AP European History Exam Sample Learning Quiz!

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AP European History Exam Sample Learning Quiz! - Quiz

Quiz Description


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella accomplished all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Encouraging exploration of the New World

    • B.

      Driving the Moors from their enclaves in Spain

    • C.

      Creating a stronger central monarchy, though the two kingdoms retained some independence

    • D.

      Strengthening Spanish Catholicism

    • E.

      Gaining the support of Spain's Jewish community

    Correct Answer
    E. Gaining the support of Spain's Jewish community
    Explanation
    The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella accomplished all of the mentioned goals except gaining the support of Spain's Jewish community. While they did achieve the other objectives such as encouraging exploration of the New World, driving the Moors from Spain, creating a stronger central monarchy, and strengthening Spanish Catholicism, they did not gain the support of Spain's Jewish community. In fact, during their reign, they issued the Alhambra Decree in 1492, which expelled the Jews from Spain and led to the Spanish Inquisition.

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  • 2. 

    Desiderius Erasmus, a Dutch Renaissance humanist, wanted to:

    • A.

      Elevate the Classics above all other literauture, including the bible

    • B.

      Unite Classical and Christian ideals

    • C.

      Put an end to all social hiearchy

    • D.

      Lead a revolt against the Catholic Church

    • E.

      Return Europe to the days of the Roman Empire

    Correct Answer
    B. Unite Classical and Christian ideals
    Explanation
    Erasmus, as a Dutch Renaissance humanist, aimed to unite Classical and Christian ideals. He believed that the study of the classics, such as ancient Greek and Roman literature, could enhance and complement Christian theology. Erasmus sought to reconcile the wisdom and values of the ancient world with the teachings of Christianity, promoting a harmonious synthesis of the two. By integrating these ideals, he hoped to contribute to the intellectual and spiritual development of individuals and society as a whole, fostering a more holistic understanding of knowledge and faith.

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  • 3. 

    Compared to Italian humanists, northern humanists were more devoted to ________ reforms:

    • A.

      Religious

    • B.

      Political

    • C.

      Social

    • D.

      Economic

    • E.

      Intellectual

    Correct Answer
    A. Religious
    Explanation
    Northern humanists were more devoted to religious reforms compared to Italian humanists. This can be attributed to the fact that the Northern Renaissance was heavily influenced by the Protestant Reformation, which sought to reform and challenge the practices of the Catholic Church. Northern humanists, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin, played significant roles in advocating for religious reforms, including the translation of the Bible into vernacular languages and the promotion of individual interpretation of scripture. In contrast, Italian humanism focused more on the revival of classical learning and the arts, rather than religious concerns.

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  • 4. 

    The word "Renaissance" means:

    • A.

      Flowering

    • B.

      Genius

    • C.

      Rebirth

    • D.

      New Day

    • E.

      Eruption

    Correct Answer
    C. Rebirth
    Explanation
    The word "Renaissance" refers to a period in history characterized by a renewed interest in art, culture, and learning. It is derived from the French word "renaître," which means "to be reborn." During the Renaissance, there was a revival of classical knowledge and a shift towards humanism, marking a rebirth of intellectual and artistic pursuits. Therefore, the correct answer is "Rebirth."

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  • 5. 

    A controversy over _________ rocked German humanism:

    • A.

      The use of perspective in art

    • B.

      The drive for German unification

    • C.

      Scholarly work on the Hebrew Bible and Jewish grammar

    • D.

      The growing power of monastic orders

    • E.

      The Golden Bull

    Correct Answer
    C. Scholarly work on the Hebrew Bible and Jewish grammar
    Explanation
    During the time of German humanism, there was a controversy surrounding scholarly work on the Hebrew Bible and Jewish grammar. This controversy caused a significant impact on German humanism. However, it is unclear what specific aspects of this scholarly work caused the controversy or what the implications were.

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  • 6. 

    This family dominated Renaissance Florence:

    • A.

      Sforza

    • B.

      Borgia

    • C.

      Savonarola

    • D.

      Ludovico

    • E.

      Medici

    Correct Answer
    E. Medici
    Explanation
    The Medici family was a prominent and influential family during the Renaissance in Florence. They were known for their wealth, political power, and patronage of the arts. The Medici family played a crucial role in the cultural and economic development of Florence, supporting artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. They also held important political positions, including multiple members becoming rulers of Florence. Their influence extended beyond Florence, as they had strong connections with other European rulers. Overall, the Medici family's dominance in Renaissance Florence is well-documented and recognized.

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  • 7. 

    The great Italian city-states were:

    • A.

      Kept out of lucrative trade with the East

    • B.

      Independent, and frequently squabbling with each other

    • C.

      Dominated by kings

    • D.

      Dominated by territorial princes

    • E.

      Ruled by foreign princes

    Correct Answer
    B. Independent, and frequently squabbling with each other
    Explanation
    The great Italian city-states were independent entities that often engaged in conflicts and disputes with one another. This suggests that they were not dominated by kings, territorial princes, or foreign princes. Additionally, the fact that they were frequently squabbling indicates that they were not kept out of lucrative trade with the East, as they would have had to engage in commerce and competition with each other. Therefore, the correct answer is that the great Italian city-states were independent and frequently squabbling with each other.

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  • 8. 

    The laity began to replace the clergy as educational and cultural leaders due to: (more than one answer)

    • A.

      The spread of humanism

    • B.

      Literature that disproved church theories

    • C.

      Struggles within the church

    • D.

      The dwindling power of the papacy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The spread of humanism
    C. Struggles within the church
    Explanation
    The spread of humanism during this time period emphasized the importance of education and individualism, which led to the laity taking on more leadership roles in education and culture. Additionally, the struggles within the church, such as corruption and the Protestant Reformation, weakened the authority and power of the clergy, allowing the laity to step in and fill the void.

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  • 9. 

    Italy's decline at the end of the fifteenth century was precipitated by the:

    • A.

      French invasion of Italy

    • B.

      Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

    • C.

      Revival of the papacy as a political force

    • D.

      Alliance between the papacy and the Habsburgs

    • E.

      The Reformation

    Correct Answer
    A. French invasion of Italy
    Explanation
    The French invasion of Italy was a significant factor in Italy's decline at the end of the fifteenth century. The invasion, led by King Charles VIII in 1494, brought about a period of political instability and warfare in Italy. The French troops looted and pillaged cities, causing widespread destruction and economic decline. This invasion also disrupted the balance of power among the Italian states, as various factions sought alliances with the French or resisted their advances. The French invasion marked the beginning of a series of foreign invasions and occupations in Italy, which further weakened the country and hindered its political and economic development.

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  • 10. 

    Humanists beliveved that education should:

    • A.

      Focus on the vernacular language instead of Latin and Greek

    • B.

      Give strongest emphasis to systematic theology

    • C.

      Be equally avaiable to men and women

    • D.

      Promote individual virtue and public service

    • E.

      Be available to people of all social classes

    Correct Answer
    D. Promote individual virtue and public service
    Explanation
    Humanists believed that education should promote individual virtue and public service. This means that they believed education should not only focus on academic knowledge, but also on developing moral character and a sense of responsibility towards society. They believed that education should not be limited to a specific social class or gender, but should be available to everyone. By promoting individual virtue and public service, humanists aimed to create well-rounded individuals who would contribute positively to their communities.

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  • 11. 

    Machiavelli's solution to Italy's problems was:

    • A.

      The establishment of democracy in each city-state

    • B.

      A renewal of religious fervor

    • C.

      The unification of Italy under a single, strong leader

    • D.

      An alliance between Italy and Spain

    • E.

      The establishment of dictatorships in each individual city-state

    Correct Answer
    C. The unification of Italy under a single, strong leader
    Explanation
    Machiavelli's solution to Italy's problems was the unification of Italy under a single, strong leader. This suggests that Machiavelli believed that Italy's fragmented city-states needed to come together and be led by a powerful figure in order to overcome their challenges. This approach would provide stability, strength, and centralization, which Machiavelli believed would ultimately lead to the success and prosperity of Italy as a whole.

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  • 12. 

    Renaissance art aimed to represent natural beauty through Chlaroscuro and linear perspective:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During the Renaissance period, artists strived to depict the natural world as accurately as possible. They achieved this by using techniques such as Chiaroscuro, which is the contrast between light and dark to create depth and volume in their artwork. Additionally, they employed linear perspective, a method that creates the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Both of these techniques were widely used by Renaissance artists to accurately represent natural beauty, making the statement "True" correct.

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  • 13. 

    Medieval art was known for being abstract and mossaic:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During the medieval period, art was indeed known for its abstract and mosaic-like characteristics. This can be seen in various forms of art such as stained glass windows, illuminated manuscripts, and intricate stone carvings on cathedrals. The use of abstract and mosaic techniques allowed artists to convey religious and symbolic meanings, often depicting biblical scenes and saints. These art forms were highly decorative and ornamental, reflecting the religious and cultural beliefs of the time. Therefore, the statement "Medieval art was known for being abstract and mosaic" is true.

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  • 14. 

    The French Estates General was a representative Council of:

    • A.

      Townspeople and nobles

    • B.

      Landowners

    • C.

      High clergy and royal officials

    • D.

      Nobles and their allies

    • E.

      Lawyers and advocates

    Correct Answer
    A. Townspeople and nobles
    Explanation
    The French Estates General was a representative council that included both townspeople and nobles. This council was established in order to advise the king and help make decisions regarding taxation and other important matters. The inclusion of both townspeople and nobles ensured that a variety of perspectives and interests were represented in the council, allowing for a more balanced and fair decision-making process.

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  • 15. 

    As a result of the Black Death:

    • A.

      Skilled artisans found little demand for their products

    • B.

      Noble landowners gained increased control over serfs

    • C.

      Women's status and rights increased

    • D.

      Cities became ghost towns, never to return to their former glory

    • E.

      Wages for farm laborers and artisans increased

    Correct Answer
    E. Wages for farm laborers and artisans increased
    Explanation
    As a result of the Black Death, there was a significant decrease in the labor force due to the high mortality rate. This scarcity of workers led to an increase in demand for labor, particularly in agriculture and skilled crafts. With fewer workers available, farm laborers and artisans were able to negotiate higher wages as they were in higher demand. This increase in wages was a direct consequence of the reduced supply of labor and the increased bargaining power of workers.

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  • 16. 

    One explaination for France's defeats in the first two phases of the Hundred Years War is:

    • A.

      France's relatively small population

    • B.

      France's relatively fragmented, decentralized state

    • C.

      The abscence of large urban centers in France

    • D.

      The unwillingness of French kings to spend money on large armies

    • E.

      Popular opposition in France to the war

    Correct Answer
    B. France's relatively fragmented, decentralized state
    Explanation
    France's relatively fragmented and decentralized state can be seen as an explanation for their defeats in the first two phases of the Hundred Years War. This fragmentation and decentralization would have made it difficult for France to coordinate and mobilize their forces effectively. With power being divided among different regions and nobles, it would have been challenging to achieve a unified strategy and response to the English attacks. This lack of centralized control and coordination could have weakened France's military capabilities and made it harder for them to mount a successful defense against the English forces.

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  • 17. 

    Joan of Arc gave the French:

    • A.

      A sense of national identity and destiny

    • B.

      A skilled military leader

    • C.

      New allies within the church

    • D.

      Hope, but no immediate success

    • E.

      Access to a vast peasant army

    Correct Answer
    A. A sense of national identity and destiny
    Explanation
    Joan of Arc's actions and leadership during the Hundred Years' War instilled a sense of national identity and destiny among the French people. She rallied the French troops, inspired patriotism, and emphasized the importance of defending their homeland. Joan's victories and determination gave hope to the French, despite not achieving immediate success. Her influence also garnered new allies within the church, further strengthening the French cause. Additionally, she had access to a vast peasant army, which provided crucial support in the war effort. Overall, Joan of Arc's impact on France was instrumental in shaping a national identity and instilling a sense of destiny among its people.

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  • 18. 

    As a result of the Black Death it is estimated that the population of Western Europe was reduced by ___ percent:

    • A.

      20

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      40

    • D.

      50

    Correct Answer
    C. 40
    Explanation
    The Black Death, a devastating pandemic in the 14th century, caused a significant decline in the population of Western Europe. Estimates suggest that the population was reduced by 40%. This catastrophic event, caused by the bubonic plague, resulted in widespread death and had profound social, economic, and cultural impacts on the region. The high mortality rate caused by the Black Death led to labor shortages, social upheaval, and changes in power dynamics, ultimately reshaping the course of European history.

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  • 19. 

    Which social group suffered the greatest decline in power as a result of the plague:

    • A.

      Noble landowners

    • B.

      Urban elites

    • C.

      Peasants

    • D.

      Clergy

    • E.

      Artisans

    Correct Answer
    A. Noble landowners
    Explanation
    During the time of the plague, the noble landowners suffered the greatest decline in power. The plague caused a significant decrease in the population, leading to a shortage of laborers. As a result, the power dynamics shifted, and the peasants gained more bargaining power. The nobles, who relied on their control over land and the labor force, lost their influence and wealth. This decline in power had long-lasting effects on the noble class, as the feudal system began to weaken and the authority of the nobles diminished.

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  • 20. 

    According to Unam Sanctum:

    • A.

      Temporal (Secular) authorites were subject to the spiritual power of the church

    • B.

      Temporal and spiritual authorities enjoyed equal power

    • C.

      States should control their own churches, but ultimate authority rested in the papacy

    • D.

      All state churches should be disolved

    • E.

      All power on earth emanated from the papacy

    Correct Answer
    A. Temporal (Secular) authorites were subject to the spiritual power of the church
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Temporal (Secular) authorites were subject to the spiritual power of the church." This means that the secular authorities, such as kings and rulers, were under the authority and control of the church. The church held power over them and had the ability to influence their decisions and actions. This idea is in line with the concept of the separation of church and state, where the church has authority in spiritual matters while the state has authority in secular matters.

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  • 21. 

    Both the French and English king were upset by the pope's claim that he had a right to:

    • A.

      Send their armies into battle

    • B.

      Excommunicate citizens of those countries

    • C.

      Require that mass be said in the vernacular language

    • D.

      Deny kings the righ to tax the clergy or try them in national courts

    • E.

      Select the king's successor if there was dispute over who was the proper heir

    Correct Answer
    D. Deny kings the righ to tax the clergy or try them in national courts
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the pope claimed the right to deny kings the right to tax the clergy or try them in national courts. This means that the pope believed that the clergy should not be subject to the authority of the king when it came to taxation or legal matters. The pope wanted to maintain control over the clergy and ensure that they were not subject to secular laws or taxes imposed by the king. This would have given the pope significant power and authority over the clergy and would have limited the power of the king in these areas.

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  • 22. 

    In his Defender of the Peace, Marsilius of Padua stressed the:

    • A.

      Independence of the papacy

    • B.

      Independence and autonomy of secular governments

    • C.

      Role of the church in preventing war

    • D.

      Need for a unified Christendom

    • E.

      Valor and righteouness of Pope John XXIII

    Correct Answer
    B. Independence and autonomy of secular governments
    Explanation
    Marsilius of Padua emphasized the independence and autonomy of secular governments in his work Defender of the Peace. This means that he believed that secular governments should have the power to govern themselves without interference from religious authorities, such as the papacy. He argued for a separation of church and state, advocating for the authority of secular rulers to make decisions and enact laws without religious influence. This idea was significant during a time when the power of the papacy was often seen as dominant and influential in political matters.

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  • 23. 

    All of the following are true of the Lollards EXCEPT that they:

    • A.

      Preached in the vernacular

    • B.

      Distributed translations of the bible in English

    • C.

      Thought the clergy should hold to a vow of poverty

    • D.

      Were sometimes put to death for their views

    • E.

      Believed that Christ was meerly a man, rather than the son of God

    Correct Answer
    E. Believed that Christ was meerly a man, rather than the son of God
    Explanation
    The Lollards believed that the clergy should hold to a vow of poverty, distributed translations of the Bible in English, preached in the vernacular, and were sometimes put to death for their views. However, they did not believe that Christ was merely a man, rather than the son of God.

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  • 24. 

    Annates were:

    • A.

      A payment that would get the person who paid out of Purgatory

    • B.

      The amount that each villiage was required to send to Rome every year

    • C.

      The first year's revenue from a church office, or benefice

    • D.

      Papal representatives whom kings paid an annual fee

    • E.

      The dowry paid by noble families when their daughter entered a convent

    Correct Answer
    C. The first year's revenue from a church office, or benefice
    Explanation
    Annates were the first year's revenue from a church office, or benefice. This means that when someone was appointed to a church position, they would have to pay a certain amount of their earnings from the first year to the higher authority. This practice was common during the medieval times and was a way for the church to collect funds. It was also a source of income for the higher authorities within the church hierarchy.

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  • 25. 

    The conciliar movement:

    • A.

      Was highly popular with popes

    • B.

      Reinforced the doctrine of unam sanctum

    • C.

      Helped spread the idea that lay people and secular governments should have more say in church policy

    • D.

      Promoted reconciliation between kings and popes

    • E.

      Attempted to bridge the growing conflict between Christendom and Islam

    Correct Answer
    C. Helped spread the idea that lay people and secular governments should have more say in church policy
    Explanation
    The conciliar movement was a 14th and 15th-century reform movement within the Catholic Church that aimed to address corruption and abuses of power. It advocated for the idea that church policy should not be solely controlled by the pope and the clergy, but that lay people and secular governments should also have a say. This movement sought to democratize the decision-making process within the church and promote a more inclusive approach to governance. By spreading the idea that non-religious authorities should have a role in church affairs, the conciliar movement challenged the traditional hierarchy and power structure of the church.

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