Are integrated with the financial accounting system
Enable governments to demonstrate compliance with laws and to communicate performance effectiveness
Are adopted by governments after required public hearings
All of the above
Heads of operating departments prepare budget requests
The chief executive (mayor or city manager, as appropriate) formally adopts the budget, thus giving it the force of law
One or more public budget hearings are held
Budget officer and other central administrators review and make adjustments to departmental requests
The accounting system should provide the basis for appropriate budgetary control
Budgetary comparison schedules should be presented as required supplementary information for the General Fund and each major special revenue fund that has a legally adopted budget
Annual budgets should be adopted by each government
All of the above
Can be presented as required supplementary information (RSI) or as a statement in the basic financial statements
Must be a schedule included as part of RSI
Continues to be a statement included in the basic financial statements
Is no longer required
There are few examples of successful improvements in budgeting processes that have resulted in higher quality and performance of governments
The GFOA's Distinguished Budget Presentation Award Program has spurred many governments to improve their budgeting processes and be recognized for it
Some states have passed legislation that requires performance measures, both financial and nonfinancial
Governments have adapted many private sector budgeting tools in an attempt to improve efficiency and deliver higher quality services to taxpayers
Is a useful tool for measuring the cost of key administrative office activities
Helps identify lower cost alternatives
Aids in reducing the cost of service outcomes
All of the above
Must adhere to GASB SEA guidance
Must adhere to GASB SEA guidance only if the SEA report is part of the CAFR
Must adhere to guidance provided by the Association of Government Accountants (AGA), because GASB has not issued standards addressing SEA
May refer to guidance provided by the GASB, the AGA, or other professional organizations
Measures that relate the quantity or cost of resources used to units of output
Measures that relate to the amount of financial and nonfinancial resources used in a program or process
Measures that relate costs to outcomes
Measures that reflect either the quantity or quality of a service provided
OMB Circular A-102, "Grants and Cooperative Agreements with State and Local Governments."
OMB Circular A-110, "Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Other Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations."
OMB Circular A-122, "Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations."
OMB Circular A-133, "Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations."
An annual budget must be adopted using generally accepted accounting principles.
The accounting system should provide the basis for appropriate budgetary control.
Budgetary comparison schedules should be presented as required supplementary information for the General Fund and each major special revenue fund for which an annual budget has been adopted.
The budgetary comparison schedule should present both the original and the final appropriated budgets for the reporting period.
Governmental fund type
Fund of a government
Governmental fund type except capital projects funds.
The chief financial officer
The legislative budget analyst
The budget officer
The director of finance
Number of crimes investigated
Value of property lost due to crime
Hours of patrol
Number of personnel hours expended
Cost Accounting Standards Board standards.
Office of Management and Budget cost circulars.
Financial Accounting Standards Board standards.
Governmental Accounting Standards Board standards.