it collapses under its own gravity. The gravity becomes so strong that even light cannot escape from it, making it invisible. This phenomenon is known as a black hole. Supergiants are very large stars, neutron stars are extremely dense remnants of collapsed stars, and black dwarfs are hypothetical objects that have not yet been observed.

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  • 15. 

    What type of star is the sun?

    • A.

      A supergiant

    • B.

      A neutron star

    • C.

      A low-mass star

    • D.

      A high-mass star

    Correct Answer
    C. A low-mass star
    Explanation
    The sun is classified as a low-mass star because it has a relatively small mass compared to other stars. Low-mass stars, like the sun, have a longer lifespan and burn their fuel at a slower rate compared to high-mass stars. They undergo nuclear fusion in their cores, converting hydrogen into helium, which releases energy and causes the star to shine. The sun's mass is not large enough to become a supergiant or a high-mass star, and it does not have the extreme density of a neutron star. Therefore, the correct answer is a low-mass star.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following occurs throughout most of a star's lifetime?

    • A.

      Matter ejection

    • B.

      Gas concentration

    • C.

      Heavy core formation

    • D.

      Nuclear fusion

    Correct Answer
    D. Nuclear fusion
    Explanation
    Nuclear fusion occurs throughout most of a star's lifetime. This is the process in which hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. It is the main source of energy that powers a star and allows it to shine. As long as there is enough hydrogen fuel in the star's core, nuclear fusion will continue to occur, sustaining the star's energy production.

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  • 17. 

    Check ALL the boxes that apply! What subatomic particles are found in the nuclei of atoms?

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Protons

    • C.

      Neutrons

    • D.

      Negitrons

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Protons
    C. Neutrons
    Explanation
    Protons and neutrons are subatomic particles found in the nuclei of atoms. Electrons, on the other hand, are found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. "Negitrons" is not a valid term for any subatomic particle.

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  • 18. 

    Check ALL the boxes that apply! Which of the following are a part of the life cycle of LOW MASS stars?

    • A.

      Novae

    • B.

      Pulsars

    • C.

      Protostars

    • D.

      Red giants

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Protostars
    D. Red giants
    Explanation
    The life cycle of low mass stars involves several stages. Protostars are the earliest stage, where a dense core of gas and dust begins to collapse under its own gravity. Red giants are the later stage, where the star expands and cools after exhausting its nuclear fuel. Novae are not a part of the life cycle of low mass stars, as they are explosive events that occur in binary star systems. Pulsars are also not a part of the life cycle of low mass stars, as they are rapidly rotating neutron stars formed from the remnants of supernova explosions.

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  • 19. 

    For a standard H-R diagram, what are the stars in the lower left region of the diagram?

    • A.

      Main sequence stars

    • B.

      Supergiants

    • C.

      Giants

    • D.

      White dwarfs

    Correct Answer
    D. White dwarfs
    Explanation
    The stars in the lower left region of the H-R diagram are white dwarfs. White dwarfs are small, hot, and dense stars that have exhausted their nuclear fuel and have collapsed under their own gravity. They are the remnants of low to medium mass stars, and they have a small size and high surface temperature. On the H-R diagram, they are located in the lower left region, indicating their low luminosity and high temperature compared to other stars.

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  • 20. 

    Stars on the upper left end of the main sequence differ from those on the lower right end in what way?

    • A.

      Stars on the upper left end are less massive.

    • B.

      Stars on the upper left end are more massive.

    • C.

      Stars on the upper left end tend to be red in color.

    • D.

      Stars on the upper left end are near the end of their life cycle.

    Correct Answer
    B. Stars on the upper left end are more massive.
    Explanation
    Stars on the upper left end of the main sequence are more massive because the main sequence is a diagonal line on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that represents stars in different stages of their evolution. The upper left end of the main sequence corresponds to young, hot, and massive stars, while the lower right end represents older, cooler, and less massive stars. Therefore, the stars on the upper left end are more massive than those on the lower right end.

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  • 21. 

    In general, as a stars mass increases, so does it's luminosity

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    As a star's mass increases, its luminosity also increases. This is because the mass of a star determines the amount of fuel it has available for nuclear reactions in its core. More mass means more fuel, which leads to more energy being released through nuclear fusion. This increased energy output results in a higher luminosity, or brightness, of the star. Therefore, it is true that as a star's mass increases, so does its luminosity.

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  • 22. 

    If you live in the Northern Hemisphere, Polaris is visible all year round.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the Northern Hemisphere, Polaris, also known as the North Star, is visible all year round. This is because Polaris is located very close to the North Celestial Pole, which is the point in the sky directly above the Earth's North Pole. As a result, it appears to remain stationary while the other stars in the night sky appear to rotate around it. Therefore, regardless of the season or time of year, Polaris can always be seen in the Northern Hemisphere.

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  • 23. 

    If you wanted to see the constellation rising, you would look to the west.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    If you wanted to see the constellation rising, you would actually look to the east, not the west. The rising of a constellation refers to its appearance above the horizon as it moves from east to west. Therefore, looking towards the west would not allow you to see the constellation rising.

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  • 24. 

    The zodiac constellations Leo and Gemini are found on the ecliptic.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Leo and Gemini are indeed zodiac constellations that can be found on the ecliptic. The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun follows in the sky throughout the year, and it is divided into twelve equal parts, each corresponding to a zodiac sign. Leo and Gemini are two of these zodiac signs, and their corresponding constellations can be seen along the ecliptic.

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  • 25. 

    A low mass star will never become a neutron star.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A neutron star is formed when a massive star undergoes a supernova explosion and collapses under its own gravity. The collapse is so intense that the protons and electrons in the star's core combine to form neutrons. Since low mass stars do not have enough mass to undergo such a catastrophic collapse, they cannot become neutron stars. Therefore, the statement that a low mass star will never become a neutron star is true.

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  • 26. 

    Astrology is a science, but Astronomy is considered pseudo-science.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Astrology is often considered a pseudoscience because it lacks empirical evidence and scientific methodology. It is based on the belief that the positions and movements of celestial bodies can influence human behavior and personality traits. In contrast, Astronomy is a recognized science that studies celestial objects and phenomena using rigorous scientific methods. It focuses on understanding the physical properties and behavior of stars, planets, galaxies, and other celestial bodies. While both fields deal with celestial bodies, Astrology is not considered a legitimate scientific discipline due to its reliance on subjective interpretations and lack of empirical evidence.

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  • 27. 

    A light-year is a measure of distance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A light-year is a unit of measurement used in astronomy to measure vast distances in space. It is defined as the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum. Since light travels at a speed of approximately 299,792 kilometers per second, a light-year is equivalent to about 9.461 trillion kilometers. Therefore, it is correct to say that a light-year is a measure of distance.

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  • 28. 

    Protons have a positive charge.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Protons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom. They have a positive charge, which is equal in magnitude to the negative charge of an electron. This positive charge is what allows protons to attract and hold the negatively charged electrons in an atom, creating a stable structure. Therefore, the statement that protons have a positive charge is true.

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  • 29. 

    Neutrons have a negative charge.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Neutrons are electrically neutral particles, meaning they have no charge. They do not have a positive or negative charge. Therefore, the statement "Neutrons have a negative charge" is incorrect.

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  • 30. 

    Betelgeuse is a supergiant, and is therefore, not on the main sequence.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Betelgeuse is classified as a supergiant star, which means it is in a later stage of its stellar evolution. Supergiant stars are much larger and brighter than main sequence stars, which are in the prime of their lives. Therefore, Betelgeuse is not on the main sequence. Hence, the statement "Betelgeuse is a supergiant, and is therefore, not on the main sequence" is true.

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  • 31. 

    The circled star is:

    • A.

      Polaris

    • B.

      Hikianalia

    • C.

      Rigel

    • D.

      Hokul'ea

    Correct Answer
    D. Hokul'ea
  • 32. 

    The circled star is:

    • A.

      Polaris

    • B.

      Casseopeia

    • C.

      Hokule'a

    • D.

      Hikianalia

    Correct Answer
    A. Polaris
    Explanation
    Polaris is the correct answer because it is commonly known as the North Star. It is located very close to the north celestial pole, making it appear stationary in the night sky while other stars appear to rotate around it. Polaris has been used for centuries as a navigational tool, helping sailors and travelers determine their direction. Its position and brightness make it easily recognizable, which is why it is often referred to as the circled star.

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  • 33. 

    What constellation is this?

    • A.

      Cygnus the swan

    • B.

      Leo the lion

    • C.

      Ursa major the bear

    • D.

      Casseopiea the quessn

    Correct Answer
    D. Casseopiea the quessn
  • 34. 

    A star that is 1000 s.r. in size is known as a supergiant.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A star that is 1000 solar radii (s.r.) in size is known as a supergiant. Supergiants are extremely large stars that are much bigger than the average star, including the sun. They have expanded to a size that is many times larger than their original size, making them supergiants. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is the correct spreadsheet formula to get the average of the values in cells B2 through B23?

    • A.

      What is wrong with this spreadsheet formula for the average of the values entered into cells B2 through B23? =averageB2-B23

    • B.

      =(average)B2:B23

    • C.

      =B2-B23/22

    • D.

      =average(B2:B23)

    Correct Answer
    D. =average(B2:B23)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is =average(B2:B23) because it uses the correct syntax for the average function in a spreadsheet formula. The average function calculates the average of a range of values, in this case, the values in cells B2 through B23. The formula is written as average(range), where range is specified as B2:B23 to include all the values in that range.

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  • 36. 

    If all the stars in a constellation had the same absolute magnitude, which would appear brightest to the people on Earth?

    • A.

      The stars on the main sequence

    • B.

      Those that were actively fusing Hydrogen

    • C.

      Those that were closest

    • D.

      Those with the smallest solar radii

    Correct Answer
    C. Those that were closest
    Explanation
    The stars that are closest to Earth would appear the brightest to people on Earth. This is because the apparent magnitude of a star is influenced by both its absolute magnitude (which measures its intrinsic brightness) and its distance from Earth. Even if all the stars in a constellation had the same absolute magnitude, the closer stars would still appear brighter because they are closer to us and therefore have a higher apparent magnitude.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following stars has the greatest magnitude?

    • A.

      Plumenia + 2.8

    • B.

      Cartha Minor -1.2

    • C.

      Astronium + 5.4

    • D.

      Alpha Megulus - 0.5

    Correct Answer
    B. Cartha Minor -1.2
    Explanation
    The magnitude of a star is a measure of its brightness as seen from Earth. The lower the magnitude, the brighter the star. In this question, Cartha Minor has a magnitude of -1.2, which is the lowest among all the given options. This indicates that Cartha Minor is the brightest star among the listed options.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 15, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Jmlmilkyway
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