Probiotics & Immunity Quiz

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Immunity Quizzes & Trivia

. Please select the best answer from the options provide for each question below. There are twenty questions and a score of at least 60% is needed to obtain 1.0 category A credit. You have unlimited attempts to successfully complete this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which statement about probiotics in the GI tract is FALSE?

    • A.

      Probiotic densities increase when proceeding down the GI tract

    • B.

      Probiotic colonization initially occurs from mother's flora or from the hospital environment

    • C.

      Probitotics can influence cytokine production

    • D.

      There is NO difference in flora between caesarean born infants and conventionally (vaginally) born infants

    Correct Answer
    D. There is NO difference in flora between caesarean born infants and conventionally (vaginally) born infants
    Explanation
    The statement that there is NO difference in flora between caesarean born infants and conventionally (vaginally) born infants is false. Research has shown that infants born via caesarean section have a different composition of gut flora compared to those born vaginally. Vaginally born infants acquire their initial gut flora from their mother's birth canal, while caesarean born infants are exposed to different bacteria in the hospital environment. This difference in flora can have implications for the development of the immune system and overall health of the infant.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT a benefit conferred by probiotics?

    • A.

      Detoxification of xenobiotics

    • B.

      Biosynthesis of vitamin K

    • C.

      Fermentation of indigestible dietary fats

    • D.

      Increasing the bioavailability of all water soluble vitamins and minerals

    Correct Answer
    D. Increasing the bioavailability of all water soluble vitamins and minerals
    Explanation
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide various health benefits when consumed. They are known to aid in digestion, improve gut health, boost the immune system, and promote overall well-being. However, they do not increase the bioavailability of all water-soluble vitamins and minerals. While probiotics can enhance the absorption of certain nutrients, they do not have a universal effect on all water-soluble vitamins and minerals.

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  • 3. 

    Choose the option that bests completes this statement: A mix of i. ___________ from breast milk that don’t nourish infants are fermented by the infant’s colonic bacteria and selectively ii. __________ the growth/activity of Bifidobacterium spp.

    • A.

      I. fat soluble vitamins. ii. decrease

    • B.

      I. trace minerals ii. down regulate

    • C.

      I. microbes ii. halt

    • D.

      I. oligosaccharide prebiotics ii. promote

    Correct Answer
    D. I. oligosaccharide prebiotics ii. promote
    Explanation
    Oligosaccharide prebiotics are substances found in breast milk that cannot be digested by infants but can be fermented by the bacteria in their colon. This fermentation process selectively promotes the growth and activity of Bifidobacterium spp., which are beneficial microbes in the infant's gut. These prebiotics serve as a food source for these beneficial bacteria, helping to support their growth and function.

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  • 4. 

    Select the best definition of cytokine below.

    • A.

      A tiny group of very large proteins that are involved with blood clotting

    • B.

      A small group of specialized phospholipids that carry out cell to cell communication

    • C.

      Highly specialized immune cells that have pro-inflammatory effects

    • D.

      A large group of small molecules that travel to other cells, and up regulate or down regulate them

    Correct Answer
    D. A large group of small molecules that travel to other cells, and up regulate or down regulate them
    Explanation
    Cytokines are a large group of small molecules that travel to other cells and have the ability to up regulate or down regulate them. These molecules play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication and are involved in various immune responses and inflammatory processes. They can either enhance or suppress the immune system's response, depending on the specific cytokine and the context in which it is released.

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  • 5. 

    Choose the best description of Th1 immunity below.

    • A.

      Th1 cells drive humoral immunity to fight extracellular pathogens

    • B.

      Th1 cells reduce mucosal tolerance.

    • C.

      Th1 cells have no known function.

    • D.

      Th1 cells drive cellular immunity to fight viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

    Correct Answer
    D. Th1 cells drive cellular immunity to fight viruses and other intracellular pathogens.
    Explanation
    Th1 cells are a subset of T helper cells that play a crucial role in cellular immunity. They are responsible for activating and coordinating the immune response against intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Th1 cells stimulate the production of cytotoxic T cells and promote the release of cytokines that enhance the killing of infected cells. This response is essential for eliminating intracellular pathogens and preventing their spread. Th1 cells do not drive humoral immunity or reduce mucosal tolerance, and they have a well-known function in the immune system.

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  • 6. 

    Choose the best description of Th2 immunity below.

    • A.

      Th2 cells drive cellular immunity to fight intracellular pathogens

    • B.

      Th2 cells reduce mucosal tolerance.

    • C.

      Th2 cells have no known function.

    • D.

      Th2 cells drive humoral immunity and up-regulate antibody production to fight extracellular organisms.

    Correct Answer
    D. Th2 cells drive humoral immunity and up-regulate antibody production to fight extracellular organisms.
    Explanation
    Th2 cells are a subset of T-helper cells that play a crucial role in the immune response. They are responsible for driving humoral immunity, which involves the production of antibodies to fight against extracellular organisms. Th2 cells up-regulate antibody production, which helps in neutralizing pathogens outside of cells. This response is important in defending against infections caused by bacteria, parasites, and allergens.

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  • 7. 

    Select the statement below about the Th1 and Th2 immune systems that is FALSE. 

    • A.

      Th1/Th2 cell polarization appears to be irreversible

    • B.

      Some probiotics appear to influence both Th1 & Th2

    • C.

      Other Th subsets include Th17, Thc, Th23. and Treg

    • D.

      Antioxidant status has NO effect on Th1/Th2 balance

    Correct Answer
    D. Antioxidant status has NO effect on Th1/Th2 balance
    Explanation
    The statement "antioxidant status has NO effect on Th1/Th2 balance" is false. Antioxidant status can indeed have an effect on the Th1/Th2 balance. Antioxidants help reduce oxidative stress, which can modulate the immune response and influence the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells.

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  • 8. 

    Select the statement below about the benefits of normal flora that is TRUE.

    • A.

      Families who consume traditional lactobacillus rich fermented foods experience fewer allergies

    • B.

      Children with stable gut flora populations have lower incidence of atopic disease

    • C.

      Specific aberrancies in the intestinal micrbiota may predispose disease in later life

    • D.

      All of the above are TRUE.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are TRUE.
    Explanation
    All of the statements about the benefits of normal flora are true. Consuming traditional lactobacillus rich fermented foods can lead to fewer allergies. Children with stable gut flora populations have a lower incidence of atopic disease. Additionally, specific abnormalities in the intestinal microbiota can increase the risk of disease later in life.

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  • 9. 

    Select the statement below about Th1 immunity that is TRUE.

    • A.

      Th1 cells primarily promote inflammation and activation of cytotoxic T cells

    • B.

      Th1 rigidity and the potential pathological consequences can be moderated by up regulating production of Th2 dominant cytokines

    • C.

      Persistent Th1 mediated inflammation of the GI tract is associated with pathologies like Crohn’s disease, H. pylori gastritis, cellular autoimmunity

    • D.

      All of the above are TRUE.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are TRUE.
    Explanation
    Th1 cells primarily promote inflammation and activation of cytotoxic T cells. Th1 rigidity and the potential pathological consequences can be moderated by upregulating production of Th2 dominant cytokines. Persistent Th1-mediated inflammation of the GI tract is associated with pathologies like Crohn's disease, H. pylori gastritis, and cellular autoimmunity.

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  • 10. 

    Select the statement below about Th2 immunity that is TRUE.

    • A.

      The main cells of Th2 include B cells, mast cells and eosinophills

    • B.

      Th2 dominancy carries a higher risk for infection

    • C.

      Th2 over activation underlies allergy related Ig E based disease & predisposes to systemic autoimmune disease.

    • D.

      All of the above are TRUE.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are TRUE.
    Explanation
    The statement "all of the above are TRUE" is the correct answer because it accurately reflects the information provided in the options. The options state that the main cells of Th2 immunity include B cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, which is true. It also states that Th2 dominancy carries a higher risk for infection, which is true. Lastly, it states that Th2 over activation underlies allergy-related IgE-based disease and predisposes to systemic autoimmune disease, which is also true. Therefore, all of the statements in the options are true.

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  • 11. 

    Which statement about Th1/Th2 balance is FALSE?

    • A.

      Th1 & Th2 antagonize each other's actions

    • B.

      Dendritic cells are key players in determination of Th1/Th2 balance

    • C.

      . SLE is a heterogeneous disease as Th1 or Th2 can dominate depending on disease stage and presentation

    • D.

      MS has no association with Th1 and Th2 subsets

    Correct Answer
    D. MS has no association with Th1 and Th2 subsets
    Explanation
    The statement that MS has no association with Th1 and Th2 subsets is FALSE. MS is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Th1 cells are thought to drive the inflammatory response in MS, while Th2 cells are involved in regulating the immune response and promoting tissue repair. The dysregulation of Th1/Th2 balance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of MS.

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  • 12. 

    Select the statement below about Treg immunity that is TRUE.

    • A.

      Treg cells regulates T helper cell function

    • B.

      Treg assists with maintaining oral/mucosal tolerance

    • C.

      Tregs are key to the negative regulatory component of immune responsiveness

    • D.

      All of the above are TRUE.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are TRUE.
    Explanation
    The statement "all of the above are TRUE" is the correct answer because Treg cells indeed regulate T helper cell function, assist in maintaining oral/mucosal tolerance, and are key to the negative regulatory component of immune responsiveness. Treg cells play a crucial role in immune regulation by suppressing excessive immune responses and preventing autoimmune diseases. They help to maintain immune homeostasis and prevent immune-mediated tissue damage. Therefore, all of the statements provided are true regarding Treg immunity.

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  • 13. 

    Choose the best description of the hygiene hypothesis below.

    • A.

      Hygiene has no effect on immune health.

    • B.

      There is no change in atopic disease in industrialized countries associated with the excessive hygienic practices.

    • C.

      Marked decrease in atopic disease in industrialized countries may be associated with the excessive hygienic practices.

    • D.

      Marked increase in atopic disease in industrialized countries may be associated with the excessive hygienic practices.

    Correct Answer
    D. Marked increase in atopic disease in industrialized countries may be associated with the excessive hygienic practices.
    Explanation
    The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the marked increase in atopic disease in industrialized countries may be associated with excessive hygienic practices. This means that the prevalence of conditions such as asthma, allergies, and eczema is higher in countries where hygiene is prioritized, possibly due to reduced exposure to certain microbes and pathogens. This hypothesis suggests that a lack of early childhood exposure to germs and infections may lead to an overactive immune system that reacts to harmless substances, resulting in allergic and autoimmune diseases.

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  • 14. 

    Which single probiotic strain listed below has demonstrated positive benefit on the pathogenesis on pouchitis?

    • A.

      B. breve

    • B.

      B. bifidum

    • C.

      L. acidophilus

    • D.

      L. rhamnosus

    Correct Answer
    D. L. rhamnosus
    Explanation
    L. rhamnosus has demonstrated positive benefits on the pathogenesis of pouchitis.

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  • 15. 

    Which probiotic listed  below may not an optimal strain against respiratory infections?

    • A.

      B. breve

    • B.

      B. bifidum

    • C.

      L. acidophilus

    • D.

      B. animalis

    Correct Answer
    D. B. animalis
    Explanation
    B. animalis may not be an optimal strain against respiratory infections because it is not commonly associated with respiratory health benefits. While B. breve, B. bifidum, and L. acidophilus have been studied for their potential to support respiratory health, there is limited evidence suggesting the same for B. animalis. Therefore, it may not be the best choice for targeting respiratory infections.

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  • 16. 

    Choose the option that bests completes this statement: A study on UC patients found that i. ___________ therapy significantly suppressed ii. __________.  

    • A.

      I. L. acidophilus. ii. WBC

    • B.

      I. FOS ii. RBC

    • C.

      I. pathogenic microbes ii. platelets

    • D.

      I. B. longum + prebiotics ii. CRP levels

    Correct Answer
    D. I. B. longum + prebiotics ii. CRP levels
    Explanation
    The correct answer is i. B. longum + prebiotics ii. CRP levels. This is because the statement mentions a study on UC patients, and the combination of B. longum (a probiotic) with prebiotics has been shown to have significant effects on reducing inflammation and improving gut health in patients with UC. CRP levels, which are a marker of inflammation, would be expected to be suppressed as a result of this therapy.

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  • 17. 

    Which probiotic strain was shown to significantly increased wheezing in patients with asthma?

    • A.

      B. breve

    • B.

      B. bifidum

    • C.

      L. acidophilus

    • D.

      L. rhamnosus

    Correct Answer
    D. L. rhamnosus
    Explanation
    L. rhamnosus was shown to significantly increase wheezing in patients with asthma.

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  • 18. 

    Select the statement below about Treg immunity that is TRUE.

    • A.

      Most extensively studied prebiotics are FOS & GOS

    • B.

      Prebiotics are not digested by the small intestine rather they are anaerobically fermented by the colon to produce short chain fatty acids.

    • C.

      Short chain fatty acids have significant beneficial impacts on intestinal epithelial cell function

    • D.

      All of the above are TRUE.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are TRUE.
    Explanation
    All of the statements provided in the question are true. Treg immunity has been extensively studied in relation to prebiotics, particularly FOS and GOS. Prebiotics are indeed not digested by the small intestine, but instead, they undergo anaerobic fermentation in the colon, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids have been found to have significant beneficial impacts on the function of intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, the correct answer is that all of the above statements are true.

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  • 19. 

    Which probiotic strain was given to mothers of high risk infants during the first 6 months of life which resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of atopic disease up to the age of 4 years old?

    • A.

      B. breve

    • B.

      B. bifidum

    • C.

      L. acidophilus

    • D.

      L. rhamnosus

    Correct Answer
    D. L. rhamnosus
    Explanation
    The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus was given to mothers of high-risk infants during the first 6 months of life, resulting in a significant reduction in the prevalence of atopic disease up to the age of 4 years old.

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  • 20. 

    Which probiotic strain when administered in combination with mesalmine reduced the number of relapses in patients suffering from Crohn’s disease?

    • A.

      B. breve

    • B.

      B. bifidum

    • C.

      L. acidophilus

    • D.

      S. boulardii

    Correct Answer
    D. S. boulardii
    Explanation
    S. boulardii is the correct answer because when administered in combination with mesalmine, it has been shown to reduce the number of relapses in patients with Crohn's disease.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 29, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    CEOnline
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