# CSWIP 3.1 Multiple Choice Questions - Paper 1

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• 1.

### Which mechanical test can be used to measure the toughness of weld metal, HAZ and parent metal?

• A.

Macro

• B.

Nick Break

• C.

Hardness

• D.

Charpy impact

D. Charpy impact
Explanation
The Charpy impact test is used to measure the toughness of weld metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and parent metal. This test involves striking a notched specimen with a pendulum hammer and measuring the energy absorbed by the specimen during fracture. The amount of energy absorbed indicates the material's resistance to fracture and can be used to evaluate its toughness. Therefore, the Charpy impact test is a suitable mechanical test for assessing the toughness of these different areas in a welded joint.

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• 2.

### Which is the best destructive test for showing lack of sidewall fusion in a 25mm thickness butt weld?

• A.

Nick break

• B.

Side bend

• C.

Charpy impact

• D.

Face bend

B. Side bend
Explanation
The best destructive test for showing lack of sidewall fusion in a 25mm thickness butt weld is the side bend test. This test involves bending a specimen to evaluate the quality of the weld joint. If there is a lack of sidewall fusion, it will be visible as a separation or crack along the side of the bend. The side bend test is specifically designed to detect defects in the fusion between the sidewalls of the weld, making it the most suitable option for this scenario.

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• 3.

### The principal purpose of a welder qualification test is to:

• A.

Test the skill of the welder

• B.

Assess the weldability of the materials

• C.

Decide which NDT methods to use

• D.

Give the welder practice before doing production welding

A. Test the skill of the welder
Explanation
The principal purpose of a welder qualification test is to assess the skill of the welder. This test is designed to evaluate the welder's ability to meet the required standards and specifications for the specific welding procedure. It ensures that the welder has the necessary skills and knowledge to produce high-quality welds that meet the industry standards. The test typically includes various welding techniques and positions to thoroughly assess the welder's capabilities.

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• 4.

### A Fabrication procedure calls for the toes of all welds to be blended in by grinding. The reason for this is to:

• A.

Make the weld suitible for liquid (dye) penetrant inspection.

• B.

Improve fatigue life.

• C.

Reduce residual stresses

• D.

Improve the general appearance of the welds

B. Improve fatigue life.
Explanation
Grinding the toes of welds helps to improve fatigue life because it removes any sharp edges or discontinuities that could act as stress concentration points. By blending in the welds, the stress distribution is more uniform, reducing the likelihood of crack initiation and propagation, thus improving the overall fatigue resistance of the weld.

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• 5.

### For full penetration single-sided butt joints, root bead penetration and profile are mainly influenced by:

• A.

Root face

• B.

Bevel angle

• C.

Root gap

• D.

Included angle

C. Root gap
Explanation
The root gap is the distance between the edges of the two metal plates that are being joined together. In full penetration single-sided butt joints, the root gap plays a crucial role in determining the root bead penetration and profile. A larger root gap allows for more filler material to be deposited, resulting in increased penetration and a wider bead profile. Conversely, a smaller root gap restricts the amount of filler material, leading to reduced penetration and a narrower bead profile. Therefore, the root gap is a key factor in achieving the desired weld quality and strength in these types of joints.

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• 6.

### Which of the following would be cause for rejection by most fabrication standards when inspecting fillet welds with undercut, a small amount of:

• A.

Depth

• B.

Length

• C.

Width

• D.

Sharpness

D. Sharpness
Explanation
Sharpness would be cause for rejection by most fabrication standards when inspecting fillet welds with undercut because sharpness indicates a lack of fusion or penetration between the weld metal and the base metal. A sharp undercut can weaken the weld joint and make it more prone to failure under stress. A smooth and gradual transition between the weld metal and the base metal is preferred for a strong and reliable weld.

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• 7.

### When visually inspecting the root bead of a single V-butt weld it should be checked for:

• A.

Lack of root penetration

• B.

HAZ hardness

• C.

Tungsten inclusions

• D.

Slag

A. Lack of root penetration
Explanation
When visually inspecting the root bead of a single V-butt weld, the lack of root penetration should be checked. This refers to the situation where the weld does not fully penetrate the root of the joint, resulting in a weak and incomplete weld. It is important to identify this issue as it can compromise the structural integrity of the weld and lead to potential failure under load.

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• 8.

### The strength of a fillet weld is determined by:

• A.

Leg length

• B.

Weld profile

• C.

Weld width

• D.

Throat thickness

D. Throat thickness
Explanation
The strength of a fillet weld is determined by the throat thickness. The throat thickness is the shortest distance between the weld face and the root of the joint. It represents the effective area of the weld that resists the applied load. A larger throat thickness indicates a stronger weld, as it provides more material to withstand the forces. Leg length, weld profile, and weld width are important factors in determining the quality and appearance of the weld, but they do not directly affect its strength.

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• 9.

### The European Standard for NDE of fusion welds by visual examination is:

• A.

EN 288

• B.

EN 499

• C.

EN 287

• D.

EN 970

D. EN 970
Explanation
The correct answer is EN 970. This European Standard specifies the requirements for visual examination of fusion welds. It provides guidelines for the qualification and certification of personnel performing visual inspections, as well as the acceptance criteria for the quality of the welds. EN 288, EN 499, and EN 287 are not specifically related to visual examination of fusion welds.

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• 10.

### Visual inspection of a fabricated item for a high integrity application should cover inspection activities:

• A.

Before, during and after welding

• B.

Before welding only

• C.

After welding only

• D.

During and after welding only

A. Before, during and after welding
Explanation
Visual inspection of a fabricated item for a high integrity application should cover inspection activities before, during, and after welding. This is because visual inspection before welding ensures that the materials and components are in the correct position and fit together properly. During welding, visual inspection helps to monitor the welding process and identify any defects or issues that may arise. After welding, visual inspection is necessary to check for any visible defects, such as cracks or incomplete welds, and ensure that the final product meets the required standards for high integrity applications.

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• 11.

### Incomplete root penetration in a single V butt joint may be caused by:

• A.

Excessive root face

• B.

Excessive root gap

• C.

The current settings being too low

• D.

Both a and c

D. Both a and c
Explanation
Incomplete root penetration in a single V butt joint can be caused by both excessive root face and the current settings being too low. Excessive root face refers to the excessive thickness of the root face, which can prevent proper fusion between the base metal and the filler metal. Similarly, if the current settings are too low, it can result in insufficient heat input, leading to incomplete root penetration. Therefore, both factors can contribute to the incomplete root penetration in a single V butt joint.

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• 12.

### Incomplete root fusion in a single V butt weld may be caused by:

• A.

Linear misalignment

• B.

Root gap being too large

• C.

Root faces being too small

• D.

Welding current too high

A. Linear misalignment
Explanation
Incomplete root fusion in a single V butt weld may be caused by linear misalignment. This means that the two pieces being welded are not properly aligned in a straight line, resulting in a gap between the root faces. This misalignment prevents proper fusion between the root faces, leading to an incomplete weld. Other factors such as a large root gap, small root faces, or high welding current can also contribute to incomplete root fusion, but in this case, linear misalignment is the likely cause.

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• 13.

### When visually inspecting the face of a finished weld which of the following flaws would be considered to be the most serious?

• A.

Excess weld metal height

• B.

Start porosity

• C.

Spatter

• D.

Arc strikes

D. Arc strikes
Explanation
Arc strikes are considered to be the most serious flaw when visually inspecting the face of a finished weld. Arc strikes are marks or burns on the surface of the weld caused by the electrode striking the base metal or other foreign objects. They can weaken the weld, create stress concentrations, and reduce its overall strength and integrity. Therefore, arc strikes are a significant concern and need to be addressed and repaired to ensure the quality and reliability of the weld.

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• 14.

### A burn-through may occur if the:

• A.

Current is too low

• B.

Root face is too large

• C.

Root gap is too large

• D.

Arc voltage is too high

C. Root gap is too large
Explanation
If the root gap is too large, it means that there is a significant distance between the two pieces being welded together. This can lead to a burn-through because the arc has to travel a longer distance to reach the other side, causing the heat to concentrate in a smaller area. As a result, the metal can become overheated and melt through, causing a burn-through. Therefore, a root gap that is too large can increase the risk of burn-through during welding.

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• 15.

### A code of practice is a:

• A.

Standard of workmanship quality only

• B.

Set of rules for manufacturing a specific product

• C.

Specification for the finished product

• D.

Code for the qualification of welding procedures and welders qualifications

B. Set of rules for manufacturing a specific product
Explanation
A code of practice is a set of rules for manufacturing a specific product. It provides guidelines and standards that need to be followed during the manufacturing process to ensure consistency, quality, and safety. These rules cover various aspects such as materials, processes, design, testing, and inspection. By adhering to the code of practice, manufacturers can ensure that their products meet the required standards and specifications, resulting in a reliable and high-quality finished product.

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• 16.

### A solid inclusion in a weld may be:

• A.

Entrapped slag

• B.

Entrapped gas

• C.

Lack of inter-run fusion

• D.

None of the above.

A. Entrapped slag
Explanation
A solid inclusion in a weld refers to any foreign material that becomes trapped within the weld during the welding process. In this case, the correct answer is entrapped slag. Slag is a byproduct of the welding process and can form when impurities in the base metal or filler material react with the heat and form a solid mass. If this slag is not properly removed or prevented from entering the weld, it can weaken the joint and affect the overall quality and integrity of the weld.

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• 17.

### Which of the following is a planar imperfection?

• A.

Lack of sidewall fusion

• B.

Slag inclusion

• C.

Linear porosity

• D.

Root concavity

A. Lack of sidewall fusion
Explanation
Lack of sidewall fusion refers to a welding defect where the fusion between the sidewall and the weld metal is incomplete. This can occur due to improper welding techniques or insufficient heat input. It is considered a planar imperfection because it appears as a separation or lack of fusion along a plane, which can weaken the weld joint and compromise its integrity.

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• 18.

### For fillet welds it is normal practice in the UK and USA to measure:

• A.

Throat thickness

• B.

Leg lengths

• C.

Penetration depths

• D.

Both a and c

B. Leg lengths
Explanation
Although in many codes it is normal practice to measure Throat thickness, in the CSWIP examinations the correct answer in the syllabus is to measure Leg lengths.

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• 19.

### In a bend test, when the face of the specimen is in tension and the root is in compression, the test is called a

• A.

Root bend

• B.

Side bend

• C.

Face bend

• D.

Longitudinal bend

C. Face bend
Explanation
In a bend test, the specimen is subjected to bending forces, causing one side of the specimen to be in tension and the other side to be in compression. In this case, the face of the specimen is in tension and the root is in compression. Therefore, the test is called a face bend.

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• 20.

### Heavy porosity on the surface of some MMA welds made on a construction site is most likely to be caused by:

• A.

Use of the wrong class of electrodes

• B.

Use of excessive current

• C.

Moisture pick-up in the electrode covering

• D.

A bad batch of electrodes

C. Moisture pick-up in the electrode covering
Explanation
Heavy porosity on the surface of MMA welds can be caused by moisture pick-up in the electrode covering. When electrodes absorb moisture, it vaporizes during welding, creating gas bubbles that get trapped in the weld metal, resulting in porosity. This can weaken the weld and make it more prone to failure. Therefore, moisture pick-up in the electrode covering is the most likely cause of heavy porosity in MMA welds.

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• 21.

### Slag inclusions may be present in

• A.

Manual metal arc welds

• B.

Metal inert gas welds

• C.

Metal active gas welds

• D.

All welds

A. Manual metal arc welds
Explanation
Slag inclusions refer to the presence of non-metallic materials, such as slag, within a weld. These inclusions can occur when the molten slag is trapped in the weld during the welding process. Manual metal arc welds, also known as stick welding, involve the use of a consumable electrode coated in flux. This flux produces a slag layer that covers the weld bead, which helps protect it from atmospheric contamination. However, if the slag is not properly removed or if it becomes trapped in the weld, slag inclusions can occur. Therefore, the correct answer is manual metal arc welds.

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• 22.

### The main cause of undercut is

• A.

Excessive amps.

• B.

Excessive OCV

• C.

Excessive travel speed

• D.

Current too low

A. Excessive amps.
Explanation
Excessive amps refers to the situation when the welding machine is delivering more current than what is required for the specific welding process. This can lead to undercut, which is a welding defect characterized by a groove or depression at the toe of the weld. When excessive amps are used, the heat generated is too high, causing the molten metal to flow away from the weld joint, resulting in an uneven and weak weld. Therefore, excessive amps is the main cause of undercut.

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• 23.

### Which group of welders is most likely to require continuous monitoring by a welding inspector?

• A.

Concrete shuttering welders

• B.

Overland pipeline welders

• C.

Tack welders

• D.

Maintenance welders

B. Overland pipeline welders
Explanation
Overland pipeline welders are most likely to require continuous monitoring by a welding inspector because welding on pipelines is a critical and high-risk task. These welders work on long-distance pipelines that transport hazardous materials, making the quality and integrity of the welds crucial for safety. Continuous monitoring ensures that the welds meet the required standards and specifications, reducing the risk of leaks or failures in the pipeline.

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• 24.

### Which of the following fillet welds is the strongest assuming they are all made of the same material and welded using the same WPS?

• A.

8mm throat of a mitre fillet

• B.

7mm leg + 2mm excess weld metal

• C.

Mitre fillet with 10mm leg

• D.

Concave fillet with 11mm leg.

A. 8mm throat of a mitre fillet
Explanation
The 8mm throat of a mitre fillet is the strongest because the throat dimension represents the effective size of the weld. In this case, the 8mm throat indicates that the weld is penetrating deeper into the base material, resulting in a stronger bond. The other options may have larger leg dimensions or excess weld metal, but the throat dimension is the most crucial factor in determining the strength of a fillet weld.

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• 25.

### A typical included angle for MMA welding a full penetration pipe butt joint is:

• A.

35º

• B.

70º

• C.

90º

• D.

Dependent on the pipe diameter

B. 70º
Explanation
The correct answer is 70º. In MMA welding, a full penetration pipe butt joint refers to a joint where the weld fully penetrates through the entire thickness of the pipe. A typical included angle for this type of joint is 70º. This angle allows for proper penetration and fusion of the weld, ensuring a strong and durable joint.

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• 26.

### A fillet weld has an actual throat thickness of 8mm and a leg length of 7mm, what is the excess weld metal?

• A.

2.1mm

• B.

1.8mm

• C.

3.1mm

• D.

1.4mm

C. 3.1mm
Explanation
Leg Length x 0.7 = Throat Thickness
Throat Thickness x 1.4 = Leg Length

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• 27.

### The fusion boundary of a fillet weld is the:

• A.

Boundary between the weld metal and HAZ

• B.

Boundary between individual weld runs

• C.

Depth of root penetration

• D.

Boundary between HAZ and parent material.

A. Boundary between the weld metal and HAZ
Explanation
The fusion boundary of a fillet weld is the boundary between the weld metal and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). This is the area where the heat from the welding process has caused the parent material to undergo changes in its microstructure and properties. The fusion boundary is important because it indicates the extent of the heat-affected zone and the quality of the weld. It is crucial to have a well-defined fusion boundary to ensure the strength and integrity of the weld joint.

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• 28.

### If a welding inspector detects a type of imperfection not allowed by the application Standard he must:

• A.

Request further NDE

• B.

Reject the weld

• C.

Prepare a concession request

• D.

Reject the weld only is he considers it to be harmful.

B. Reject the weld
Explanation
If a welding inspector detects a type of imperfection not allowed by the application Standard, he must reject the weld. This means that the weld does not meet the required quality standards and is deemed unacceptable. The inspector has the responsibility to ensure that all welds meet the specified criteria and any imperfections that are not allowed must be rejected. This ensures that the final product is safe and meets the required standards.

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• 29.

### BS EN 970 allows the use of a magnifying glass for visual inspection but recommends that the magnification is:

• A.

X2

• B.

X2 to x5

• C.

X5 to x10

• D.

Not greater than x20

B. X2 to x5
Explanation
BS EN 970 allows the use of a magnifying glass for visual inspection and recommends a magnification range of x2 to x5. This range is considered suitable for inspecting surfaces and identifying any imperfections or defects. Magnifications within this range provide an optimal balance between clarity and detail, allowing inspectors to effectively evaluate the quality of the inspected material. Magnifications greater than x5 may result in excessive enlargement, potentially causing distortion and making it difficult to accurately assess the surface condition. Therefore, the recommended range of x2 to x5 ensures reliable visual inspection without compromising accuracy.

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• 30.

### The majority of welder qualification tests are carried out using unbacked joints because:

• A.

It is quicker and cheaper if back-gouging is not required.

• B.

If the welding process is not TIG. back purging is not required.

• C.

All welder qualification tests are done on a small diameter pipe.

• D.

It requires more skill and increases the welders' qualification range.

D. It requires more skill and increases the welders' qualification range.
Explanation
The correct answer is "It requires more skill and increases the welders' qualification range." This answer suggests that using unbacked joints in welder qualification tests requires more skill from the welder, as they have to ensure proper penetration and fusion without the support of a backing material. Additionally, using unbacked joints expands the welders' qualification range, as they are able to demonstrate their proficiency in welding without the aid of a backing material.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Feb 14, 2014
Quiz Created by
John Jestin

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