Air & Wind Quiz

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Air & Wind Quiz - Quiz

Air is a mixture of gaseous substances that make up the atmosphere whereas wind is air in motion. Anemology is the study of winds. It helps one to get knowledge of the winds, its movement and effects. The quiz below will test how much know about winds and help expand your knowledge.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following change of state of water absorbs energy? 

    • A.

      Evaporation

    • B.

      Condensation

    • C.

      Freezing

    • D.

      Deposition

    • E.

      Albedo

    Correct Answer
    A. Evaporation
    Explanation
    Evaporation is the process in which water changes from a liquid state to a gaseous state. During evaporation, energy is absorbed from the surroundings in order to break the intermolecular forces between water molecules and convert them into vapor. This energy is in the form of heat and is required to overcome the attractive forces between water molecules. Therefore, evaporation is the change of state of water that absorbs energy.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is the primary control of how much water vapor the air can hold? 

    • A.

      Number of particles present

    • B.

      Temperature of the air

    • C.

      Specific heat of water

    • D.

      Amount of dry gases present

    Correct Answer
    B. Temperature of the air
    Explanation
    The primary control of how much water vapor the air can hold is the temperature of the air. As the temperature increases, the air can hold more water vapor. This is because warmer air has more energy, allowing water molecules to move faster and escape into the gas phase. On the other hand, colder air has less energy, causing water vapor to condense into liquid form. Therefore, the temperature of the air directly affects the amount of water vapor it can hold.

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  • 3. 

    When the relative humidity is 100 percent: 

    • A.

      The absolute humidity is greater than the relative humidity

    • B.

      The air is saturated

    • C.

      Evaporation begins

    • D.

      The mixing ration is equal to the relative humidity

    • E.

      The absolute humidity is equal to the relative humidity

    Correct Answer
    B. The air is saturated
    Explanation
    When the relative humidity is 100 percent, it means that the air is holding the maximum amount of water vapor it can at a given temperature. This indicates that the air is saturated, meaning it cannot hold any more moisture. At this point, evaporation begins to slow down as the air cannot absorb any additional water vapor. Therefore, the correct answer is that the air is saturated.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following would cause relative humidity to increase?

    • A.

      Adiabatic warming of the air

    • B.

      Cooling the air

    • C.

      Removing water vapor from the air

    • D.

      Decreasing the mixing ratio

    Correct Answer
    B. Cooling the air
    Explanation
    Cooling the air causes relative humidity to increase because as air temperature decreases, it reaches its dew point, which is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated with water vapor. When the air is cooled below its dew point, the excess water vapor in the air condenses into liquid water, increasing the relative humidity.

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  • 5. 

    During a clear, calm day, the relative humidity would tend to ____ from sunrise to early afternoon? 

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    • C.

      Remain Constant

    • D.

      It is impossible to determine

    Correct Answer
    B. Decrease
    Explanation
    During a clear, calm day, the relative humidity would tend to decrease from sunrise to early afternoon. This is because as the day progresses and the temperature rises, the air can hold more moisture. As a result, the relative humidity, which is the amount of moisture in the air compared to the maximum amount it can hold at a given temperature, decreases.

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  • 6. 

    In which of the following situations is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere the highest?

    • A.

      When the relative humidity is 50%

    • B.

      When the relative humidity is 70%

    • C.

      When the relative humidity is 90%

    • D.

      We cannot tell without knowing the temperature in each situation

    • E.

      The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is the same for all of these situations

    Correct Answer
    D. We cannot tell without knowing the temperature in each situation
  • 7. 

    What is the temperature to which a parcel of air would need to be cooled to reach saturation? 

    • A.

      Freezing point

    • B.

      Wet-bulb temperature

    • C.

      Dew-point temperature

    • D.

      Air temperature

    Correct Answer
    C. Dew-point temperature
    Explanation
    The dew-point temperature is the temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor and condensation begins to form. When a parcel of air is cooled to its dew-point temperature, it reaches its saturation point and cannot hold any more moisture. This is the temperature at which dew, fog, or clouds may form. Therefore, the correct answer is dew-point temperature.

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  • 8. 

    What kind of weather conditions prevail when a large difference exists between the dry- and wet-bulb temperature readings? 

    • A.

      Dry

    • B.

      Hot

    • C.

      Cold

    • D.

      Humid

    • E.

      Only b and d

    Correct Answer
    A. Dry
    Explanation
    When there is a large difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature readings, it indicates low humidity in the air. This means that the air is dry and not humid.

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  • 9. 

    Adiabatic temperature changes occur as a result of: 

    • A.

      The addition or removal of heat energy to an air parcel from the surrounding atmosphere

    • B.

      Changes in the humidity of the air parcel with the surrounding atmosphere

    • C.

      A rising parcel of air cooling through expansion or a sinking parcel warming through compression

    • D.

      Heating from the surface of the Earth

    Correct Answer
    C. A rising parcel of air cooling through expansion or a sinking parcel warming through compression
    Explanation
    Adiabatic temperature changes occur when a parcel of air rises or sinks in the atmosphere. As the air parcel rises, it expands and cools due to the decrease in atmospheric pressure. This is known as adiabatic cooling. On the other hand, when the air parcel sinks, it compresses and warms due to the increase in atmospheric pressure. This is known as adiabatic warming. Therefore, the correct answer is that a rising parcel of air cools through expansion or a sinking parcel warms through compression.

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  • 10. 

    The wet adiabatic lapse rate is different from the dry adiabatic lapse rate because: 

    • A.

      An air parcel expands more rapidly when saturated.

    • B.

      Latent heat is released inside an air parcel of rising saturated air.

    • C.

      Saturated air is always unstable.

    • D.

      Unsaturated air is always unstable.

    Correct Answer
    B. Latent heat is released inside an air parcel of rising saturated air.
    Explanation
    When an air parcel rises and becomes saturated, the water vapor inside it starts to condense, releasing latent heat. This release of latent heat warms the surrounding air, causing the saturated parcel to cool at a slower rate compared to a dry parcel. This slower cooling rate is what differentiates the wet adiabatic lapse rate from the dry adiabatic lapse rate.

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  • 11. 

    The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is cooling by: 

    • A.

      Contact with a cold surface

    • B.

      The release of latent heat

    • C.

      The compression of air

    • D.

      The loss of radiation

    • E.

      The expansion of air

    Correct Answer
    E. The expansion of air
    Explanation
    When air expands, it cools down. This is because as air molecules spread out and move farther apart, they have less energy and therefore lower temperature. The process of expansion of air is an important factor in cloud formation because it leads to cooling of the air. As the air cools, it becomes saturated with water vapor, causing the water vapor to condense into tiny water droplets or ice crystals, forming clouds. So, the expansion of air plays a crucial role in the cooling and condensation processes that result in cloud formation in the atmosphere.

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  • 12. 

    The stability of an air layer referee to its: 

    • A.

      Mass of water vapor

    • B.

      Tendency to remain in its original position or to rise

    • C.

      Air pressure

    • D.

      Temperature

    • E.

      Density

    Correct Answer
    B. Tendency to remain in its original position or to rise
    Explanation
    The stability of an air layer refers to its tendency to remain in its original position or to rise. This means that if the air layer is stable, it will resist vertical movement and stay in its current position. On the other hand, if the air layer is unstable, it will have a tendency to rise and mix with the surrounding air. Factors such as mass of water vapor, air pressure, temperature, and density can all affect the stability of the air layer, but the most important factor in determining stability is the tendency of the air layer to remain in its original position or to rise.

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  • 13. 

    When temperature increases with altitude rather than decreasing, this is called 

    • A.

      Conditionally unstable

    • B.

      Temperature invasion

    • C.

      Orographic lifting

    • D.

      Subsidence

    Correct Answer
    B. Temperature invasion
  • 14. 

    Rain shadow deserts are typically associated with 

    • A.

      The leeward sides of mountains

    • B.

      Orographic lifting

    • C.

      Adiabatic warming

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Rain shadow deserts are typically associated with the leeward sides of mountains because as moist air is forced to rise over a mountain range, it cools and condenses, resulting in precipitation on the windward side. By the time the air reaches the leeward side, it has lost most of its moisture, creating a rain shadow effect and causing dry conditions. Orographic lifting refers to the process of air being lifted over a mountain, which contributes to the formation of rain shadow deserts. Adiabatic warming occurs as air descends on the leeward side, leading to further drying and warming of the air, contributing to desert-like conditions. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the formation of rain shadow deserts.

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  • 15. 

    Clouds are classified and named according to their height and: 

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Water Content

    • C.

      Cloud Droplet size

    • D.

      Form

    • E.

      Amount of precipitation reduced

    Correct Answer
    D. Form
    Explanation
    Clouds are classified and named according to their form. The form of a cloud refers to its shape and structure, such as whether it is flat, puffy, or wispy. This classification system helps meteorologists and scientists categorize clouds based on their appearance, which can provide valuable information about weather patterns and atmospheric conditions. By understanding the form of a cloud, meteorologists can make predictions about future weather events and better understand the dynamics of the atmosphere.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following are sources of cloud condensation nuclei? 

    • A.

      Dust storms

    • B.

      Volcanic Eruptions

    • C.

      Pollen

    • D.

      Forest Fires

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed (dust storms, volcanic eruptions, pollen, and forest fires) are sources of cloud condensation nuclei. Cloud condensation nuclei are tiny particles in the atmosphere that water vapor condenses onto to form clouds. Dust storms, volcanic eruptions, pollen, and forest fires all release particles into the air that can act as cloud condensation nuclei. Therefore, all of the options are correct sources of cloud condensation nuclei.

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  • 17. 

    5.3 Which of the following cloud types would be LEAST likely to have precipitation associated with it? 

    • A.

      Cumulonimbus

    • B.

      Nimbostratus

    • C.

      Cirrus

    • D.

      Stratus

    Correct Answer
    C. Cirrus
    Explanation
    Cirrus clouds are thin and wispy clouds that are found at high altitudes. They are composed of ice crystals and are often associated with fair weather. Due to their high altitude and composition, cirrus clouds are least likely to have precipitation associated with them.

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  • 18. 

    A Sun or a Moon halo forms around which type of cloud? 

    • A.

      Cirrostratus

    • B.

      Cumulonimbus

    • C.

      Altostratus

    • D.

      Cirrus

    Correct Answer
    A. Cirrostratus
    Explanation
    A Sun or a Moon halo forms around a cirrostratus cloud. Cirrostratus clouds are thin, high-level clouds composed of ice crystals. These clouds often cover the entire sky and create a halo effect when light is refracted or bent by the ice crystals in the cloud. The halo appears as a ring around the Sun or Moon and is caused by the diffraction and scattering of light.

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  • 19. 

    You observe a cloud at an altitude of 10,000 feet. This cloud name would have the prefix: 

    • A.

      Alto

    • B.

      Cirro

    • C.

      Strato

    • D.

      Medial

    • E.

      Nimbo

    Correct Answer
    A. Alto
    Explanation
    The prefix "Alto" is used to describe clouds that are found at middle altitudes, typically between 6,500 and 20,000 feet. Therefore, if you observe a cloud at an altitude of 10,000 feet, it would be classified as an "Alto" cloud.

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  • 20. 

    The cloud type that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed: 

    • A.

      Cumulus

    • B.

      Stratus

    • C.

      Cirrocumulus

    • D.

      Cirrus

    Correct Answer
    B. Stratus
    Explanation
    Stratus clouds are best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky. They are low-level clouds that often appear as a uniform grayish layer and can be associated with drizzle or light rain. Cumulus clouds are puffy and have a more vertical development, while cirrocumulus and cirrus clouds are high-level clouds that appear as thin, wispy strands or patches. Therefore, the best choice that matches the description given is stratus.

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  • 21. 

    This word indicates that a cloud is a rain producer: 

    • A.

      Lenticular

    • B.

      Alto

    • C.

      Nimbus

    • D.

      Cumulus

    • E.

      Cirro

    Correct Answer
    C. Nimbus
    Explanation
    The word "Nimbus" is the correct answer because it is a type of cloud that is known for producing rain. Nimbus clouds are characterized by their dark and dense appearance, indicating that they are filled with moisture and capable of precipitating.

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  • 22. 

    Thunder and lightning are associated with which type of clouds? 

    • A.

      Cirrostratus

    • B.

      Cumulonimbus

    • C.

      Altostratus

    • D.

      Cirrus

    • E.

      Stratus

    Correct Answer
    B. Cumulonimbus
    Explanation
    Cumulonimbus clouds are associated with thunder and lightning. These clouds are large and vertically developed, reaching high altitudes in the atmosphere. They are often characterized by their anvil-shaped top and can produce severe weather conditions such as thunderstorms, heavy rain, hail, and lightning.

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  • 23. 

    Which association is correct? 

    • A.

      Low cloud-stratus

    • B.

      Middle cloud- cirrus

    • C.

      Vertical Cloud- nimbostratus

    • D.

      High cloud - altostratus

    • E.

      Low cloud- cirrostratus

    Correct Answer
    A. Low cloud-stratus
    Explanation
    The correct association is Low cloud-stratus. Stratus clouds are low-level clouds that form a uniform layer and often cover the entire sky. They are usually gray or white and have a smooth appearance. This association is correct because stratus clouds are indeed classified as low-level clouds.

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  • 24. 

    Where are lenticular clouds most likely to form? 

    • A.

      Over oceans

    • B.

      Along Coastlines

    • C.

      To the lee of mountains

    • D.

      In desert regions

    • E.

      Downwind of lakes

    Correct Answer
    C. To the lee of mountains
    Explanation
    Lenticular clouds are most likely to form to the lee of mountains. When moist air is forced to rise over a mountain range, it cools and condenses, forming clouds. As the air descends on the other side of the mountains, it warms and evaporates the clouds, creating a stable layer of air that can lead to the formation of lenticular clouds. These unique lens-shaped clouds often appear stationary and can be found hovering near the peak of the mountain.

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  • 25. 

    Which type of fog occurs during nights when skies are clear and relative humidity is high? 

    • A.

      Steam fog

    • B.

      Advection fog

    • C.

      Radiation fog

    • D.

      Precipitation fog

    • E.

      Upslope fog

    Correct Answer
    C. Radiation fog
    Explanation
    Radiation fog occurs during nights when skies are clear and relative humidity is high. This type of fog forms when the ground cools down rapidly after sunset, causing the air near the surface to cool as well. As the air cools, its moisture condenses and forms fog. Radiation fog is typically localized and can be quite dense, reducing visibility.

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  • 26. 

    When warm, moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result. 

    • A.

      Steam

    • B.

      Advection

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Precipitation

    • E.

      Upslope

    Correct Answer
    B. Advection
    Explanation
    When warm, moist air moves over a cold surface, advection fog may result. Advection fog occurs when the warm air moves horizontally and comes into contact with a colder surface, causing the moisture in the air to condense into fog. This type of fog is commonly seen near coastal areas, where warm air from the ocean moves over cooler land surfaces. Advection fog is different from other types of fog, such as radiation fog or steam fog, which form due to different atmospheric conditions.

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  • 27. 

    This type of fog is produced when cold air moves over a warm, moist surface: 

    • A.

      Steam fog

    • B.

      Advection fog

    • C.

      Radiation fog

    • D.

      Precipitation fog

    • E.

      Upslope fog

    Correct Answer
    A. Steam fog
    Explanation
    Steam fog, also known as sea smoke or evaporation fog, occurs when cold air moves over a warm, moist surface, such as a body of water. The cold air causes the water to evaporate rapidly, creating a fog-like effect. This type of fog is common in cold winter months when there is a significant temperature difference between the air and water.

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  • 28. 

    Most precipitation that falls in the middle latitudes is formed by: 

    • A.

      The Bergeron process

    • B.

      Collision-coalescence

    • C.

      Spontaneous freezing of water droplets

    • D.

      Condensation of water vapor

    Correct Answer
    A. The Bergeron process
    Explanation
    The Bergeron process is responsible for most precipitation that falls in the middle latitudes. This process occurs when there is a mixture of supercooled water droplets and ice crystals in a cloud. The ice crystals grow at the expense of the water droplets, causing them to evaporate. Eventually, the ice crystals become large enough to fall as precipitation. This process is most common in mid-latitude cyclones, where there is a large temperature difference between the surface and upper levels of the atmosphere.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following best describes supercooled water? 

    • A.

      Part liquid and part solid

    • B.

      A unique form of ice that only forms in clouds

    • C.

      Liquid water at temperatures below 0'C

    • D.

      Water with a slightly different chemical nature than ordinary water

    • E.

      Produced from dry ice

    Correct Answer
    C. Liquid water at temperatures below 0'C
    Explanation
    Supercooled water refers to liquid water that exists at temperatures below 0°C. This occurs when the water is cooled below its freezing point but remains in a liquid state due to the absence of impurities or disturbances that would initiate the freezing process. Supercooled water is unstable and can freeze instantly upon contact with a solid surface or disturbance, such as a speck of dust or a slight movement.

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  • 30. 

     The collision-coalescence process occurs when the entire cloud is: 

    • A.

      Below Freezing

    • B.

      Above Freezing

    • C.

      Raining

    • D.

      Snowing

    Correct Answer
    B. Above Freezing
    Explanation
    The collision-coalescence process refers to the formation of precipitation in warm clouds. In this process, cloud droplets collide and merge together to form larger droplets. These larger droplets then fall as rain. Since rain is formed through the collision-coalescence process, it implies that the cloud in question must be above freezing temperature, as liquid water cannot exist below freezing. Therefore, the correct answer is "Above Freezing".

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following types of precipitation results when raindrops freeze before reaching the ground? 

    • A.

      Rime

    • B.

      Glaze

    • C.

      Hail

    • D.

      Sleet

    • E.

      Snow

    Correct Answer
    D. Sleet
    Explanation
    Sleet is the correct answer because it refers to the type of precipitation that occurs when raindrops freeze into ice pellets before reaching the ground. This happens when there is a layer of freezing air near the surface, causing the raindrops to freeze and form small ice pellets. Sleet is different from hail because hailstones are larger and formed by layers of ice building up within a thunderstorm. Rime and glaze are forms of ice that can accumulate on surfaces, while snow is formed when water vapor directly freezes into ice crystals.

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  • 32. 

     What type of precipitation causes ice to form on surfaces as supercooled water makes contact with them? 

    • A.

      Sleet

    • B.

      Graupel

    • C.

      Glaze

    • D.

      Snow

    • E.

      Hail

    Correct Answer
    C. Glaze
    Explanation
    Glaze is the correct answer because it refers to the type of precipitation that causes ice to form on surfaces when supercooled water comes into contact with them. Glaze occurs when raindrops or drizzle fall onto surfaces that are below freezing temperature, causing the water to freeze instantly upon contact, forming a smooth coating of ice. This can create hazardous conditions on roads, sidewalks, and other surfaces.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following instruments can be used to measure precipitation?

    • A.

      Tipping-bucket gauge

    • B.

      Anemometer

    • C.

      Barograph

    • D.

      Thermometer

    • E.

      Bi-metal strip

    Correct Answer
    A. Tipping-bucket gauge
    Explanation
    A tipping-bucket gauge is specifically designed to measure precipitation. It consists of a funnel that collects rainwater and a mechanism with a small bucket that tips when a certain amount of water is collected. Each tip of the bucket is recorded, allowing for accurate measurement of the amount of precipitation. Anemometer measures wind speed, barograph measures atmospheric pressure, thermometer measures temperature, and bi-metal strip is used to measure temperature changes. Therefore, the tipping-bucket gauge is the only instrument listed that is suitable for measuring precipitation.

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  • 34. 

    Cloud seeding using silver iodide only works when: 

    • A.

      Cold clouds are composed entirely of ice crystals

    • B.

      Warm clouds are composed entirely of water droplets

    • C.

      A portion of the cloud contains supercooled water

    • D.

      Cumuliform clouds are present

    Correct Answer
    C. A portion of the cloud contains supercooled water
    Explanation
    Cloud seeding using silver iodide only works when a portion of the cloud contains supercooled water. Supercooled water is water that remains in liquid form even though it is below freezing temperature. Silver iodide acts as a nucleating agent, providing a surface for the supercooled water to freeze upon. This process creates ice crystals, which can then grow and fall as precipitation. Therefore, for cloud seeding with silver iodide to be effective, there needs to be a portion of the cloud that contains supercooled water.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is NOT a form of intentional weather modification?

    • A.

      Cloud seeding

    • B.

      Fog Dispersal

    • C.

      Frost prevention

    • D.

      Hail suppression

    • E.

      Urbanization

    Correct Answer
    E. Urbanization
    Explanation
    Urbanization is not a form of intentional weather modification because it refers to the process of population growth and the development of urban areas, such as cities and towns. It involves the construction of buildings, roads, and other infrastructure, but it does not directly manipulate or modify the weather. Cloud seeding, fog dispersal, frost prevention, and hail suppression, on the other hand, are all intentional techniques used to alter or control weather patterns.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following instruments is used to measure atmospheric pressure? 

    • A.

      Anemometer

    • B.

      Barometer

    • C.

      Thermograph

    • D.

      Tachometer

    • E.

      Hygrometer

    Correct Answer
    B. Barometer
    Explanation
    A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure refers to the force exerted by the weight of the air in the atmosphere. A barometer works by measuring the height of a column of mercury or aneroid barometer measures the pressure using a flexible metal chamber. By measuring the atmospheric pressure, a barometer can provide information about weather patterns and changes in atmospheric conditions. Anemometer measures wind speed, thermograph measures temperature, tachometer measures rotation speed, and hygrometer measures humidity levels.

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  • 37. 

    With an increase in altitude, air pressure: 

    • A.

      Increases at a constant rate

    • B.

      Increases at a decreasing rate

    • C.

      Decreases at a constant rate

    • D.

      Decreases at a decreasing rate

    • E.

      Decreases at an increasing rate

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreases at a decreasing rate
    Explanation
    As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. However, the rate at which air pressure decreases also decreases. This means that the decrease in air pressure becomes less steep as altitude increases.

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  • 38. 

    On an upper-level weather chart, a ridge indicates: 

    • A.

      The direction major weather systems are moving

    • B.

      An elongated high pressure area

    • C.

      An elongated low pressure area

    • D.

      A region of cold, wet weather

    • E.

      A constant 18,000 foot elevation

    Correct Answer
    B. An elongated high pressure area
    Explanation
    A ridge on an upper-level weather chart indicates an elongated high pressure area. High pressure areas are associated with sinking air, which leads to stable and clear weather conditions. The elongated shape of the ridge suggests that the high pressure area covers a large geographic area.

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  • 39. 

    The addition of water vapor into a volume of air will cause the density of air to: 

    • A.

      Decrease

    • B.

      Increase

    • C.

      Stay the same

    • D.

      Vary widely in a horizontal direction

    Correct Answer
    A. Decrease
    Explanation
    When water vapor is added to a volume of air, it displaces some of the other air molecules, reducing the overall density of the air. This is because water vapor molecules are lighter than most other molecules in the air. As a result, the addition of water vapor causes the density of air to decrease.

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  • 40. 

    Lines of equal pressure are called

    • A.

      Isotherms

    • B.

      Isohyets

    • C.

      Isotachs

    • D.

      Isodrosotherms

    • E.

      Isobars

    Correct Answer
    E. Isobars
    Explanation
    Lines of equal pressure are called isobars. Isobars are used to represent and visualize atmospheric pressure patterns on weather maps. These lines connect points of equal atmospheric pressure, allowing meteorologists to identify areas of high and low pressure systems and analyze weather patterns. By observing the spacing and distribution of isobars, meteorologists can determine the strength and movement of weather systems, such as fronts and cyclones, which are crucial for weather forecasting and understanding atmospheric dynamics.

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  • 41. 

    Winds are generated by the

    • A.

      Coriolis force

    • B.

      Pressure gradient force

    • C.

      Friction force

    • D.

      Centrifugal force

    • E.

      Centripetal force

    Correct Answer
    B. Pressure gradient force
    Explanation
    Winds are generated by the pressure gradient force. The pressure gradient force is the force that drives air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. The greater the difference in pressure between two locations, the stronger the pressure gradient force and the stronger the wind. This force is responsible for the movement of air in the atmosphere and plays a crucial role in the formation of weather patterns and wind systems.

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  • 42. 

    On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars? 

    • A.

      Nothing can be inferred

    • B.

      A steep pressure gradient and light winds

    • C.

      A steep pressure gradient and strong winds

    • D.

      A week pressure gradient and light winds

    • E.

      A weak pressure gradient and strong winds

    Correct Answer
    C. A steep pressure gradient and strong winds
    Explanation
    A closer spacing of isobars on a weather map indicates a steep pressure gradient. This means that there is a significant difference in air pressure over a short distance. The closer the isobars are together, the steeper the pressure gradient is. This steep pressure gradient leads to strong winds, as air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Therefore, a closer spacing of isobars on a weather map suggests a steep pressure gradient and strong winds.

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  • 43. 

    Atmospheric circulations are fundamentally caused by: 

    • A.

      The heating of the ozone layer

    • B.

      The passage of frontal storm systems

    • C.

      Ocean currents

    • D.

      Earths gravity

    • E.

      Unequal heating of Earth's surface

    Correct Answer
    E. Unequal heating of Earth's surface
    Explanation
    Atmospheric circulations are fundamentally caused by the unequal heating of Earth's surface. The sun's rays heat the Earth's surface unevenly, with different regions receiving different amounts of solar radiation. This leads to variations in temperature and pressure across the globe, creating areas of high and low pressure. Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, resulting in the formation of wind patterns and atmospheric circulations. This process is known as convection and plays a crucial role in the Earth's climate system.

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  • 44. 

    In either the Northern or Southern Hemisphere, a cyclonic flow means: 

    • A.

      Any clockwise wind flow

    • B.

      Any counterclockwise wind flow

    • C.

      Circulation around a low pressure center

    • D.

      Circulation around a high pressure center

    • E.

      Any strong wind

    Correct Answer
    C. Circulation around a low pressure center
    Explanation
    A cyclonic flow refers to the circulation of air around a low-pressure center. In the Northern Hemisphere, the flow is counterclockwise, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it is clockwise. This circulation pattern is caused by the Coriolis effect, which deflects moving air to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The low-pressure center is usually associated with unsettled weather conditions, such as precipitation and storms.

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  • 45. 

    The Coriolis force occurs because of Earth’s: 

    • A.

      Magnetic field

    • B.

      Atmosphere

    • C.

      Rotation

    • D.

      Dense Core

    Correct Answer
    C. Rotation
    Explanation
    The Coriolis force occurs because of Earth's rotation. As the Earth rotates on its axis, objects moving across its surface are subject to a deflecting force known as the Coriolis force. This force causes moving objects, such as air masses or ocean currents, to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The Coriolis force plays a crucial role in the formation of weather patterns, ocean currents, and the rotation of hurricanes and cyclones.

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  • 46. 

    In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis force deflects moving air: 

    • A.

      To the right

    • B.

      To the left

    • C.

      Always toward the north

    • D.

      Always toward the south

    • E.

      It does not deflect moving air

    Correct Answer
    A. To the right
    Explanation
    The Coriolis force is an apparent force that affects moving objects on the rotating Earth. In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis force deflects moving air to the right. This is due to the rotation of the Earth causing the air to appear to curve to the right as it moves northward. The Coriolis force is responsible for the rotation of weather systems such as hurricanes and the movement of air masses in the atmosphere.

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  • 47. 

    The Coriolis force is _______ in the upper troposphere because _______. 

    • A.

      Enhanced; the pressure gradient is weaker

    • B.

      Enhanced; there is less friction

    • C.

      Enhanced; there is more friction

    • D.

      Decreased; air moves to high latitudes

    • E.

      Decreased; there is more friction

    Correct Answer
    B. Enhanced; there is less friction
    Explanation
    In the upper troposphere, the Coriolis force is enhanced because there is less friction. Friction tends to slow down the movement of air, reducing the effect of the Coriolis force. In the absence of significant friction, such as in the upper troposphere, the Coriolis force can exert a stronger influence on the movement of air, leading to enhanced effects.

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  • 48. 

    A geostrophic wind: 

    • A.

      Flows perpendicular to the pressure gradient force

    • B.

      Is usually not affected by the Coriolis force

    • C.

      Is strongly influenced by friction

    • D.

      Follows the pressure gradient force

    • E.

      Flows in the geosphere

    Correct Answer
    A. Flows perpendicular to the pressure gradient force
    Explanation
    A geostrophic wind flows perpendicular to the pressure gradient force because it is the balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force. The pressure gradient force is responsible for the wind to move from high pressure to low pressure, while the Coriolis force deflects the wind to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The combination of these two forces results in a wind that flows perpendicular to the pressure gradient force.

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  • 49. 

     Buys Ballot’s law states that: 

    • A.

      In the Northern Hemisphere, low pressure will be on your left if you stand with your back to the wind

    • B.

      Winds higher than a few kilometers are called geostrophic

    • C.

      Winds at Earth’s surface are frictionless

    • D.

      Cyclonic flow must be opposite the direction of Earth’s rotation

    Correct Answer
    A. In the Northern Hemisphere, low pressure will be on your left if you stand with your back to the wind
    Explanation
    Buys Ballot's law states that in the Northern Hemisphere, low pressure will be on your left if you stand with your back to the wind. This means that if you are facing the wind, the low pressure system will be to your left side. This law helps in determining the direction of wind flow and is based on the principle of air moving from high pressure to low pressure areas. By observing the direction of low pressure, one can predict the likely movement of weather systems.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is INCORRECT relative to air circulation? 

    • A.

      Anticyclone—High pressure

    • B.

      Cyclone—Low pressure

    • C.

      Anticyclone—Clockwise circulation in the Southern Hemisphere

    • D.

      Cyclone—Counterclockwise circulation in the Northern Hemisphere

    Correct Answer
    C. Anticyclone—Clockwise circulation in the Southern Hemisphere
    Explanation
    In the Southern Hemisphere, the circulation around an anticyclone is actually counterclockwise, not clockwise. Anticyclones are areas of high pressure where the air descends and diverges, creating a clockwise circulation in the Northern Hemisphere and a counterclockwise circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. This is due to the Coriolis effect, which causes the deflection of moving objects, including air, to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 15, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    Gracenesseth
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