1.
In the process map below which terms best describe the labeled items (a, b, c) of the process map?
Correct Answer
C. A=proces step; b=decision point; c=rework loop
2.
Average moving range is the preferred statistic over standard deviation when evaluating the dispersion of a data set.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The given statement is false. The average moving range is not the preferred statistic over standard deviation when evaluating the dispersion of a data set. Standard deviation is a commonly used measure of dispersion that takes into account the individual values in the data set, while the average moving range only considers the differences between consecutive values. Standard deviation provides a more comprehensive understanding of the dispersion in the data set, making it a preferred statistic over average moving range.
3.
Which of the following is a "red flag" for considering not going forward with a project?
Correct Answer
E. A & c
Explanation
A "red flag" for considering not going forward with a project would be if the project has already been done, as this would indicate that it is unnecessary to repeat the work. Additionally, if the project will have a negative impact on another area, it would also be a reason to reconsider proceeding with the project. Both of these factors suggest that the project may not be worthwhile or beneficial, making options "a & c" the correct answer.
4.
When at all possible, you should randomize the runs of your data collection for measurement system analysis.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Randomizing the runs of data collection for measurement system analysis helps to minimize the impact of any potential biases or confounding factors that may be present. By randomly assigning the order in which data is collected, any systematic errors or variations that could occur due to the specific sequence of measurements are reduced. This ensures that the measurement system analysis is more accurate and reliable, providing a better understanding of the true variability in the data. Therefore, it is recommended to randomize the runs whenever possible.
5.
One concern with attribute data is that it typically requires three to five times as much data per data set than continuous data when drawing an inference about the data set.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because attribute data, which consists of categorical or discrete variables, requires more data points than continuous data to draw meaningful conclusions. This is because attribute data is often represented by categories or levels, and each category needs to have a sufficient number of observations to accurately represent the population. In contrast, continuous data can be measured on a continuous scale and requires fewer data points to make inferences. Therefore, attribute data typically requires three to five times more data per data set compared to continuous data.
6.
Which of the following is not a preferred method for selecting a project? (Choose best answer)
Correct Answer
E. C&d
Explanation
The preferred methods for selecting a project involve linking the project to business objectives and choosing a project that aligns with departmental goals. These methods ensure that the project is in line with the overall strategic direction of the organization. On the other hand, soliciting vendor solutions to problems and having the superintendent suggest a single solution to the problem are not preferred methods as they do not consider the strategic objectives and goals of the organization. Therefore, option c&d, which includes these two methods, is not a preferred method for selecting a project.
7.
In the Pareto chart below, the black dotted line represents what?
Correct Answer
A. Cumulative percent of the data
Explanation
The black dotted line in the Pareto chart represents the cumulative percent of the data. This line shows the cumulative contribution of each category in the chart, allowing us to identify the most significant factors or categories. By analyzing the position of the line, we can determine the point at which the cumulative percent reaches a certain threshold or goal. Therefore, it helps us understand the overall distribution and prioritize areas for improvement in a project.
8.
Minitab worksheets function in the same way and are formatted in the exact same way as an excel worksheet?
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Minitab worksheets do not function in the same way as an Excel worksheet. While both are spreadsheet programs, they have different features and functionalities. Minitab is specifically designed for statistical analysis and data visualization, whereas Excel is a more general-purpose spreadsheet program. Additionally, the formatting options and tools available in Minitab may differ from those in Excel. Therefore, the statement that Minitab worksheets function in the same way and are formatted in the exact same way as an Excel worksheet is false.
9.
Relative to MSAs, the "Rs" in Gauge R&R stand for repeatability and reproducibility.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The "Rs" in Gauge R&R stand for repeatability and reproducibility. Repeatability refers to the consistency of measurements when the same operator measures the same part multiple times. Reproducibility refers to the consistency of measurements when different operators measure the same part. Therefore, the statement is true.
10.
Continuous and variable data are synonymous like discrete and attribute data are synonymous?
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Continuous and variable data are synonymous because both terms refer to data that can take on any value within a certain range. Continuous data is measured on a continuous scale and can have any value within that scale, while variable data refers to data that can vary or change. Therefore, both terms describe data that is not limited to specific values or categories, making them synonymous.
11.
On a control chart such as an I-MR what determines the upper and lower control limits of the two different charts)
Correct Answer
D. The process data
Explanation
The upper and lower control limits on a control chart, such as an I-MR chart, are determined by the process data. Control limits are calculated based on statistical analysis of the process data, specifically the mean and standard deviation. These limits help identify when the process is in control or out of control. The customer, process owner, and leader belt do not directly determine the control limits, although they may have an influence on the process and its performance.
12.
The value for R-squared indicates how well the reqression equation for a given set of data "fits" the data or the accuracy of the regression model (check one)
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The value for R-squared is a statistical measure that represents the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable that can be explained by the independent variable(s) in a regression model. A higher value of R-squared indicates a better fit of the regression equation to the data, meaning that the model can accurately predict the dependent variable based on the independent variable(s). Therefore, the statement "The value for R-squared indicates how well the regression equation fits the data or the accuracy of the regression model" is true.
13.
This high level mapping tool in the form of a matrix and a three step process map is used to show a process in a systematic breakdown of each step from supplier to customer:
Correct Answer
C. SIPOC
Explanation
SIPOC stands for Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer. It is a high level mapping tool that is used to show a process in a systematic breakdown of each step from supplier to customer. It helps in identifying the key elements of a process, including the suppliers of inputs, the process itself, and the customers who receive the outputs. By understanding these elements, organizations can better analyze and improve their processes. SIPOC provides a clear and concise overview of the process, making it an effective tool for process mapping and improvement.
14.
In hypothesis testing, a standard or default p-value evaluation limit (alpha risk) is set for rejecting or failing to rejecting the null hypothesis. If the p-value is less than typical value of _____, then reject the null?
Correct Answer
A. 0.05
Explanation
In hypothesis testing, a standard p-value evaluation limit (alpha risk) of 0.05 is commonly used. This means that if the p-value calculated from the data is less than 0.05, it is considered statistically significant and we reject the null hypothesis. A p-value less than 0.05 indicates that the observed data is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, providing evidence in favor of the alternative hypothesis. On the other hand, if the p-value is greater than or equal to 0.05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis as the evidence is not strong enough to support the alternative hypothesis.
15.
If the alpha risk (α) for a process is selected to be 0.10, then the P-value must be less than _____ to reject the null
Correct Answer
B. 0.10
Explanation
If the alpha risk (α) for a process is selected to be 0.10, then the P-value must be less than 0.10 to reject the null. The alpha risk represents the maximum level of significance at which the null hypothesis can be rejected. In hypothesis testing, the P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme as the one observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. Therefore, if the P-value is less than the alpha level (0.10 in this case), it means that the observed test statistic is unlikely to occur by chance alone, and we can reject the null hypothesis.
16.
If the process owner chooses to reduce the alpha risk (α) for a process to decrease the liabililty to the customer, then sample sizes for inferential statistics must increase or decrease: (choose one)
Correct Answer
B. Increase
Explanation
If the process owner chooses to reduce the alpha risk (α) for a process to decrease the liability to the customer, then sample sizes for inferential statistics must increase. This is because reducing the alpha risk means reducing the probability of making a Type I error, which is rejecting a true null hypothesis. To achieve this, a larger sample size is needed to provide more reliable and representative data, reducing the likelihood of obtaining misleading results. Increasing the sample size helps to improve the precision and accuracy of the inferential statistics, ultimately reducing the liability to the customer.
17.
What is the main purpose of a C&E matrix:
Correct Answer
B. To use the knowledge of the group to determine the critical few (xâ€™s)
Explanation
The main purpose of a C&E matrix is to use the knowledge of the group to determine the critical few (x's). This means that the matrix is used to identify and prioritize the key factors or variables that have the most significant impact on a particular outcome or result. By involving the group in this process, the C&E matrix helps to ensure that a comprehensive and well-informed analysis is conducted, leading to more effective decision-making and problem-solving.
18.
In the following control chart, the red squares with the number "1" above them represent what? Check all that apply.
Correct Answer
A. Outliers or out of control points
Explanation
The red squares with the number "1" above them represent outliers or out of control points. These are data points that deviate significantly from the normal pattern or trend in the control chart. They indicate potential issues or problems in the process being monitored.
19.
Six Sigma derives its name from +3 and -3 standard deviation above and below the mean of a standard normal distribution.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because Six Sigma is a statistical measure used to determine the quality of a process. It is based on the concept that if a process falls within six standard deviations of the mean, it is considered to be statistically stable and producing high-quality results. Therefore, the name "Six Sigma" comes from the fact that it represents the range of plus or minus three standard deviations above and below the mean of a standard normal distribution.
20.
What is an example of mistake proofing?
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
All of the options provided are examples of mistake proofing. Adding a flashing light as a visual indicator helps to draw attention and prevent errors. Conducting a 5S event of an area involves organizing and standardizing the workplace to eliminate potential mistakes. Using a color coding system helps to clearly identify and differentiate between different items or processes, reducing the chances of errors. Therefore, all of these options can be considered as examples of mistake proofing.
21.
Normal and Non-Normal data types have no effect on the performace metrics in Process Capability analysis
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
False. Normal and Non-Normal data types do have an effect on the performance metrics in Process Capability analysis. Normal data types follow a bell-shaped distribution, allowing for more accurate analysis, while non-normal data types do not adhere to this distribution and may require additional adjustments or transformations to accurately assess process capability. Therefore, the data type plays a crucial role in determining the validity and accuracy of the performance metrics in Process Capability analysis.
22.
The term "Poka-Yoke" is also know as...?
Correct Answer
A. Mistake proofing or errors to avoid
Explanation
Poka-Yoke is a Japanese term that refers to mistake proofing or errors to avoid. It is a technique used in lean manufacturing to prevent human errors and defects from occurring in the production process. The goal of Poka-Yoke is to design processes and systems in a way that makes it impossible or difficult for mistakes to happen. By implementing Poka-Yoke, organizations can improve quality, reduce waste, and increase efficiency.
23.
The C&E in a fishbone diagram is short for what?
Correct Answer
A. Cause and effect
Explanation
The C&E in a fishbone diagram stands for cause and effect. A fishbone diagram, also known as an Ishikawa diagram, is a visual tool used to identify and analyze the possible causes of a problem or issue. It helps to determine the root cause of a problem by categorizing potential causes into different branches, resembling the bones of a fish. The cause and effect relationship is crucial in understanding the factors contributing to a problem and finding effective solutions.
24.
Special Cause: Variation that is characterized by a pattern of variation that changes over time and may be show as outlier, drift, and shift in a process.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Special cause variation refers to variations in a process that are not part of the normal random variation. It is characterized by a pattern of variation that changes over time and may be shown as outliers, drift, and shifts in the process. The statement "True" indicates that the given explanation is correct and special cause variation does exist in a process.
25.
Process capability shows the ratio of the Voice of the Process (VOP) to the Voice of the Customer (VOC)?
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Process capability is a statistical measure that quantifies the ability of a process to consistently meet the specifications set by the customer. It compares the natural variation of the process output (VOP) to the tolerance limits defined by the customer (VOC). A process is considered capable if the ratio of VOP to VOC is less than or equal to 1. Therefore, the statement "Process capability shows the ratio of the Voice of the Process (VOP) to the Voice of the Customer (VOC)" is true.
26.
If you were the customer in a surgical process, you would want the surgeon to have a low alpha risk which equates to a high confidence that any defectives are caught before they are passed along to you, the customer.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
As a customer in a surgical process, you would want the surgeon to have a low alpha risk. This means that the surgeon has a high confidence in catching any defectives before they are passed along to you. In other words, a low alpha risk indicates that the surgeon is highly skilled and has a low chance of making mistakes during the surgical process. Therefore, it is important for the surgeon to have a low alpha risk in order to ensure your safety and the quality of the surgical outcome.
27.
This tool can be used to access normality along with basic statistics and distribution shape through values such as skewness and kurtosis.
Correct Answer
D. Graphical summary
Explanation
A graphical summary is a tool that provides a visual representation of data, allowing users to easily assess normality and understand basic statistics and distribution shape. It can display information such as skewness and kurtosis, which are measures of the symmetry and peakedness of a distribution. By examining the graphical summary, users can quickly identify any deviations from normality or patterns in the data that may require further investigation.
28.
When interpreting X-bar and Range charts, which chart should be evaluated first? X-bar or the Range charts.
Correct Answer
B. Range chart
Explanation
The Range chart should be evaluated first when interpreting X-bar and Range charts. The Range chart provides information about the variation or dispersion within each subgroup of data. By analyzing the Range chart first, we can determine if the process is stable and if there are any out-of-control points. This information is crucial for interpreting the X-bar chart accurately and making any necessary adjustments or improvements to the process.
29.
Successive differences betrween individual data points is called the: ?
Correct Answer
B. Moving range
Explanation
The moving range refers to the calculation of the differences between consecutive data points in a dataset. It is used to analyze the variation or dispersion in the data over time. By calculating the moving range, we can identify patterns or trends in the data and understand how it changes from one point to the next. This measure is commonly used in quality control and process improvement to monitor and assess the stability or consistency of a process.
30.
Based on the p-value from the normality test below, the data is normal? (Hint: In normality hypothesis the null (Ho) is that the data is normal)
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given answer is true because if the p-value from the normality test is greater than the significance level (usually 0.05), we fail to reject the null hypothesis (Ho) and conclude that the data is normally distributed.
31.
A customer requires 24 parts per day and the factory works schedules 480 minutes per work day to produce the customer parts. What is the takt time per part?
Correct Answer
B. 20 minutes per part
Explanation
Takt time is the time available to produce one unit in order to meet customer demand. In this case, the customer requires 24 parts per day and the factory works for 480 minutes per work day. To calculate the takt time, we divide the total available time (480 minutes) by the customer demand (24 parts). This gives us a takt time of 20 minutes per part.
32.
Box Plots are a good tool for showing hidden factories in process mapping?
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Box plots are not used for showing hidden factories in process mapping. Instead, box plots are a graphical representation of data that display the distribution, variability, and outliers of a dataset. They are commonly used to compare and analyze the distribution of data across different groups or categories. Process mapping, on the other hand, is a technique used to visually represent the steps and flow of a process. Therefore, the statement that box plots are a good tool for showing hidden factories in process mapping is false.
33.
The "Funnel Effect refers to reducing people on the project team to focus on only one problem..
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because the "Funnel Effect" actually refers to the opposite - it is the process of narrowing down a broad range of ideas or options into a smaller, more focused set. It involves gradually eliminating less promising ideas or solutions to ultimately arrive at the best one. It is a technique used to streamline decision-making and problem-solving processes, rather than reducing people on the project team to focus on only one problem.
34.
In control charts, the standard deviations lines above and below the process data are specified by the customer and not by the variation in the data?
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because in control charts, the standard deviations lines above and below the process data are not specified by the customer. Instead, they are determined based on statistical calculations and analysis of the data. These lines, known as control limits, are used to identify if the process is in control or out of control. They are typically set at a certain number of standard deviations away from the mean, such as 3 standard deviations. The customer does not have direct input in determining these control limits.
35.
The ___________ should simply and concisely define the problem, the primary metric, and the potential benefits.
Correct Answer
D. Project charter
Explanation
A project charter is a document that outlines the project's objectives, scope, and deliverables. It provides a clear and concise definition of the problem that the project aims to solve, the primary metric that will be used to measure success, and the potential benefits that can be achieved through the project. The project charter serves as a guiding document for the project team and stakeholders, ensuring that everyone is aligned on the project's goals and objectives.
36.
A cause and effect diagram or fishbone identifies and graphically displays the following:
Correct Answer
C. Many causes for a single effect
Explanation
A cause and effect diagram, also known as a fishbone diagram, is a visual tool that helps identify and display the various causes that contribute to a single effect. It allows for the exploration of multiple potential causes and their relationship to the effect being analyzed. By using this diagram, one can easily identify and understand the complex web of causes that lead to a specific outcome or effect.
37.
Which of the following is not a standard form of waste identification?
Correct Answer
C. Recycling
Explanation
Recycling is not a standard form of waste identification because it refers to the process of converting waste materials into reusable materials. Waste identification typically involves categorizing waste based on its characteristics, such as motion, processing, or time. Recycling, on the other hand, focuses on the action of reusing waste materials, rather than identifying and categorizing them.
38.
The following are types of waste except?
Correct Answer
D. Meetings, throughput, and tact time
Explanation
The given answer, "Meetings, throughput, and tact time," is the correct answer because it lists three types of waste that are not commonly recognized in the context of Lean manufacturing and process improvement. The other answer choices include types of waste that are commonly identified in Lean, such as inventory, waiting, motion, defects, overprocessing, and overproduction. However, meetings, throughput, and tact time are not typically considered types of waste in this context.
39.
Six Sigma ensures the output of a process is defect free through the Elimination of Delays
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Six Sigma is a methodology used to improve the quality of processes by reducing defects and variability. It focuses on identifying and eliminating sources of variation in order to achieve consistent and predictable results. The elimination of delays is not the primary objective of Six Sigma. Instead, it aims to reduce defects and improve overall process performance. Therefore, the statement that Six Sigma ensures the output of a process is defect-free through the elimination of delays is false.
40.
Repeatability is the variation in measurement quantified by the same operator using the same measuring device or the same measuring process to measure the identical characteric of the same part or item? (Also known as "within" variation)
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Repeatability refers to the consistency or variation in measurements when the same operator uses the same measuring device or process to measure the same characteristic of a part or item. It is also known as "within" variation. Therefore, the statement is true.
41.
Setup Reduction (SMED) tries to convert what?
Correct Answer
C. Internal activities to external activities
Explanation
Setup Reduction, also known as Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED), aims to convert internal activities to external activities. This means that the goal is to minimize the time and effort required for setup or changeover processes by shifting as many tasks as possible from being performed internally (within the machine or process) to being conducted externally (before or after the machine or process). By doing so, setup time can be significantly reduced, leading to increased productivity and efficiency.
42.
Visual inspections that quantify defects with acceptance criteria typically use this type of data? (Choose one)
Correct Answer
C. Attribute data
Explanation
Visual inspections that quantify defects with acceptance criteria typically use attribute data. Attribute data refers to data that can be categorized into a finite number of distinct categories or attributes. In the context of visual inspections, defects are usually classified into different categories such as presence or absence of a defect, type of defect, or severity of the defect. This type of data is suitable for visual inspections as it allows for easy classification and quantification of defects based on predetermined acceptance criteria.
43.
If the p-value for a standard normality plot is close to or less than 0.05, then the belt can rely on what to assume normality about the distribution?
Correct Answer
D. A&B
Explanation
If the p-value for a standard normality plot is close to or less than 0.05, it indicates that there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis of normality. This means that the distribution does not follow a normal distribution. However, if the p-value is greater than 0.05, it suggests that there is not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis, and we can assume normality about the distribution. In this case, both the "Fat Pencil" test (evaluation of the ends of the distribution shape) and bilateral symmetry can be relied upon to assume normality.
44.
Alpha risk, or the risk of detecting a defective when one does not exist, is also referred to as a what?
Correct Answer
B. False positive
Explanation
Alpha risk, also known as a false positive, refers to the risk of mistakenly detecting a defect or anomaly when there is actually none present. It is the probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis in a statistical test and concluding that there is a significant difference or effect when there isn't one. In other words, it is the likelihood of a type I error, where a false positive result is obtained.
45.
Lean projects typically focus on elimination of variability.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Basic Six Sigma
46.
Green Belts should confer with their active Black Belt mentor when making final decisions on what tools are applicable to use in their projects.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Basic Six Sigma
47.
When conducting process discovery through lean tools such as process mapping, the lead belt should…?
Correct Answer
B. Seek concensus from all applicable team members
Explanation
When conducting process discovery through lean tools such as process mapping, it is important for the lead belt to seek consensus from all applicable team members. This ensures that all perspectives and insights are considered, leading to a more comprehensive and accurate process map. Working on the map with only the process owner may result in a biased or incomplete representation of the process. Similarly, working on the map alone in case of disagreement may lead to a lack of collaboration and potential oversight. Moving on to other tools without seeking consensus would neglect the valuable input and expertise of the team members.
48.
What type of control charts are acceptable for use with attribute data?
Correct Answer
A. U or P charts
Explanation
U or P charts are acceptable for use with attribute data because they are specifically designed for monitoring the proportion of nonconforming items or the number of defects per unit. These control charts are suitable when the data is binary or discrete, such as pass/fail or presence/absence. U charts are used when the sample sizes are variable, while P charts are used when the sample sizes are constant. These charts provide a visual representation of the process stability and help identify any special causes of variation.
49.
The ability of multiple operators to produce similar average measures for multiple parts, with minimal variability in the average measured values is called…?
Correct Answer
B. Reproducibility
Explanation
Reproducibility refers to the ability of multiple operators to produce similar average measures for multiple parts, with minimal variability in the average measured values. This means that different operators using the same measurement technique should obtain consistent results, indicating a high level of agreement and reliability in the measurement process.
50.
What is the percent variation contribution for the measurement system shown in the following Minitab results? Is it an acceptable MSA? Gage R&R %ContributionSource VarComp (of VarComp)Total Gage R&R 0.0035556 20.38 Repeatability 0.0035556 20.38 Reproducibility 0.0000000 0.00 Operator 0.0000000 0.00Part-To-Part 0.0138889 79.62Total Variation 0.0174444 100.00
Correct Answer
A. 20.38, no
Explanation
The percent variation contribution for the measurement system shown in the Minitab results is 20.38%. This indicates that 20.38% of the total variation in the measurements is due to the Gage R&R (repeatability and reproducibility) components. Since this value is relatively high, it suggests that the measurement system is not acceptable.