1.
A linear collection of data elements where the linear node is given by means of pointer is
Correct Answer
A. Linked list
Explanation
A linked list is a linear collection of data elements where each element, also known as a node, is connected to the next element through a pointer. This allows for efficient insertion and deletion of elements at any position in the list. It is a dynamic data structure that can grow or shrink as needed. The other options, node list and primitive list, do not accurately describe a linked list.
2.
Representation of data structure in memory is known as:
Correct Answer
B. Abstract data type
Explanation
The representation of a data structure in memory refers to how the data is organized and stored in a computer's memory. This includes the arrangement of the data elements, their relationships, and any additional information associated with them. An abstract data type (ADT) is a high-level concept that defines a set of operations on a data structure without specifying the implementation details. It provides a way to organize and manipulate data, making it a suitable answer for the given question. Recursive refers to a process that calls itself, storage structure refers to how data is stored on a storage medium, and file structure specifically refers to how data is organized and stored in a file system.
3.
An adjacency matrix representation of a graph cannot contain information of :
Correct Answer
D. Parallel edges
Explanation
An adjacency matrix representation of a graph can contain information about nodes, edges, and the direction of edges. However, it cannot represent information about parallel edges. In a graph, parallel edges refer to multiple edges connecting the same pair of nodes. The adjacency matrix can only represent a single connection between two nodes, and therefore cannot contain information about parallel edges.
4.
Quick sort is also known as
Correct Answer
D. None of these
Explanation
Quick sort is not known as merge sort, heap sort, or bubble sort. It is a distinct sorting algorithm and is not commonly associated with any of the other options listed. Therefore, the correct answer is "none of these".
5.
Which of the following data structure is linear data structure?
Correct Answer
C. Arrays
Explanation
Arrays are linear data structures because they store elements in a sequential manner. Each element in an array is assigned a unique index, starting from 0, that represents its position in the array. This allows for efficient access to elements using their index. Additionally, arrays have a fixed size, meaning that elements are stored in contiguous memory locations, which enables efficient memory allocation and retrieval.
6.
The best average behaviour is shown by
Correct Answer
A. Quick Sort
Explanation
Quick Sort is known for its efficient average-case performance. It has an average time complexity of O(n log n), making it faster than Merge Sort, Insertion Sort, and Heap Sort in most cases. Quick Sort achieves this by partitioning the array into two sub-arrays based on a pivot element and recursively sorting the sub-arrays. This divide-and-conquer approach allows Quick Sort to efficiently sort large datasets. In contrast, Merge Sort has a worst-case time complexity of O(n log n) and Insertion Sort has a worst-case time complexity of O(n^2). Heap Sort also has a worst-case time complexity of O(n log n), but it requires additional space for the heap data structure. Therefore, Quick Sort is the best choice for achieving the best average behavior.
7.
A queue is a,
Correct Answer
A. FIFO (First In First Out) list.
Explanation
A queue is a data structure that follows the FIFO (First In First Out) principle, meaning that the element that is inserted first will be the first one to be removed. This is similar to a queue of people waiting in line, where the person who arrives first will be the first one to leave the line. Therefore, the correct answer is FIFO (First In First Out) list.
8.
Which data structure is needed to convert infix notation to postfix notation?
Correct Answer
D. Stack
Explanation
To convert infix notation to postfix notation, a stack data structure is needed. In infix notation, operators are placed between operands, whereas in postfix notation, operators are placed after their operands. To convert infix to postfix, we scan the infix expression from left to right and use a stack to store operators. When we encounter an operator, we compare its precedence with the top of the stack. If the operator has higher precedence, we push it onto the stack. If the operator has lower precedence, we pop the operators from the stack and append them to the postfix expression until we find an operator with lower precedence or an opening parenthesis. This process continues until the entire infix expression is scanned.
9.
The postfix form of the expression (A+ B)*(C*D− E)*F / G is
Correct Answer
A. AB+ CD*E âˆ’ FG /**
Explanation
The given expression is in infix form, where the operators are placed between the operands. To convert it to postfix form, we need to rearrange the expression so that the operators come after their corresponding operands. The postfix form is obtained by scanning the expression from left to right and using a stack to keep track of the operators.
Starting with the first operand, A, we move to the next token, +, which is an operator. Since the stack is empty, we push the operator onto the stack. Moving to the next operand, B, we add it to the postfix expression.
The next token is *, which has higher precedence than +, so we push it onto the stack. Moving to the next operand, C, we add it to the postfix expression.
The next token is D, which is added to the postfix expression. The next token is *, which is pushed onto the stack. The next token is E, which is added to the postfix expression.
The next token is -, which has lower precedence than *, so we pop the * from the stack and add it to the postfix expression. The next token is F, which is added to the postfix expression.
The next token is G, which is added to the postfix expression. The next token is /, which has higher precedence than -, so we push it onto the stack.
Finally, we pop the remaining operators from the stack and add them to the postfix expression. The resulting postfix expression is AB+ CD*E âˆ’ FG /**.
10.
A full binary tree with n leaves contains
Correct Answer
C. 2n â€“1 nodes.
Explanation
A full binary tree is a binary tree in which every node has either 0 or 2 children. In a full binary tree with n leaves, each leaf node represents a unique element, and each internal node represents an operation or a function. Since each internal node has 2 children, the total number of nodes in the tree can be calculated as 2n - 1, where n is the number of leaves. Therefore, the correct answer is 2n â€“ 1 nodes.
11.
Data is nothing but
Correct Answer
C. Set of value
Explanation
The correct answer is "Set of value" because data refers to a set of values or facts that are collected, organized, and stored for analysis or reference. It can be numeric, alphabetic, or symbolic in nature. Therefore, data is not just a collection of nodes or information, but rather a set of values that can be manipulated and analyzed.
12.
Overflow condition in stack is called
Correct Answer
B. Stack implementation Error
Explanation
Stack implementation error refers to a situation where there is an overflow condition in the stack. This means that the stack has reached its maximum capacity and cannot accept any more elements. This error occurs when attempting to push an element onto a full stack, causing the stack to overflow. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "Stack implementation Error".
13.
Stack is work on the principal of
Correct Answer
D. LIFO
Explanation
The correct answer is LIFO because a stack follows the Last-In-First-Out principle. This means that the last element added to the stack will be the first one to be removed. It is similar to a stack of plates, where the last plate added is the first one to be taken off when you remove them one by one. In programming, a stack is a data structure that allows operations like push (adding an element) and pop (removing an element) in a specific order, following the LIFO principle.
14.
Under which condition circular queue is Full
Correct Answer
B. Front=(rear+1)%maxsize
Explanation
When the front pointer is equal to the expression (rear+1)%maxsize, it indicates that the circular queue is full. This condition occurs because the front pointer is always one position ahead of the rear pointer in a circular queue. If the front pointer catches up with the rear pointer after wrapping around the queue, it means that there are no empty spaces left in the queue, hence it is full.
15.
Which is not application of stack
Correct Answer
C. Real operating system
Explanation
The correct answer is "Real operating system" because a stack data structure is not directly used in the implementation of an operating system. While stacks are commonly used in various programming tasks such as string reversal, arithmetic operation evaluation, and recursion, they are not specifically related to the functioning of an operating system.
16.
A B-tree is called
Correct Answer
D. Multi way search tree with Height balance
Explanation
A B-tree is called a multi-way search tree with height balance because it is a type of tree data structure that allows for multiple child nodes per parent node, unlike a binary tree which only allows for two child nodes per parent node. Additionally, a B-tree is designed to maintain a balance in its height, meaning that the height of the tree is kept relatively small compared to the number of elements it contains. This balance is achieved through various techniques such as splitting and merging nodes when necessary.
17.
Time complexity of linear search is
Correct Answer
A. 0(n)
Explanation
The time complexity of linear search is O(n) because in the worst case scenario, the algorithm needs to iterate through the entire list of n elements to find the desired element. This means that the time taken to execute the algorithm grows linearly with the size of the input.
18.
Highest precedence is
Correct Answer
D. ^
Explanation
The given answer is correct. In mathematical expressions, the operator with the highest precedence is the exponentiation operator (^). This means that any calculations involving exponentiation should be performed first before any other operations, such as multiplication (*), subtraction (-), or addition (+).
19.
Binary search tree is also called two way search tree
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A binary search tree is a type of data structure where each node has at most two children, a left child and a right child. It is called a "binary" search tree because it follows a specific ordering property, where the value of each node is greater than all values in its left subtree and less than all values in its right subtree. This ordering property allows for efficient searching, insertion, and deletion operations. The term "two-way search tree" is another name for a binary search tree, emphasizing the ability to search in both directions, from the root to the leaves and vice versa. Therefore, the statement that a binary search tree is also called a two-way search tree is true.
20.
The value of structure is resizing during run time by using
Correct Answer
D. Realloc
Explanation
The correct answer is realloc. The realloc function is used to dynamically resize the memory allocated for a structure during runtime. It allows for the reallocation of memory, increasing or decreasing its size as needed. This function is particularly useful when the size of the structure needs to be adjusted based on certain conditions or requirements. The realloc function ensures efficient memory management by reallocating the memory block and copying the existing data to the new block, if necessary.
21.
How many types of queue's are available
Correct Answer
D. 4
Explanation
There are four types of queues available.
22.
Array is Linear data structure
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given statement is true because an array is a linear data structure that stores elements of the same type in contiguous memory locations. It allows random access to its elements using an index, making it efficient for accessing and manipulating data. Arrays are widely used in programming to store and retrieve data efficiently.
23.
Disadvantage of linear queue is overcome by using
Correct Answer
B. Circular queue
Explanation
A linear queue has the disadvantage of limited capacity and inefficient memory usage because once an element is dequeued, the space it occupied cannot be reused. This can be overcome by using a circular queue, which allows elements to be enqueued and dequeued in a circular manner, effectively reusing the space and increasing the capacity of the queue. This ensures efficient memory usage and avoids the limitation of a linear queue.
24.
Leaf node is also called internal node
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The given statement is false. A leaf node and an internal node are two different concepts in a tree data structure. A leaf node is a node that does not have any children, while an internal node is a node that has at least one child. Therefore, a leaf node cannot be called an internal node.
25.
Which is not predefine string function
Correct Answer
B. Strcnt
Explanation
The given options are strlen, strcnt, strcat, and strcmp. Out of these options, strcnt is not a predefined string function. The other options, strlen, strcat, and strcmp, are all commonly used string functions in programming languages like C or C++. However, strcnt is not a standard string function and may not be recognized by most programming languages.
26.
Concept of array employes Wastage of memory
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The concept of array employs wastage of memory because when we declare an array, we allocate a fixed amount of memory to store a specific number of elements, even if we don't use all of the allocated memory. This leads to wastage of memory because if we have fewer elements to store, the remaining memory space will be unused. This can be inefficient, especially when dealing with large arrays or limited memory resources.
27.
Which is not primitive data structure
Correct Answer
A. Stack
Explanation
The data types int, char, and float are all primitive data types in programming. They are built-in data types that are provided by the programming language. However, a stack is not a primitive data structure. It is an abstract data type that can be implemented using arrays or linked lists. Therefore, the correct answer is Stack.
28.
How many types of sorting in data structure
Correct Answer
D. 2
Explanation
There are two types of sorting in data structures: internal sorting and external sorting. Internal sorting refers to sorting the data that can fit into the main memory of a computer, while external sorting is used when the data is too large to fit into the main memory and needs to be sorted using external storage devices such as hard drives or tapes. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.
29.
AVL stands for
Correct Answer
B. Height balanced tree
Explanation
AVL stands for "Height balanced tree". AVL trees are a type of self-balancing binary search tree where the heights of the left and right subtrees differ by at most one. This balancing property ensures that the tree remains balanced and maintains efficient search, insertion, and deletion operations. The term "height balanced tree" accurately describes the key characteristic of AVL trees, making it the correct answer.
30.
Data is nothing but
Correct Answer
C. Set of value
Explanation
Data refers to a set of values, facts, or information that is collected and processed for a specific purpose. It is not limited to just a collection of nodes or information, but encompasses a broader concept of a set of values. Therefore, the correct answer is "Set of value".
31.
Overflow condition in stack is called
Correct Answer
B. Stack implementation Error
Explanation
Stack implementation error refers to a situation where the stack data structure is not implemented correctly, leading to an overflow condition. This means that the stack has reached its maximum capacity and cannot accept any more elements. It is a mistake in the way the stack is designed or implemented, rather than an error in the abstract data type (ADT) itself. This error can occur due to various reasons such as incorrect size allocation, improper handling of push and pop operations, or failure to check for overflow conditions.
32.
Stack is work on the principal of
Correct Answer
D. LIFO
Explanation
The correct answer is LIFO, which stands for Last In, First Out. This means that the last element added to the stack will be the first one to be removed. In a stack, elements are added and removed from the top only, and the order in which they are added determines the order in which they are accessed. This concept is commonly used in programming and data structures, where the most recently added data is often the most relevant or needs to be processed first.
33.
Under which condition circular queue is Full
Correct Answer
B. Front=(rear+1)%maxsize
Explanation
The circular queue is considered full when the front pointer is equal to the value of (rear+1) modulo maxsize. This condition indicates that the next position after the rear pointer is the front pointer, and it ensures that the queue has reached its maximum capacity and cannot accommodate any more elements.
34.
Which is not application of stack
Correct Answer
C. Real operating system
Explanation
The application of a stack includes reversal of string, evaluation of arithmetic operations, and recursion. However, a "real operating system" is not an application of a stack. A stack is a data structure used for storing and retrieving data in a specific order, typically following the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. While an operating system may utilize a stack internally for various purposes, it is not considered an application or use case of a stack.
35.
A B-tree is called
Correct Answer
D. Multi way search tree with Height balance
Explanation
A B-tree is called a multi-way search tree with height balance because it is a type of search tree that can have multiple child nodes and maintains a balance in its height. This means that all leaf nodes are at the same level, resulting in efficient search and insertion operations. The height balance property ensures that the tree remains balanced even after multiple insertions and deletions, which helps in maintaining optimal performance for various operations like searching, inserting, and deleting data.
36.
Time complexity of linear search is
Correct Answer
A. 0(n)
Explanation
The time complexity of linear search is O(n) because in the worst case scenario, it needs to iterate through each element in the list until it finds the desired element or reaches the end of the list. This means that the time it takes to complete the search operation grows linearly with the size of the list.
37.
Highest precedence is
Correct Answer
D. ^
Explanation
The given answer is "^". In mathematical operations, the caret symbol (^) represents exponentiation, which has the highest precedence among the given operators. This means that any expression involving exponentiation should be evaluated first before any other operations like multiplication (*), subtraction (-), or addition (+). Therefore, the correct answer is "^" because it has the highest precedence.
38.
Binary search tree is also called two way search tree
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A binary search tree is a type of data structure where each node has at most two children, a left child and a right child. It is called a "two way search tree" because it allows for efficient searching in both directions. In a binary search tree, the left child of a node contains a smaller value than the node itself, while the right child contains a larger value. This property allows for quick searching by comparing the target value with the current node and traversing either left or right based on the comparison result. Hence, the statement "Binary search tree is also called two way search tree" is true.
39.
The value of structure is resizing during run time by using
Correct Answer
D. Realloc
Explanation
The correct answer is realloc. The realloc function in C is used to resize the memory block allocated by malloc or calloc during runtime. It allows you to change the size of the memory block while preserving its contents. This can be useful when you need to dynamically allocate or deallocate memory based on certain conditions or requirements in your program.
40.
How many types of queue's are available
Correct Answer
D. 4
Explanation
There are four types of queues available. The question is asking about the number of types of queues, and the correct answer is 4.
41.
Array is Linear data structure
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given statement is true because an array is a linear data structure that stores elements of the same data type in contiguous memory locations. The elements in an array can be accessed using their index positions, which are typically integers. Arrays are commonly used for storing and manipulating collections of data in programming languages.
42.
Disadvantage of linear queue is overcome by using
Correct Answer
B. Circular queue
Explanation
A disadvantage of a linear queue is that once the last position in the queue is reached, new elements cannot be added even if there are empty positions at the beginning. This problem is overcome by using a circular queue, where the last position is connected to the first position, allowing elements to be added even if the queue is not completely empty. This ensures efficient utilization of the available positions in the queue.
43.
Leaf node is also called internal node
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement in the question is incorrect. A leaf node is a node in a tree data structure that does not have any child nodes. On the other hand, an internal node is a node that has at least one child node. Therefore, a leaf node cannot be called an internal node.
44.
Which is not predefine string function
Correct Answer
B. Strcnt
Explanation
The function "strcnt" is not a predefined string function. The other options, "strlen", "strcat", and "strcmp" are commonly used string functions in programming languages. However, "strcnt" is not a standard function and may not be available in most programming languages.
45.
Concept of array employes Wastage of memory
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The concept of array employees can lead to wastage of memory because arrays have a fixed size and if the number of employees is less than the size of the array, the remaining memory allocated for the array will be wasted. This can be inefficient in terms of memory utilization. Therefore, the statement "concept of array employees Wastage of memory" is true.
46.
How many types of sorting in data structure
Correct Answer
D. 2
Explanation
There are two types of sorting in data structure: internal sorting and external sorting. Internal sorting refers to sorting the data that can be fit into the main memory, while external sorting is used when the data is too large to fit into the main memory and needs to be sorted using external storage devices like disks. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.
47.
AVL stands for
Correct Answer
B. Height balanced tree
Explanation
AVL stands for "Height balanced tree". This is a data structure that is used in computer science to efficiently store and retrieve data. In an AVL tree, the heights of the left and right subtrees of any node differ by at most one, ensuring that the tree remains balanced. This balance property allows for faster search, insertion, and deletion operations compared to other types of trees.
48.
A variable P is called pointer if
Correct Answer
A. P contains the address of an element in DATA.
Explanation
A variable P is called a pointer if it contains the address of an element in the DATA. Pointers are used to store memory addresses, allowing direct access and manipulation of the data stored in that memory location. By holding the address of an element in the DATA, the pointer can effectively point to and interact with that specific element.
49.
Each data item in a record may be a group item composed of sub-items; those items which are indecomposable are called
Correct Answer
D. All of above
Explanation
The correct answer is "all of above". This means that each data item in a record may be a group item composed of sub-items, and those items which are indecomposable can be referred to as elementary items, atoms, or scalars. In other words, all three terms - elementary items, atoms, and scalars - can be used to describe data items that cannot be further broken down into smaller components within a record.
50.
Which of the following statement is false?
Correct Answer
C. pointers store the next data element of a list
Explanation
The given statement, "pointers store the next data element of a list," is false. Pointers in a linked list do not store the next data element directly, but rather they store the memory address of the next node in the list. This allows the linked list to maintain its structure by connecting nodes together through pointers.