Safety and effectiveness
Possibility of doping
All of the above
Whey promotes a rapid rise in serum amino acid levels.
Whey has a high content of the essential amino acid leucine.
Whey is slowly digested.
A and B
Arginine is the substrate for the nitric oxide synthase enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidation of arginine to produce nitric oxide.
Nitric oxide promotes vasodilation.
Arginine is not recommended following acute myocardial infarction.
Several studies suggest that arginine alpha-ketoglutarate increases muscle size.
Consuming 5 to 9 gm of arginine at rest increases growth hormone in a dose-dependent manner.
Exercise alone increases growth hormone levels by 300% to 500%.
Ingesting arginine before exercise further increases the growth hormone response to exercise.
A high dose of arginine can cause considerable gastrointestinal distress without further raising growth hormone levels
It may improve performance during short-term intense aerobic exercise and prolonged endurance exercise.
It increases alertness and reduces the perception of effort.
It significantly increases fat metabolism and spares muscle glycogen.
It is unlikely to elevate urine output or cause dehydration if consumed in moderation before and/or during exercise.
It increases phosphocreatine stores in muscles.
It may improve performance during repeated intervals of high-intensity, short-duration exercise.
It enhances muscle size and strength during resistance training.
It has long-term detrimental effects on kidney and liver function.
Beta-alanine, bovine colostrum, creatine, sodium bicarbonate
Beta-alanine, bovine colostrum, sodium bicarbonate, pyruvate
Beta-alanine, bovine colostrum, phosphate, sodium bicarbonate
Phosphate, sodium bicarbonate, ribose, beta-alanine
Increases testosterone levels
Decreases HDL cholesterol and increases estrogen levels
Increases muscle mass
Hydroxycitrate, chitosan, pyruvate
Green tea extract, conjugated linoleic acids, carnitine
Coleus forskolin, caffeine
B and C
7-keto DHEA, citrus aurantium, and green tea extract
Coleus forskolin, hydroxycitrate and hoodia
Ephedra, caffeine, and capsaicin
A and C Correct
St. John's wort, 5-HTP, tyrosine
St. John's wort, 5-HTP, L-threanine
St. John's wort, 5-HTP, magnolia bark
L-threanine, magnolia bark, beta-sitosterol
Dietary supplements do not undergo pre-market testing for safety and effectiveness.
The amount of an active ingredient may be higher or lower than amount listed on the product label.
Products containing "natural" ingredients are safe.
A and B Correct