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Below are data structures and algorithms practice tests! Data structures are sets of data that are prepared in a certain way so as to make it easier for them to be processed. The quiz below is designed to test out just how much you know about different algorithms, order, and preorder of data. Do check it out and keep a lookout for others like it!
Questions and Answers
1.
Check all statements that are true. (Some are false.)
A.
Swift has Optionals, whereas Java 7 does not.
B.
Swift has Structs, whereas Java 7 does not.
C.
Swift Classes are value types, unlike Java Classes, which are reference types.
D.
Swift and Java both have primitives.
E.
Swift has enums, whereas Java does not.
F.
Swift has Type Inferencing, while Java does not.
G.
Both Swift and Java allow you to use tuples as parameters.
H.
Strings are references types in both Java and Swift.
I.
A regular Array in Swift is mutable if you declare it using var, while a regular Array in Java is immutable regardless of how you declare it.
Correct Answer(s) A. Swift has Optionals, whereas Java 7 does not. B. Swift has Structs, whereas Java 7 does not. F. Swift has Type Inferencing, while Java does not. I. A regular Array in Swift is mutable if you declare it using var, while a regular Array in Java is immutable regardless of how you declare it.
Explanation The given answer is correct because it accurately identifies the true statements among the given options. It states that Swift has Optionals, Structs, Type Inferencing, and that a regular Array in Swift is mutable if declared using var, while a regular Array in Java is immutable regardless of how it is declared. These statements correctly highlight the differences between Swift and Java in terms of their features and behavior.
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2.
In building the code for the Linked List, what main "cases" did you have to consider? Check all that apply.
A.
The given Node belongs at the beginning and should replace the head because it is less than the head.
B.
The given Node belongs at the end.
C.
The given Node does not belong anywhere.
D.
The given Node belongs in the middle.
E.
The given Node cannot be inserted because the Linked List is full.
F.
Error checking in case the given Node is entered incorrectly.
Correct Answer(s) A. The given Node belongs at the beginning and should replace the head because it is less than the head. B. The given Node belongs at the end. D. The given Node belongs in the middle.
Explanation The code for the Linked List needs to consider the following main cases:
1. The given Node belongs at the beginning and should replace the head because it is less than the head. This means that if the value of the given Node is less than the value of the current head, it should become the new head.
2. The given Node belongs at the end. This means that if the Linked List is not empty, the given Node should be added as the last node.
3. The given Node belongs in the middle. This means that if the Linked List is not empty and the value of the given Node is between two existing nodes, it should be inserted in the appropriate position.
These are the main cases that need to be considered while building the code for the Linked List.
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3.
Which of the following options best characterizes inOrder?
A.
Left, Head, Right
B.
Head, Left, Right
C.
Right, Left, Head
D.
Right, Head, Left
Correct Answer A. Left, Head, Right
Explanation The correct answer is "Left, Head, Right". In an inOrder traversal of a binary tree, the left subtree is visited first, then the current node (head), and finally the right subtree. This order ensures that the elements are visited in ascending order in a binary search tree.
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4.
Which of the following best characterizes preOrder?
A.
Right, Head, Left
B.
Head, Right, Left
C.
Left, Right, Head
D.
Head, Left, Right
Correct Answer D. Head, Left, Right
Explanation PreOrder is a traversal method used in binary trees. It starts by visiting the head or root node, then visits the left subtree, and finally visits the right subtree. Therefore, the correct answer is "Head, Left, Right".
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5.
Which of the following best characterizes postOrder?
A.
Left, Head, Right
B.
Right, Head, Left
C.
Left, Right, Head
D.
Head, Left, Right
Correct Answer C. Left, Right, Head
Explanation PostOrder is a traversal method used in binary trees where the left subtree is visited first, followed by the right subtree, and finally the root node. This means that the correct answer is "Left, Right, Head" because it accurately describes the order in which the nodes are visited during a postOrder traversal.
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6.
Recursion is always the best way to code programs and create functions.
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer B. False
Explanation Recursion is not always the best way to code programs and create functions. While recursion can be a powerful tool in certain scenarios, it is not suitable for every situation. In some cases, using iterative approaches or other programming techniques can be more efficient and easier to understand. Therefore, the statement that recursion is always the best way is false.
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7.
A Linked List is a ________ data structure.
Correct Answer linear
Explanation A linked list is classified as a linear data structure because it stores elements in a sequential manner. Unlike arrays, these elements are not placed contiguously in memory; instead, each element (node) points to the next one through a reference or pointer, forming a chain-like structure that can be traversed linearly.
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8.
Each element of a Linked List is called a ________.
Correct Answer Node, node
Explanation A linked list is a data structure that consists of a sequence of elements, where each element is called a node. Each node contains two parts: data and a reference to the next node in the sequence. Therefore, in a linked list, each element is referred to as a node.
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9.
Each of the elements of a Linked List is made up of ________ and ________.
Correct Answer the data, data a reference to the next Node, a reference to the next node, a reference (or pointer) to the next element, a reference to the next element.
Explanation In a linked list, each element, often called a node, contains two main components: data and a reference (or pointer). The data part stores the actual value that the node represents, while the reference part points to the next node in the sequence, establishing a link between consecutive elements.
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10.
The last element of the list has a reference to ________.
Correct Answer null
Explanation In many programming languages and data structures, particularly in linked lists, the last element of the list contains a reference to null to indicate that there is no next element. This null reference serves as a terminator, signaling the end of the list and preventing any further traversal or access beyond its bounds.
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11.
The reference to the first element of the list is called the ________.
Correct Answer head
Explanation The term "head" refers to the first element of a list. It is commonly used in programming languages to access or manipulate the initial element of a list. In this context, "head" is the correct answer as it accurately describes the reference to the first element of the list.
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12.
The primary advantage of a Linked List is that it can both ________.
Correct Answer grow and shrink
Explanation A linked list has the ability to grow and shrink dynamically, which means that elements can be added or removed from the list at any time. This is because each element in a linked list contains a reference to the next element, allowing for easy insertion or deletion. Unlike arrays, linked lists do not require a fixed amount of memory, making them more flexible in terms of size. Therefore, the primary advantage of a linked list is its ability to accommodate changes in size, allowing it to grow or shrink as needed.
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13.
One disadvantage of a Linked List is that you cannot ________ the elements directly.
Correct Answer access
Explanation A disadvantage of a Linked List is that you cannot directly access the elements. Unlike an array, where you can access elements using their index, in a Linked List, you need to traverse through the list starting from the head node to reach the desired element. This can be time-consuming, especially if the element you are looking for is towards the end of the list.
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14.
What is the Big O notation for a search operation in a Linked List?
A.
Big O of n
B.
Big O of n^2
C.
Big O of logn
D.
Big O of nlogn
Correct Answer A. Big O of n
Explanation The Big O notation for a search operation in a Linked List is Big O of n. This means that the time complexity of searching in a Linked List is directly proportional to the size of the list. In other words, as the size of the list increases, the time taken to search for an element in the list also increases linearly.
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15.
What is the Big O notation of an insertion operation in a Linked List at the head and at the tail?
A.
Head: Big O of n Tail: Big O of logn
B.
Head: Big O of 1 Tail: Big O of n
C.
Head: Big O of 2n Tail: Big O of nlogn
D.
Head; Big O of n^3 Tail: Big O of n^5
Correct Answer B. Head: Big O of 1 Tail: Big O of n
Explanation The Big O notation of an insertion operation in a Linked List at the head is O(1) because inserting a new node at the head only requires updating a few pointers and does not depend on the size of the list. On the other hand, the Big O notation of an insertion operation at the tail is O(n) because inserting a new node at the tail requires traversing the entire list to reach the end before performing the insertion.
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16.
What is the Big O notation of removing an element from the Linked List?
A.
Big O of logn
B.
BigO of n + n
C.
Big O of nlogn
D.
Big O of n
Correct Answer D. Big O of n
Explanation The Big O notation of removing an element from a Linked List is O(n) because in order to remove an element, we need to traverse the list to find the element that needs to be removed. The time complexity of traversing a Linked List is O(n) as we may need to visit all the elements in the worst case scenario. Therefore, the overall time complexity of removing an element from a Linked List is O(n).
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17.
The value of all the nodes in the left sub-tree of a Binary Search Tree that DOES NOT handle duplicates must be ________ the root node.
Correct Answer less than, lesser, less
Explanation In a Binary Search Tree that does not handle duplicates, the left sub-tree of any node contains values that are less than the root node. This is because in a Binary Search Tree, the values in the left sub-tree are always smaller than the root node, while the values in the right sub-tree are always greater. Therefore, the correct answer is "less than, lesser, less".
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18.
The value of all the nodes in the right subtree of a Binary Seach Tree must be ________ the root node.
Correct Answer greater than, greater
Explanation In a Binary Search Tree, the nodes in the right subtree must have values greater than the root node. This is because the Binary Search Tree follows a specific ordering property where all values in the left subtree are less than the root node, and all values in the right subtree are greater than the root node. Therefore, the correct answer is "greater than".
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19.
What is the Big O notation of searching through a Binary Search Tree that is balanced (meaning that for all nodes, the difference in heights between left and right subtrees is at most 1)? If confused, just refer to the image for an example of a BALANCED Binary Search Tree.
A.
Big O of n^3
B.
Big O of n
C.
Big O of logn
D.
Big O of nlogn
Correct Answer C. Big O of logn
Explanation The Big O notation of searching through a balanced Binary Search Tree is O(logn). This is because in a balanced tree, the height of the tree is logarithmic in relation to the number of nodes. As a result, the time complexity of searching for a specific value in the tree is also logarithmic.
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20.
Perform an inOrder transversal. Which of the following would be the correct result?
A.
12 10 8 15 25 16 20
B.
You cannot perform an inOrder transversal.
C.
8 10 12 15 16 20 25
D.
25 16 20 15 12 10 8
Correct Answer C. 8 10 12 15 16 20 25
Explanation The correct result for an inOrder traversal is to visit the left child, then the root, and finally the right child of each node in a binary tree. In the given options, the sequence "8 10 12 15 16 20 25" follows this pattern, as it starts with the leftmost child (8), then goes to its parent (10), and so on until it reaches the rightmost child (25). Therefore, "8 10 12 15 16 20 25" would be the correct result for an inOrder traversal.
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21.
Which of the following options successfully completes the fibonacci sequence function?
A.
Return fib (n - 2) + fib(n - 3)
B.
Return fib(n - 1) + fib(n - 2)
C.
Return fib(n - 1) * fib(n - 2)
D.
Return fib(n)
Correct Answer B. Return fib(n - 1) + fib(n - 2)
Explanation The correct answer is "return fib(n - 1) + fib(n - 2)". This is because the Fibonacci sequence is defined by adding the two previous numbers in the sequence to generate the next number. So, returning the sum of fib(n - 1) and fib(n - 2) will give the correct value for the nth number in the Fibonacci sequence.
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22.
The Big O notation for the put operation of an UnsortedMap is ________.
Correct Answer n, Big O of n
Explanation The Big O notation for the put operation of an UnsortedMap is "n", which represents the time complexity of the operation. This means that the time taken to perform the put operation on an UnsortedMap increases linearly with the size of the map. As the number of elements in the map (n) increases, the time taken to add a new element also increases proportionally. Therefore, the time complexity of the put operation in an UnsortedMap is O(n).
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23.
The Big O notation for the get operation of an UnsortedMap is ________.
Correct Answer n, Big O of n
Explanation The Big O notation for the get operation of an UnsortedMap is n, Big O of n. This means that the time complexity of the get operation in an UnsortedMap is directly proportional to the number of elements in the map. As the number of elements increases, the time taken to retrieve a specific element also increases linearly.
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24.
The Big O notation for the get operation of a SortedMap is ________.
Correct Answer logn, Big O of logn, log(n)
Explanation The Big O notation for the get operation of a SortedMap is logn, which represents the logarithmic time complexity. This means that as the size of the SortedMap increases, the time taken to perform the get operation will grow at a logarithmic rate. This is because a SortedMap typically uses a binary search tree or a balanced tree structure to store its elements, allowing for efficient retrieval of values. Therefore, the time complexity of the get operation is logarithmic, denoted as O(logn).
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25.
The Big O notation for the put operation of a SortedMap is ________.
Correct Answer n, Big O of n
Explanation The Big O notation for the put operation of a SortedMap is n, Big O of n. This means that the time complexity of the put operation in a SortedMap is directly proportional to the number of elements in the map. As the size of the map increases, the time taken to perform the put operation also increases linearly.
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26.
The Big O notation for both the put and get operation of a HashMap is ________.
Correct Answer 1, constant, c, Big O of 1, constant time
Explanation The Big O notation for both the put and get operation of a HashMap is 1, constant, c, or Big O of 1, constant time. This means that regardless of the size of the HashMap, the time complexity for both operations remains constant. It implies that the time taken to perform these operations does not depend on the number of elements in the HashMap.
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27.
Assembly language time! What is the difference between "Begin:" and ".Start Test"? (Look at your "Silly VM Architecture" sheet for hints! Do not overthink this. Just look at the words I put in quotations.)
A.
Begin: is a label definition while .Start Test is an assembly directive telling the assembler that the program will begin at label "Test."
B.
Begin: is a command instructing the assembler to allocate 86 or more bits of memory to the program while .Start Test executes the actual program.
C.
There is no difference between Begin: and .Start Test.
D.
Begin: executes the program while .Start Test just executes a function that tests to see if the assembler is working properly.
Correct Answer A. Begin: is a label definition while .Start Test is an assembly directive telling the assembler that the program will begin at label "Test."
Explanation Begin: is a label definition that is used to mark a specific location in the assembly code. It is not an instruction or directive that affects the execution of the program. On the other hand, ".Start Test" is an assembly directive that specifically instructs the assembler that the program will start executing from the label "Test." This directive is necessary for the assembler to correctly generate the machine code. Therefore, the difference between "Begin:" and ".Start Test" is that the former is a label definition while the latter is an assembly directive.
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28.
What are the first and second slots of memory used for in your assembler?
A.
The first and second slots are useless.
B.
The first and second slots are empty at program initialization and are used for backup once a program has exhausted the rest of the memory slots.
C.
The first slot is for telling the assembler how long the program is and the second slot is for telling the assembler where the program should begin executing.
D.
The first slot tells the assembler to create a memory address table while the second slot tells the assembler whether or not there is an error in the program.
Correct Answer C. The first slot is for telling the assembler how long the program is and the second slot is for telling the assembler where the program should begin executing.
Explanation The first slot of memory is used to store information about the length of the program, while the second slot is used to indicate the starting point of program execution. This allows the assembler to properly allocate memory and execute the program from the correct location.
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29.
You are now an assembler. And since it's your first day on the job, you are given the following basic line of assembly language: "Begin: .Integer #0 ;Begin Printing Doubles." What do you do?
A.
You would create an Integer Object that has a value of 0.
B.
You would construct a symbol table with one of its labels being "Begin:" and the memory address will be left blank because 0 signifies that there is no value in assembly language.
C.
The assembler would print out "0.0."
D.
You would construct a symbol table with one of its labels being "Begin:" and the memory address being "0."
Correct Answer D. You would construct a symbol table with one of its labels being "Begin:" and the memory address being "0."
Explanation The correct answer is to construct a symbol table with one of its labels being "Begin:" and the memory address being "0." This is because in assembly language, labels are used to mark specific locations in the code, and the memory address associated with the label indicates the location of the instruction or data in memory. In this case, the label "Begin:" is being associated with the memory address "0," indicating that the instruction or data following the label is located at address 0 in memory.
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30.
Structs are value types in Swift.
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer A. True
Explanation Structs are indeed value types in Swift. In Swift, structs are used to create custom data types that can store properties and methods. Unlike classes, which are reference types, structs are value types. This means that when a struct is assigned to a new constant or variable, or when it is passed as a parameter to a function, a copy of its value is created. This is different from reference types, where multiple variables can refer to the same instance. Therefore, the statement "Structs are value types in Swift" is correct.
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31.
An enumeration is... (Choose the BEST answer)
A.
A data structure that creates multiple objects upon initialization.
B.
A data structure that makes use of key-value mappings.
C.
A first class type that defines or encapsulates a group of related values.
D.
A first class type that creates multiple completely unrelated types that were previously undefined in Swift
Correct Answer C. A first class type that defines or encapsulates a group of related values.
Explanation An enumeration is a first class type that defines or encapsulates a group of related values. It allows us to define a set of related values as a distinct type, making our code more readable and maintainable. Enumerations in Swift can have associated values and methods, providing additional functionality and flexibility. They are commonly used to represent a finite set of possible values or states.
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32.
Was this quiz.... (The correct answer is "Easy. I breezed through it.")
A.
Easy. I breezed through it.
B.
Medium. There were some hard question, but also some pretty easy ones.
C.
Hard. I didn't even know what to do for the first question.
D.
Insane. This was a waste of my time. No way is the test going to be this hard.
Correct Answer A. Easy. I breezed through it.
Explanation The person who took the quiz found it to be easy and was able to complete it quickly without any difficulty.
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