Oral Prep Stage (Oral Disease)

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Oral Prep Stage (Oral Disease) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the components of a oral mechanism exam

  • 2. 

    Oral Prep Stage (Anterior spill of bolus, drooling)

    • A.

      Weak Mastication musculature

    • B.

      Reduced tongue cordination

    • C.

      Decreased labial seal

    • D.

      Reduced buccal tension

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased labial seal
    Explanation
    The decreased labial seal refers to a weakened ability to close the lips tightly, which can result in oral spillage of the bolus and drooling. This could be caused by various factors such as muscle weakness in the mastication muscles, reduced coordination of the tongue, or reduced tension in the buccal (cheek) muscles.

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  • 3. 

    (Oral Prep Stage) Decreased mastication 

    • A.

      Weak mastication musculature

    • B.

      Poor lingual lateralization

    • C.

      Reduced buccal tension

    • D.

      Reduced tongue coordination

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Weak mastication musculature
    B. Poor lingual lateralization
    C. Reduced buccal tension
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a combination of weak mastication musculature, poor lingual lateralization, and reduced buccal tension. These factors can all contribute to decreased mastication, which refers to the process of chewing food. Weak mastication musculature means that the muscles involved in chewing are not strong enough to effectively break down food. Poor lingual lateralization refers to the tongue's inability to move food from one side of the mouth to the other during chewing. Reduced buccal tension means that the muscles in the cheeks are not providing enough pressure to assist in chewing. All of these factors can result in difficulty and inefficiency in the chewing process.

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  • 4. 

    (Oral Prep Stage) Buccal pocketing and excessive oral residue

    • A.

      Reduced tongue coordination

    • B.

      Weak mastication musculature

    • C.

      Reduced oral sensation

    • D.

      Reduced buccal tension

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reduced tongue coordination
    C. Reduced oral sensation
    D. Reduced buccal tension
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that reduced tongue coordination, reduced oral sensation, and reduced buccal tension are the likely explanations for the oral prep stage issues mentioned. These factors can contribute to difficulties in properly manipulating food in the mouth, leading to buccal pocketing (food getting stuck in the cheeks) and excessive oral residue (food residue remaining in the mouth after swallowing). Additionally, weak mastication musculature can also contribute to these issues, but it is not mentioned in the given answer.

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  • 5. 

    (Oral Prep Stage) Coughing before the swallow

    • A.

      Reduced tongue coordination to hold bolus in oral cavity

    • B.

      Reduced tongue elavation

    • C.

      Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement

    • D.

      Delayed pharyngeal swallow

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduced tongue coordination to hold bolus in oral cavity
    Explanation
    Reduced tongue coordination to hold the bolus in the oral cavity refers to a lack of proper muscle control and coordination in the tongue, which makes it difficult to keep the food or liquid in the mouth before swallowing. This can lead to coughing before the swallow because the tongue is not able to effectively manipulate and control the bolus, causing it to enter the airway instead of the esophagus.

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  • 6. 

    (Oral Stage) Food catches in mouth, slowed oral transit time

    • A.

      Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement

    • B.

      Reduced tongue elivation

    • C.

      Swallow apraxia-repeated tongue pumping

    • D.

      Disorganized anterior to posterior tongue movement

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement," is the most suitable explanation for the symptoms described in the question. The other options mentioned, such as slowed oral transit time, reduced tongue elevation, swallow apraxia, and disorganized anterior to posterior tongue movement, do not specifically address the issue of food catching in the mouth. Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement can result in food not being properly propelled towards the back of the mouth, leading to the problem mentioned in the question.

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  • 7. 

    (Oral Stage) Slow eating, worse with solids, slow oral transit time

    • A.

      Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement

    • B.

      Swallow apraxia

    • C.

      Repeated tongue pumping

    • D.

      Disorganized anterior to posterior tongue movement

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement
    B. Swallow apraxia
    C. Repeated tongue pumping
    D. Disorganized anterior to posterior tongue movement
    Explanation
    The given answer includes four different characteristics that are associated with the oral stage of swallowing. These characteristics are reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement, swallow apraxia, repeated tongue pumping, and disorganized anterior to posterior tongue movement. These symptoms can result in slow eating, particularly with solid foods, and slow oral transit time.

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  • 8. 

    (Pharyngeal Stage) Food catches at the base of the tongue, delayed hyolaryngeal eleveation

    • A.

      Delayed pharyngeal swallow

    • B.

      Absent pharyngeal swallow

    • C.

      Also could be result of limited CP

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A. Delayed pharyngeal swallow
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that the food catches at the base of the tongue, causing a delay in the pharyngeal swallow. This means that there is a delay in the movement of food from the back of the mouth to the esophagus, which can lead to difficulties in swallowing and potentially result in choking or aspiration. This delay in the pharyngeal swallow can be caused by various factors, including muscle weakness or coordination issues in the throat muscles. It is important to address and manage this issue to ensure safe and efficient swallowing.

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  • 9. 

    (Pharyngeal Stage) Food doesn't go down, no hyolaryngeal elevation

    • A.

      Absent pharyngeal swallow

    • B.

      Also could be result of limited CP opening

    • C.

      Delayed pharyngeal swallow

    • D.

      Reduced pharyngeal contraction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Absent pharyngeal swallow
    B. Also could be result of limited CP opening
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that the absence of a pharyngeal swallow could be the reason for food not going down and the lack of hyolaryngeal elevation. Additionally, it mentions that limited CP (cricopharyngeal) opening could also be a contributing factor. This means that the muscles in the pharynx are not contracting properly, leading to difficulty in swallowing and food not being able to pass through the throat. The limited CP opening refers to the failure of the cricopharyngeal muscle to relax and open during swallowing, causing a blockage in the passage of food.

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  • 10. 

    (Pharyngeal Stage) Food caught up, residue in pharynx

    • A.

      Reduced pharyngeal contraction, tongue base movement or laryngeal elevation

    • B.

      Reduced anterior to posterior tongue movement

    • C.

      Swallow apraxia

    • D.

      Delayed pharyngeal swallow

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reduced pharyngeal contraction, tongue base movement or laryngeal elevation
    D. Delayed pharyngeal swallow
    Explanation
    The correct answer is reduced pharyngeal contraction, tongue base movement or laryngeal elevation, delayed pharyngeal swallow. This is because these factors can result in food getting caught up or residue remaining in the pharynx during the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Reduced pharyngeal contraction can lead to inadequate propulsion of food through the pharynx, while reduced tongue base movement or laryngeal elevation can hinder the movement of food into the esophagus. Delayed pharyngeal swallow refers to a delay in initiating the swallowing reflex, which can also contribute to food residue in the pharynx.

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  • 11. 

    (Pharyngeal Stage) Coughing/choking after the swallow, gurgly vocal quality, excessive secretion-spillover from pyriform sinuses and valleculae or CP bar.

    • A.

      Cricopharyngeal dysfunction

    • B.

      Reduced laryngeal elevation

    • C.

      Reduced laryngeal closure

    • D.

      Reduced epiglottic inversions

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction
    B. Reduced laryngeal elevation
    Explanation
    The given symptoms of coughing/choking after the swallow, gurgly vocal quality, excessive secretion-spillover from pyriform sinuses and valleculae, and CP bar suggest a dysfunction in the cricopharyngeal muscle. This muscle is responsible for the opening and closing of the upper esophageal sphincter during swallowing. If there is dysfunction in this muscle, it can lead to difficulty in swallowing, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, choking, and gurgly vocal quality. Additionally, reduced laryngeal elevation can contribute to the pooling of food and secretions in the pharynx, further exacerbating the symptoms.

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  • 12. 

    (Pharyngeal Stage) Coughing/ choking during the swallow 

    • A.

      Reduced laryngeal closure

    • B.

      Reduce laryngeal elevation

    • C.

      Reduced epiglottic inversion

    • D.

      Reflux or GERD

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reduced laryngeal closure
    B. Reduce laryngeal elevation
    C. Reduced epiglottic inversion
    Explanation
    Coughing or choking during the swallow can be caused by reduced laryngeal closure, reduced laryngeal elevation, and reduced epiglottic inversion. Laryngeal closure is important for preventing food or liquid from entering the airway, and reduced closure can lead to aspiration. Laryngeal elevation helps to close the airway and protect it during swallowing, so reduced elevation can result in choking. Epiglottic inversion is necessary to cover the airway opening during swallowing, and reduced inversion can lead to aspiration as well. Reflux or GERD can also contribute to coughing or choking during swallowing, but it is not mentioned in the given options.

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  • 13. 

    (Pharyngeal/Esophageal stages) Residue in pyriform sinuses, decreased CP opening

    • A.

      Cricopharyngeal dysfunction

    • B.

      Esophageal motility dysfunction

    • C.

      Esophageal diverticulum

    • D.

      Tracheoesphageal

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction
    B. Esophageal motility dysfunction
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that both cricopharyngeal dysfunction and esophageal motility dysfunction can explain the presence of residue in the pyriform sinuses and a decreased cricopharyngeal opening. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction refers to impaired relaxation or incomplete opening of the cricopharyngeal muscle, which can lead to difficulty swallowing and residue in the pyriform sinuses. Esophageal motility dysfunction refers to abnormalities in the movement of the esophagus, which can cause food to remain in the esophagus and not pass through to the stomach. Both conditions can contribute to the observed symptoms.

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  • 14. 

    (Pharyngeal/Esophageal Statge) Regurgitation of food, coughing after the swallow, collection of material in side pocket of the esophagus or pharynx

    • A.

      Cricopharyngeal dysfunction

    • B.

      Esophageal diverticulm

    • C.

      Tracheoesaphageal fistula

    • D.

      Relfux

    Correct Answer
    B. Esophageal diverticulm
    Explanation
    Esophageal diverticulum is a condition where a pouch or sac forms in the lining of the esophagus. This can lead to regurgitation of food, coughing after swallowing, and the collection of material in a side pocket of the esophagus or pharynx. In this case, the symptoms described in the question are consistent with esophageal diverticulum. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction, tracheoesophageal fistula, and reflux can also cause similar symptoms, but the presence of a diverticulum best explains the specific symptoms mentioned in the question.

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  • 15. 

    (Esophageal Stage) Regurgitation, coughing after the swallow

    • A.

      Reflux/GERD

    • B.

      Partial or total obstruction in esophagus

    • C.

      Esophageal diverticulum

    • D.

      Esophageal motility dysfunction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reflux/GERD
    B. Partial or total obstruction in esophagus
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that regurgitation and coughing after swallowing can be caused by reflux/GERD or partial/total obstruction in the esophagus. Reflux/GERD refers to the backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus, which can cause symptoms such as regurgitation and coughing. Partial or total obstruction in the esophagus can also lead to difficulty in swallowing and subsequent regurgitation and coughing. Both conditions can result in similar symptoms, highlighting the importance of further evaluation and diagnosis to determine the exact cause.

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  • 16. 

    (Esophageal Stage) Coughing/choking after the swallow, material passes from the esophagus to the trachea

    • A.

      Tracheoesophageal fistula

    • B.

      Reduced laryngeal dysfunction

    • C.

      Reflux/GERD

    • D.

      Partial or total obstruction in esophagus

    Correct Answer
    A. Tracheoesophageal fistula
    Explanation
    Tracheoesophageal fistula is a condition characterized by an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea. This connection allows food or liquid to pass from the esophagus into the trachea, leading to coughing/choking after swallowing. This condition can cause difficulty in breathing and swallowing, as well as recurrent respiratory infections. Treatment usually involves surgical repair of the fistula to restore normal function and prevent further complications.

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  • 17. 

    Ever had treatment or swallowing problems before? Coughing/choking when eating? Coughing/choking when sleeping? Problems drooling? Types of foods/liquids that cause problems?

    Correct Answer
    What?
  • 18. 

    Does food get stuck in throat/mouth? Location where they typically eat?

    Correct Answer
    Where
    Explanation
    The question is asking about the location where food typically gets stuck in the throat or mouth. The answer "Where" implies that the location can vary and is not specified in the question. It suggests that food can get stuck anywhere in the throat or mouth, depending on the individual and the specific circumstances.

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  • 19. 

    __________ does the problem typically happen?  _________ did the problem start?

    Correct Answer
    When
  • 20. 

    _______ typically eats with the patient?   Must the patient be fed by someone else?

    Correct Answer
    Who
  • 21. 

    Special feeding techniques? Diet modification already in place? Cognitively intact to remember and follow direction.

    Correct Answer
    How
  • 22. 

    What do we look at when we visually inspect  the face

    • A.

      Droop

    • B.

      Drooling

    • C.

      Dry lips

    • D.

      Food on the outside of the mouth

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Droop
    B. Drooling
    C. Dry lips
    D. Food on the outside of the mouth
    Explanation
    When visually inspecting the face, we look for signs of droop, which could indicate muscle weakness or nerve damage. We also check for drooling, as excessive saliva production may suggest issues with swallowing or oral control. Dry lips can be a sign of dehydration or lack of moisture. Lastly, we look for any food residue on the outside of the mouth, which could indicate difficulties with chewing or swallowing.

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  • 23. 

    What do we visually inspect with regards to oral 

    • A.

      Dentition

    • B.

      Dry mouth

    • C.

      Oral care

    • D.

      Halitosis

    • E.

      Dry caked mucus on mouth

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Dentition
    B. Dry mouth
    C. Oral care
    D. Halitosis
    E. Dry caked mucus on mouth
    Explanation
    We visually inspect oral dentition to check the condition of teeth and gums. Dry mouth refers to the lack of saliva production, which can affect oral health. Oral care involves examining the overall hygiene and cleanliness of the mouth. Halitosis refers to bad breath, which can be a sign of oral health issues. Dry caked mucus on the mouth may indicate dehydration or an underlying health condition.

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  • 24. 

    What do we assess with the lips in an oral motor assessment 

    • A.

      Purse/retraction

    • B.

      Alternation rate

    • C.

      ROM

    • D.

      Tongue click on roof of mouth

    • E.

      Closure have the patient puff out cheeks

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Purse/retraction
    B. Alternation rate
    C. ROM
    E. Closure have the patient puff out cheeks
    Explanation
    In an oral motor assessment, we assess various aspects related to the lips. This includes evaluating the purse/retraction ability of the lips, which refers to their ability to pucker or retract. We also assess the alternation rate, which measures how quickly the lips can move back and forth. Additionally, we evaluate the range of motion (ROM) of the lips, which determines their flexibility and ability to move in different directions. Lastly, we assess the closure ability of the lips by having the patient puff out their cheeks, which helps us evaluate their ability to seal the lips tightly.

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  • 25. 

    What doe we assess in oral mechanism with the tongue

    • A.

      Lateralization-alternating rate, ROM

    • B.

      Elevation/depression-alternating rate, ROM

    • C.

      Tongue click on roof of mout

    • D.

      Pain with opening

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lateralization-alternating rate, ROM
    B. Elevation/depression-alternating rate, ROM
    C. Tongue click on roof of mout
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes three components: lateralization-alternating rate and range of motion (ROM), elevation/depression-alternating rate and ROM, and tongue click on the roof of the mouth. These are all aspects that are assessed in the oral mechanism examination specifically related to the tongue. Lateralization refers to the ability of the tongue to move from side to side, while elevation/depression refers to the ability of the tongue to move up and down. The tongue click on the roof of the mouth assesses the strength and coordination of the tongue muscles.

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  • 26. 

    What do we look at in jaw control during the oral motor assessment 

    • A.

      ROM (3 finger widths minimum)

    • B.

      Pain with opening

    • C.

      Chewing assessed during p.o trials

    • D.

      Gag reflux

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. ROM (3 finger widths minimum)
    B. Pain with opening
    C. Chewing assessed during p.o trials
    Explanation
    During the oral motor assessment, we look at the range of motion (ROM) of the jaw, specifically a minimum of three finger widths. We also assess for any pain experienced by the individual when opening their mouth or chewing. Additionally, we evaluate the individual's ability to chew during trials of eating or drinking (p.o trials). The assessment does not include evaluating the gag reflex.

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  • 27. 

    What do we look for in the Soft Palate 

    • A.

      Symmetry

    • B.

      Gag reflex

    • C.

      Is nasality present

    • D.

      Regurgitation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Symmetry
    B. Gag reflex
    C. Is nasality present
    Explanation
    In the soft palate, we look for symmetry to ensure that both sides are equal in size and shape. This helps in assessing any abnormalities or deformities. The gag reflex is also examined as it indicates the normal functioning of the soft palate. If the gag reflex is absent, it may suggest a neurological issue. Nasality is checked to determine if there is any abnormal sound or resonance during speech, which could be a sign of a soft palate dysfunction. Regurgitation is not specifically related to the soft palate and is not relevant in this context.

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  • 28. 

    What do we look at in the protective mechanism assessment 

    • A.

      Phonation strength

    • B.

      Cough

    • C.

      Clear

    • D.

      Dry Swallow initiation with palpation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Phonation strength
    B. Cough
    C. Clear
    D. Dry Swallow initiation with palpation
    Explanation
    In a protective mechanism assessment, we look at various factors including phonation strength, cough, clearness, and the initiation of a dry swallow with palpation. These factors help evaluate the effectiveness of the protective mechanisms in the throat and airway. Phonation strength refers to the ability to produce sound, which is important for clearing the airway. Coughing helps expel any foreign objects or mucus from the airway. Clearness refers to the absence of any obstructions or blockages. Finally, the initiation of a dry swallow with palpation assesses the coordination and strength of the swallowing mechanism.

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  • 29. 

    What do we look at in laryngeal palpation 

    • A.

      Elevation with or without protraction

    • B.

      Rate of elevation

    • C.

      Movement fluidity

    • D.

      Gurgling

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Elevation with or without protraction
    B. Rate of elevation
    C. Movement fluidity
    Explanation
    In laryngeal palpation, we look for the elevation of the larynx with or without protraction, the rate of elevation, and the movement fluidity. These factors help us assess the functioning and coordination of the laryngeal muscles during speech and swallowing.

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  • 30. 

    What is done in cervical auscultation 

    • A.

      Place stethoscope on side of neck and listen to breathing on each side, listen to swallow

    • B.

      Gurguling? have patient clear

    • C.

      Still gurgling patient unable to clear

    • D.

      Check for phonation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Place stethoscope on side of neck and listen to breathing on each side, listen to swallow
    B. Gurguling? have patient clear
    C. Still gurgling patient unable to clear
    Explanation
    Cervical auscultation is a technique used to assess the swallowing function by listening to the sounds produced during the swallowing process. In this procedure, a stethoscope is placed on the side of the neck to listen to the breathing sounds on each side. The clinician also listens for any abnormal sounds, such as gurgling, which may indicate a problem with swallowing. If gurgling is heard, the patient is asked to clear their throat. If the gurgling persists and the patient is unable to clear it, further evaluation of the patient's ability to produce sounds (phonation) may be necessary.

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  • 31. 

    We should use ice cold water?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Room temp water

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  • 32. 

    What are the signs of silent aspiration 

    • A.

      Have a patient say ah after every presentation

    • B.

      Listen for wet gurgly voice

    • C.

      Look for watery eyes and runny nose

    • D.

      Listen for delayed cough

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Have a patient say ah after every presentation
    B. Listen for wet gurgly voice
    C. Look for watery eyes and runny nose
    D. Listen for delayed cough
    Explanation
    The signs of silent aspiration include having the patient say "ah" after every presentation, listening for a wet gurgly voice, looking for watery eyes and a runny nose, and listening for a delayed cough. These signs indicate that the patient may be silently aspirating, meaning that they are inhaling food or liquid into their lungs without coughing or showing any outward signs. By observing these signs, healthcare professionals can identify and address the issue of silent aspiration.

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  • 33. 

    What are the signs of difficulty when eating or p.o trials 

    • A.

      Residue in oral cavity

    • B.

      Spill of food from mouth

    • C.

      Coughing

    • D.

      Report of residue in throat

    • E.

      Regurgitation

    • F.

      Piecemeal deglutition

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Residue in oral cavity
    B. Spill of food from mouth
    C. Coughing
    D. Report of residue in throat
    E. Regurgitation
    F. Piecemeal deglutition
    Explanation
    The signs of difficulty when eating or performing oral trials include residue in the oral cavity, spill of food from the mouth, coughing, report of residue in the throat, regurgitation, and piecemeal deglutition. These signs indicate that the individual is having trouble swallowing or properly managing food in their mouth, leading to various issues such as food getting stuck in the oral cavity or throat, coughing, and regurgitation. Piecemeal deglutition refers to the individual swallowing food in small pieces instead of swallowing it in one fluid motion, which can also indicate difficulty in eating.

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  • 34. 

    What are some considerations when doing a P.O trial

    • A.

      Fatigue

    • B.

      Appetite

    • C.

      Oral care (do they have teeth)

    • D.

      Hydration

    • E.

      Shortness of breath

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fatigue
    B. Appetite
    C. Oral care (do they have teeth)
    D. Hydration
    E. Shortness of breath
    Explanation
    This answer lists some considerations that should be taken into account when conducting a P.O (per oral) trial. Fatigue, appetite, oral care (including whether the patient has teeth), hydration, and shortness of breath are all important factors to consider during the trial. These considerations help ensure the patient's comfort and well-being during the trial and can also impact the effectiveness of the treatment.

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  • 35. 

    The three rating scales are NOMS FOIS and DOSS what does each stand for

    Correct Answer(s)
    Swallowing rating scale, functional oral intake scale, dyshpagia outcome severity scale
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the three rating scales are NOMS, FOIS, and DOSS, which stand for Swallowing rating scale, functional oral intake scale, and dyshagia outcome severity scale, respectively. These scales are used to assess and measure different aspects of swallowing function and oral intake in individuals with dysphagia. The Swallowing rating scale evaluates the severity of swallowing difficulties, the functional oral intake scale assesses the individual's ability to consume food and liquids orally, and the dysphagia outcome severity scale measures the impact of dysphagia on the individual's overall well-being and quality of life.

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  • 36. 

    Diet level orders should include what 

    • A.

      Diet level recommendations for solids and liquids

    • B.

      Supervision for intake

    • C.

      How to administer medications

    • D.

      Aspiration precautions

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Diet level recommendations for solids and liquids
    B. Supervision for intake
    C. How to administer medications
    D. Aspiration precautions
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because diet level orders should include recommendations for both solids and liquids, as well as supervision for intake to ensure the patient is following the prescribed diet. Additionally, instructions on how to administer medications should be included in the diet level orders, as well as precautions to prevent aspiration, which is a potential risk when eating or drinking.

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  • 37. 

    What are some aspiration precautions 

    • A.

      Double swallow

    • B.

      No straws

    • C.

      Oral care

    • D.

      Chin tuck

    • E.

      Tongue grasp

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Double swallow
    B. No straws
    C. Oral care
    D. Chin tuck
    Explanation
    Aspiration precautions are measures taken to prevent the inhalation of food or liquid into the lungs. Double swallow refers to the act of swallowing twice to ensure complete clearance of food or liquid from the mouth and throat. No straws are recommended to prevent the risk of inhaling liquid into the lungs. Oral care involves maintaining good oral hygiene to prevent infections that could increase the risk of aspiration. Chin tuck is a technique where the chin is tucked down towards the chest while swallowing to help close off the airway and prevent aspiration. These precautions help reduce the risk of aspiration and promote safe swallowing.

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  • 38. 

    What is FEES

    Correct Answer(s)
    Videoendoscopy
    Explanation
    FEES stands for Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. It is a procedure used to assess swallowing difficulties by inserting a flexible endoscope through the nasal passage to view the swallowing mechanism. Videoendoscopy, on the other hand, refers to the use of a video camera attached to the endoscope to record and visualize the internal structures. Since FEES involves the use of videoendoscopy, it can be inferred that videoendoscopy is a part of the FEES procedure.

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  • 39. 

    The before and after swallow is not evaluated with FEES

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "The before and after swallow is not evaluated with FEES" is false. FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) is a procedure used to assess swallowing function. During FEES, a flexible endoscope is passed through the nose to visualize the swallowing process. This allows the clinician to evaluate the anatomy and function of the structures involved in swallowing, including the before and after swallow phases. Therefore, both the before and after swallow are evaluated with FEES.

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  • 40. 

    What are the advantages of FEES

    • A.

      No radiation

    • B.

      Clear view of all structures

    • C.

      Assess airway closure

    • D.

      Doesn't visualize oral prep or oral stage

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. No radiation
    B. Clear view of all structures
    C. Assess airway closure
    Explanation
    FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) offers several advantages. Firstly, there is no radiation involved, making it a safe procedure for patients. Additionally, FEES provides a clear view of all structures involved in swallowing, allowing for accurate assessment and diagnosis. It also enables the evaluation of airway closure during swallowing, which is crucial in identifying any potential issues. However, FEES does not visualize the oral preparation or oral stage of swallowing.

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  • 41. 

    What are the disadvantage of FEES

    • A.

      Cant see during swallow

    • B.

      Limits VP closure

    • C.

      Must define problem based upon location of residue

    • D.

      Clear view of all structures

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cant see during swallow
    B. Limits VP closure
    C. Must define problem based upon location of residue
    Explanation
    The disadvantages of FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) are that it cannot provide a clear view during swallowing, it limits the assessment of velopharyngeal (VP) closure, and it requires the problem to be defined based on the location of residue.

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  • 42. 

    VFSS is also known as what 

    Correct Answer(s)
    Videofluroscopic swallow study or modified barium swallow
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Videofluoroscopic swallow study or modified barium swallow. VFSS is a diagnostic procedure used to evaluate swallowing function. It involves the use of X-ray imaging and contrast material (barium) to assess the movement of food and liquid through the throat. The procedure allows healthcare professionals to identify any abnormalities or difficulties in swallowing, such as aspiration or choking risks. The terms "videofluoroscopic swallow study" and "modified barium swallow" are both used interchangeably to refer to this procedure.

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  • 43. 

    What are the advantages of VFSS

    • A.

      You can view the motor aspects of the pharyngeal swallow

    • B.

      You can see mastication and oral phase

    • C.

      Triggering of the pharyngeal swallow is due to position of the bolus

    • D.

      Cant view structures directly

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. You can view the motor aspects of the pharyngeal swallow
    B. You can see mastication and oral phase
    C. Triggering of the pharyngeal swallow is due to position of the bolus
    Explanation
    The advantages of VFSS include the ability to view the motor aspects of the pharyngeal swallow, observe mastication and the oral phase of swallowing, and understand that the triggering of the pharyngeal swallow is influenced by the position of the bolus. However, it is important to note that VFSS does not allow for direct visualization of structures involved in swallowing.

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  • 44. 

    What are the disadvatages of VFSS

    • A.

      Radiation exposure

    • B.

      Use of barium

    • C.

      Cant directly view structures

    • D.

      Motor aspects of the pharyngeal swallow is visible

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Radiation exposure
    B. Use of barium
    C. Cant directly view structures
    Explanation
    The disadvantages of VFSS (Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study) include radiation exposure, as the procedure involves the use of X-rays. Another disadvantage is the use of barium, which is a contrast material that needs to be ingested and can cause discomfort or allergic reactions in some individuals. Additionally, VFSS cannot directly view structures, meaning that certain anatomical details may not be clearly visible. However, it does allow for the visualization of the motor aspects of the pharyngeal swallow, providing valuable information about swallowing function.

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  • 45. 

    What are the challenges with using VFSS

    • A.

      Hard to assess fatigue

    • B.

      Barium changes food consistency

    • C.

      Presence of aspiration does not indicate aspiration pheumonia

    • D.

      Contrast issues

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hard to assess fatigue
    B. Barium changes food consistency
    C. Presence of aspiration does not indicate aspiration pheumonia
    D. Contrast issues
    Explanation
    The challenges with using VFSS include difficulty in assessing fatigue, as it is hard to determine if the patient's fatigue is due to swallowing difficulties or other factors. Barium changes the consistency of food, making it difficult to accurately assess the patient's normal swallowing function. The presence of aspiration does not necessarily indicate aspiration pneumonia, as aspiration can occur without causing pneumonia. Contrast issues may also arise during VFSS, making it difficult to clearly visualize the swallowing process.

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  • 46. 

    We use VFSS to identify the normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology of the swallow

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because VFSS (Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study) is a diagnostic procedure used to assess the anatomy and physiology of the swallow. It involves the use of X-ray imaging to visualize the swallowing process in real-time, allowing healthcare professionals to identify any abnormalities or difficulties in swallowing. By observing the movement of the structures involved in swallowing, such as the tongue, throat, and esophagus, VFSS helps in diagnosing and determining appropriate treatment for swallowing disorders.

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  • 47. 

    What can dehydration lead to 

    • A.

      Hospitalization

    • B.

      Confusion

    • C.

      Fever

    • D.

      Weight loss

    • E.

      Lethargy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hospitalization
    B. Confusion
    C. Fever
    D. Weight loss
    E. Lethargy
    Explanation
    Dehydration can lead to hospitalization because severe dehydration can cause a person's vital organs to fail, requiring medical intervention and monitoring. It can also lead to confusion because dehydration affects the brain's ability to function properly. Fever can be a symptom of dehydration as the body tries to regulate its temperature. Weight loss is another possible consequence of dehydration as the body loses water and electrolytes. Lethargy can occur due to the lack of fluids and nutrients needed for energy production.

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  • 48. 

    What is the Free water protocol 

    • A.

      Order FWP

    • B.

      SLP helps in deciding who is a candidate

    • C.

      Water is freely offered

    • D.

      Oral care before first meal

    • E.

      Water is permitted until first bite of food

    • F.

      No water during a meal (thickened liquid only)

    • G.

      Meds given with prescribed liquid level or puree

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Order FWP
    B. SLP helps in deciding who is a candidate
    C. Water is freely offered
    D. Oral care before first meal
    E. Water is permitted until first bite of food
    F. No water during a meal (thickened liquid only)
    G. Meds given with prescribed liquid level or puree
    Explanation
    The Free Water Protocol (FWP) is a set of guidelines for patients with dysphagia to safely consume water. The protocol includes the following steps: Order FWP, SLP (Speech-Language Pathologist) helps in deciding who is a candidate, water is freely offered, oral care before the first meal, water is permitted until the first bite of food, no water during a meal (thickened liquid only), and medications are given with a prescribed liquid level or puree. These steps ensure that patients with dysphagia can safely consume water while minimizing the risk of aspiration or choking.

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  • 49. 

    What is the Frazier Water Protocol

    • A.

      After meals there is oral care

    • B.

      Wait 30 minutes until thin liquid is presented

    • C.

      Tube feeders can have water anytime as ling as oral care is performed

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. After meals there is oral care
    B. Wait 30 minutes until thin liquid is presented
    C. Tube feeders can have water anytime as ling as oral care is performed
    Explanation
    The Frazier Water Protocol is a set of guidelines for providing water to patients with dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) who are on a tube feeding regimen. According to the protocol, after meals, oral care should be performed. After that, the patient should wait for 30 minutes before being given thin liquid. However, tube feeders can have water anytime as long as oral care is performed. This protocol ensures that patients receive proper hydration while minimizing the risk of aspiration and choking.

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  • 50. 

    contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment. What are contraindications for Frazier free water 

    • A.

      Super Coughers

    • B.

      Those with active pneumonia

    • C.

      Brainstem infarcts

    • D.

      Parkinsonism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Super Coughers
    B. Those with active pneumonia
    C. Brainstem infarcts
    D. Parkinsonism

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • May 05, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 13, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Jbunney
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