Modelling And Simulation(It705c)

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Modelling And Simulation(It705c) - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The parameters of a binomial distribution with mean 80 and variance 4 are

    • A.

      N=16 , p=1/2

    • B.

      N=16,p=1/4

    • C.

      N=32,p=1/4

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these
    Explanation
    The parameters of a binomial distribution are the number of trials (n) and the probability of success (p). In this case, the mean is given as 80 and the variance is given as 4. However, none of the given options for n and p will result in a mean of 80 and a variance of 4 for a binomial distribution. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of these."

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  • 2. 

    An entity is

    • A.

      Object of interest of the system

    • B.

      Attribute

    • C.

      Time period of specified length

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Object of interest of the system
    Explanation
    An entity refers to an object of interest within a system. It can be a person, place, thing, or concept that is relevant to the system being discussed. This term is commonly used in various fields such as database management, software development, and business analysis to represent and describe elements that have significance and relevance within a given context.

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  • 3. 

    Monte-Carlo simulation is used for solving certain

    • A.

      Deterministic, 

    • B.

      Stochastic

    • C.

       deterministic and stochastic,

    • D.

      None of these problems.

    Correct Answer
    C.  deterministic and stochastic,
    Explanation
    Monte-Carlo simulation is a technique used to solve both deterministic and stochastic problems. Deterministic problems are those that have a known and predictable outcome, while stochastic problems involve uncertainty and randomness. By using random sampling and statistical analysis, Monte-Carlo simulation can provide insights and solutions for both types of problems.

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  • 4. 

    Random variate of probability distribution can be generated using

    • A.

       inverse-transform technique

    • B.

      Acceptance-rejection technique

    • C.

       both of these

    • D.

       none of these.

    Correct Answer
    C.  both of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "both of these" because random variates of a probability distribution can be generated using both the inverse-transform technique and the acceptance-rejection technique. The inverse-transform technique involves transforming random numbers from a uniform distribution to generate random variates of the desired distribution. The acceptance-rejection technique involves generating random variates from a proposal distribution and accepting or rejecting them based on certain criteria to approximate the desired distribution. Therefore, both techniques can be used to generate random variates of a probability distribution.

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  • 5. 

    The convolution method refers to adding

    • A.

      Two 

    • B.

      Two or more 

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Three or more variables.

    Correct Answer
    B. Two or more 
    Explanation
    The convolution method involves combining or adding two or more variables together. This technique is commonly used in signal processing and image processing to merge or blend different signals or images. By convolving multiple variables, their information can be combined to create a new output that represents the combined characteristics of the original variables. This method is often used in applications such as noise reduction, feature detection, and image filtering.

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  • 6. 

    A M/M/1/∞/FIFO queue is in explosive state if 

    • A.

      λ >µ

    • B.

       µ> λ 

    • C.

      λ ≥µ

    • D.

      µ≥ λ.

    Correct Answer
    A. λ >µ
    Explanation
    In a M/M/1/∞/FIFO queue, λ represents the arrival rate of customers and µ represents the service rate of the system. When λ is greater than µ, it means that the arrival rate of customers is higher than the service rate, causing the queue to continuously grow and potentially become infinite. This is known as an explosive state, where the system is unable to handle the incoming customers efficiently, leading to congestion and a backlog of customers waiting in the queue.

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  • 7. 

    Maximum likelihood estimator are

    • A.

      Only consistent

    • B.

       only efficient

    • C.

      Unbiased

    • D.

      Consistent and usually efficient

    Correct Answer
    D. Consistent and usually efficient
    Explanation
    Maximum likelihood estimators are consistent, meaning that as the sample size increases, the estimate converges to the true value of the parameter being estimated. Additionally, maximum likelihood estimators are usually efficient, meaning that they have the smallest possible variance among all consistent estimators. However, they may not always be unbiased, meaning that on average they may not give the true value of the parameter.

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  • 8. 

    For normal distribution 

    • A.

      Mean = median

    • B.

      Mean>median

    • C.

       mean< median

    • D.

       none of these.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mean = median
    Explanation
    In a normal distribution, the mean is equal to the median. This means that the average value of the data points is the same as the middle value. In a symmetrical distribution, where the data is evenly distributed around the mean, the mean and median will be the same. This is because the mean takes into account all the data points, while the median only considers the middle value. Therefore, in a normal distribution, the mean and median will be equal.

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  • 9. 

    Type – I error is the error of

    • A.

      Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true

    • B.

      Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false 

    • C.

       accepting the null hypothesis when it is true

    • D.

      Accepting the null hypothesis when it is false.

    Correct Answer
    A. Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true
    Explanation
    Type-I error refers to the error of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis assumes that there is no significant difference or relationship between variables. However, if we reject the null hypothesis based on the sample data, when in reality it is true, we commit a Type-I error. This means that we falsely conclude that there is a significant difference or relationship when there isn't one in the population. It is important to control the probability of Type-I error, typically denoted as alpha (α), to maintain the accuracy of statistical conclusions.

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  • 10. 

    For a chi-square distribution with n degrees of freedom the mean is 

    • A.

      N

    • B.

      2n

    • C.

      N^2

    • D.

      N^3

    Correct Answer
    A. N
    Explanation
    The mean of a chi-square distribution with n degrees of freedom is equal to n. This means that on average, the chi-square values will be equal to the number of degrees of freedom.

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  • 11. 

    Deterministic simulation model contains 

    • A.

      No

    • B.

      One

    • C.

      Two

    • D.

      More than two random variables.

    Correct Answer
    A. No
    Explanation
    A deterministic simulation model does not contain any random variables. This means that the model's output is completely determined by its inputs and the relationships defined within the model. There is no element of randomness or uncertainty involved in the model's calculations or results.

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  • 12. 

    In a M/M/1/∞/FIFO queue the probability of more than N customers in the queue is

    • A.

      (λ /µ)N

    • B.

      (µ /λ)N

    • C.

       (λµ)N

    • D.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    A. (λ /µ)N
    Explanation
    In a M/M/1/∞/FIFO queue, λ represents the arrival rate of customers and µ represents the service rate. The formula (λ /µ)N calculates the probability of having more than N customers in the queue. This formula is derived from the Poisson distribution, which is used to model arrival and service rates in queuing systems. By raising (λ /µ) to the power of N, we get the probability of N or more customers in the queue. Therefore, the correct answer is (λ /µ)N.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following are advantages of simulation?

    • A.

      Simulation allows "what-if?" type of questions.

    • B.

      Simulation can usually be performed by hand or using a small calculator

    • C.

      Simulation does not interfere with the real-world system

    • D.

      (a) and (c) only

    Correct Answer
    D. (a) and (c) only
    Explanation
    Simulation allows "what-if?" type of questions, meaning that it allows users to explore different scenarios and evaluate the potential outcomes without actually implementing them in the real world. This can be beneficial for decision-making and planning purposes. Additionally, simulation does not interfere with the real-world system, which means that it can be used to test and analyze systems without causing any disruptions or risks. Therefore, the advantages of simulation include the ability to ask "what-if?" questions and the non-interference with the real-world system.

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  • 14. 

    The first step in simulation is to

    • A.

      Set up possible courses of action for testing.

    • B.

      Construct a numerical model.

    • C.

      Define the problem.

    • D.

      Validate the model.

    Correct Answer
    C. Define the problem.
    Explanation
    In the first step of simulation, it is essential to define the problem that needs to be addressed. This involves clearly identifying the objectives, constraints, and variables of the simulation model. By defining the problem, the simulation team can establish a clear understanding of what they are trying to achieve and what factors need to be considered. This step is crucial as it sets the foundation for the entire simulation process and ensures that the subsequent steps are aligned with the problem at hand.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following are disadvantages of simulation?

    • A.

      Is not usually easily transferable to other problems

    • B.

      could be disruptive by interfering with the real-world system

    • C.

      "time compression" capability

    • D.

      inability to analyze large and complex real-world situations

    Correct Answer
    A. Is not usually easily transferable to other problems
    Explanation
    Simulation is a method that is used to model and analyze real-world situations. One of the disadvantages of simulation is that it is not usually easily transferable to other problems. This means that the simulation model that is created for a specific problem may not be applicable or effective for solving other problems. Simulation is often tailored to a specific context and may not be easily adaptable to different scenarios or situations. Therefore, it may not be a suitable approach for solving a wide range of problems.

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  • 16. 

    The first step in the Monte Carlo simulation process is to

    • A.

      Generate random numbers.

    • B.

      set up cumulative probability distributions.

    • C.

      Establish random number intervals.

    • D.

      Set up probability distributions.

    Correct Answer
    D. Set up probability distributions.
    Explanation
    In Monte Carlo simulation, the first step involves setting up probability distributions. This is because the simulation relies on random sampling from these distributions to model the uncertainty and variability of the variables being studied. By defining the probability distributions, the simulation can generate random numbers that follow these distributions, allowing for the analysis of different scenarios and the estimation of probabilities for various outcomes. Setting up cumulative probability distributions and random number intervals comes later in the process, after the probability distributions have been established.

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  • 17. 

    Cumulative probabilities are found by

    • A.

      Summing all the previous probabilities up to the current value of the variable.

    • B.

      Simulating the initial probability distribution.

    • C.

      Summing all the probabilities associated with a variable.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Summing all the previous probabilities up to the current value of the variable.
    Explanation
    Cumulative probabilities are calculated by summing all the previous probabilities up to the current value of the variable. This means that for each value of the variable, the probability of that value occurring is added to the sum of probabilities of all previous values. By doing this, we can determine the probability of obtaining a value less than or equal to a certain value.

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  • 18. 

    If we are going to simulate an inventory problem, we must

    • A.

      Run the simulation for many days.

    • B.

      Run the simulation for many days many times, i.e., using multiple sets of random numbers.

    • C.

      Run the simulation many times, i.e., using multiple sets of random numbers.

    • D.

      Run the simulation once, for a relative short period of time.

    Correct Answer
    B. Run the simulation for many days many times, i.e., using multiple sets of random numbers.
    Explanation
    To accurately simulate an inventory problem, it is necessary to run the simulation for many days many times, using multiple sets of random numbers. This is because inventory problems are affected by various factors that can change over time, such as customer demand, supplier availability, and production delays. Running the simulation for many days allows for a more comprehensive analysis of these factors and their impacts on the inventory system. Using multiple sets of random numbers ensures that the simulation captures different scenarios and variations in the input data, leading to more reliable results.

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  • 19. 

    From a practical perspective, if we have a waiting line problem for which the Poisson and negative exponential distributions do not apply, and we desire a reasonably accurate solution, we should

    • A.

      Modify the queuing equations to make them appropriate for our problem.

    • B.

      Use simulation.

    • C.

      Use the simple queuing equations even though we realize they are inappropriate.

    • D.

      Build a physical model and use that to study the problem.

    Correct Answer
    B. Use simulation.
    Explanation
    When the Poisson and negative exponential distributions do not apply to a waiting line problem and we still want a reasonably accurate solution, using simulation is the best approach. Simulation allows us to replicate the real-world scenario by creating a model and running multiple iterations to observe the system's behavior. By simulating the queuing process, we can gather data and analyze the results to make informed decisions and find an appropriate solution for the problem at hand.

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  • 20. 

    All of the following are various ways of generating random numbers except

    • A.

      Fibonacci series

    • B.

      Von Neumann midsquare method

    • C.

      Spin of roulette wheel

    • D.

      Table of random numbers

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibonacci series
    Explanation
    The Fibonacci series is not a method of generating random numbers. It is a sequence of numbers where each number is the sum of the two preceding ones. This sequence follows a specific pattern and is deterministic, meaning it can be predicted and is not random. Therefore, it is not a valid option for generating random numbers.

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  • 21. 

    The three types of mathematical simulation models are

    • A.

      Monte Carlo, systems simulation, computer gaming.

    • B.

      Monte Carlo, queuing, maintenance policy.

    • C.

      Operational gaming, Monte Carlo, systems simulation.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Operational gaming, Monte Carlo, systems simulation.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is operational gaming, Monte Carlo, systems simulation. This answer is correct because it accurately identifies the three types of mathematical simulation models. Operational gaming involves using simulations to model and analyze real-world operational scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is a statistical technique that uses random sampling to model and analyze complex systems. Systems simulation involves creating computer models to simulate and analyze the behavior of complex systems.

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  • 22. 

    Simulation should be thought of as a technique for

    • A.

      Providing quick and dirty answers to complex problems.

    • B.

      Obtaining an optimal solution to a problem.

    • C.

      Obtaining a relatively inexpensive solution to a problem.

    • D.

      Increasing one's understanding of a problem.

    Correct Answer
    D. Increasing one's understanding of a problem.
    Explanation
    Simulation is a technique that helps individuals gain a deeper understanding of complex problems. It allows them to create a simplified model of the problem and observe how it behaves under different conditions. By simulating the problem, individuals can explore various scenarios, identify patterns, and gain insights that can enhance their understanding. While simulation may not always provide optimal or inexpensive solutions, its primary purpose is to increase one's comprehension of the problem at hand.

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  • 23. 

    Simulation is best thought of as a technique to

    • A.

      Give concrete numeric answers.

    • B.

      Increase understanding of a problem.

    • C.

      Provide rapid solutions to relatively simple problems.

    • D.

      Provide optimal solutions to complex problems.

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase understanding of a problem.
    Explanation
    Simulation is a technique that involves creating a model or representation of a real-world system or process in order to gain a better understanding of it. By simulating the system, we can observe how it behaves under different conditions and make predictions about its performance. While simulation can also be used to provide numeric answers or solutions to problems, its primary purpose is to increase our understanding of the problem at hand. Therefore, the correct answer is "increase understanding of a problem."

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  • 24. 

    When simulating the Monte Carlo experiment, the average simulated demand over the long run should approximate the

    • A.

      Real demand.

    • B.

      Expected demand.

    • C.

      Sampled demand.

    • D.

      Daily demand.

    Correct Answer
    B. Expected demand.
    Explanation
    In a Monte Carlo experiment, the goal is to simulate various scenarios and calculate the average outcome over the long run. The "expected demand" refers to the average demand that is anticipated based on historical data and other relevant factors. Therefore, when simulating the experiment, the average simulated demand should approximate the expected demand, as it represents the most likely outcome.

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  • 25. 

    The idea behind simulation is to

    • A.

      Imitate a real-world situation.

    • B.

      Study the properties and operating characteristics of a real-world situation.

    • C.

      Draw conclusions and make action decisions based on simulation results.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." Simulation is used to imitate a real-world situation, allowing researchers to study its properties and operating characteristics. By drawing conclusions and making action decisions based on simulation results, individuals can gain valuable insights and make informed choices. Therefore, all of these options accurately describe the idea behind simulation.

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  • 26. 

    Special-purpose simulation languages include

    • A.

      C++.

    • B.

      Visual Basic.

    • C.

      GPSS/H.

    • D.

      FORTRAN

    Correct Answer
    C. GPSS/H.
    Explanation
    Special-purpose simulation languages are designed specifically for simulating certain types of systems or processes. C++ and Visual Basic are general-purpose programming languages and can be used for a wide range of applications, including simulation, but they are not specifically designed for simulation. FORTRAN is a general-purpose programming language that is commonly used in scientific and engineering applications, but it is not a special-purpose simulation language. GPSS/H, on the other hand, is a special-purpose simulation language that is specifically designed for simulating manufacturing and industrial processes. Therefore, the correct answer is GPSS/H.

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  • 27. 

    In a Monte Carlo simulation, a variable that we might want to simulate is

    • A.

      Lead time for inventory orders to arrive.

    • B.

      Time between machine breakdowns.

    • C.

      Time between arrivals at a service facility.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." In a Monte Carlo simulation, we simulate various variables to analyze their impact on a system. Lead time for inventory orders to arrive, time between machine breakdowns, and time between arrivals at a service facility are all examples of variables that can be simulated in a Monte Carlo simulation. By simulating these variables, we can understand their distributions, identify patterns, and make informed decisions to optimize the system's performance.

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  • 28. 

    To simulate from a discrete general distribution in Excel without Crystal Ball, we use

    • A.

      A COUNTIF function.

    • B.

      A NORMINV function.

    • C.

      A LOOKUP function.

    • D.

      Data Table.

    Correct Answer
    C. A LOOKUP function.
    Explanation
    To simulate from a discrete general distribution in Excel without Crystal Ball, we can use a LOOKUP function. The LOOKUP function allows us to search for a value in a range of cells and return a corresponding value from another range of cells. In this case, we can use the LOOKUP function to search for random numbers generated using the RAND function and return the corresponding values from the discrete general distribution. This allows us to simulate random values from the distribution in Excel without the need for additional software like Crystal Ball.

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  • 29. 

    To run several replications of a large simulation model in Excel without Crystal Ball, we use

    • A.

      An IF function.

    • B.

      A NORMINV function.

    • C.

      A LOOKUP function.

    • D.

      Data Table.

    Correct Answer
    D. Data Table.
    Explanation
    To run several replications of a large simulation model in Excel without Crystal Ball, we use a Data Table. A Data Table allows us to input different values for certain variables in the model and see the resulting outputs. By running multiple iterations with different values, we can simulate different scenarios and analyze the impact on the model's outcomes. This is a useful tool for sensitivity analysis and evaluating the robustness of the model. The other options mentioned (IF function, NORMINV function, and LOOKUP function) are not specifically designed for running replications of simulation models.

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  • 30. 

    To automatically try different values of a decision variable in Crystal Ball, we use

    • A.

      Data Table.

    • B.

      Decision Table.

    • C.

      Scenario Manager.

    • D.

      A CB.Custom function.

    Correct Answer
    B. Decision Table.
    Explanation
    A decision table is used in Crystal Ball to automatically try different values of a decision variable. It allows users to define various combinations of input values and their corresponding outcomes, making it easier to analyze the impact of different scenarios on the decision variable. This helps in making informed decisions by considering the potential outcomes of different choices.

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  • 31. 

    If a random variable X follows Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4 then Y=(X-1)/2 follows

    • A.

      Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 0

    • B.

      Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4

    • C.

      Normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1

    • D.

      Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 1

    Correct Answer
    C. Normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1
    Explanation
    If a random variable X follows a Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4, then Y=(X-1)/2 follows a Normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1. This is because when we subtract the mean (1) from X and divide the result by 2, we shift the distribution to have a mean of 0 and scale it down to have a variance of 1.

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  • 32. 

    If X be a random variable of any continuous distribution then Y=F(X) having distribution

    • A.

      Uniform in (0,1)

    • B.

      Normal in (0,1)

    • C.

      Exponential in (0,1)

    • D.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    A. Uniform in (0,1)
    Explanation
    If X is a random variable of any continuous distribution, then Y=F(X) will have a uniform distribution in the interval (0,1). This is because the cumulative distribution function (CDF) F(X) transforms the values of X into probabilities between 0 and 1. As F(X) is a monotonically increasing function, the values of Y will be evenly spread out in the interval (0,1), resulting in a uniform distribution.

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  • 33. 

    The parameters of a binomial distribution with mean 8 and variance 4 are

    • A.

      N=16 , p=1/2

    • B.

      N=16,p=1/4

    • C.

      N=32,p=1/4

    • D.

      N=2 , p=1/2.

    Correct Answer
    A. N=16 , p=1/2
    Explanation
    The given answer, n=16 and p=1/2, is correct because it satisfies the conditions of the binomial distribution. The mean of a binomial distribution is given by n*p, and in this case, it is 16*(1/2) = 8, which matches the given mean of 8. Similarly, the variance of a binomial distribution is given by n*p*(1-p), and in this case, it is 16*(1/2)*(1-(1/2)) = 4, which matches the given variance of 4. Therefore, n=16 and p=1/2 is the correct answer.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is used for random number generation

    • A.

      Method of linear congruencies

    • B.

      Method of inverse transformation

    • C.

      Using rejection

    • D.

      All of these.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these.
    Explanation
    All of the mentioned methods (method of linear congruencies, method of inverse transformation, and using rejection) can be used for random number generation. The method of linear congruencies involves generating random numbers based on a linear equation, while the method of inverse transformation uses the inverse of a cumulative distribution function to generate random numbers. The rejection method involves generating random numbers by rejecting certain values that do not meet specific criteria. Therefore, all of these methods can be used for random number generation.

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  • 35. 

    Which is the most common form of dynamic simulation?

    • A.

      Static simulation.

    • B.

      Discrete event simulation.

    • C.

      Stochastic simulation.

    • D.

      Discrete time simulation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Discrete event simulation.
    Explanation
    Discrete event simulation is the most common form of dynamic simulation. This type of simulation models the behavior of a system as a sequence of discrete events, such as arrivals, departures, or changes in state. It is widely used to analyze and optimize complex systems with unpredictable events and interactions, such as manufacturing processes, transportation systems, or computer networks. Static simulation, on the other hand, does not involve the modeling of dynamic events and is used to analyze systems with constant or predetermined inputs. Stochastic simulation incorporates randomness into the model, while discrete time simulation models the system using a discrete time scale.

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  • 36. 

    The parameters of a binomial distribution with mean 80 and variance 4 are

    • A.

      N=16 , p=1/2

    • B.

      N=16,p=1/4

    • C.

      N=32,p=1/4

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these
  • 37. 

    If a random variable X follows Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4 then Y=(X+1)/2 follows

    • A.

      Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 0

    • B.

      Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4

    • C.

      Normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these
    Explanation
    If a random variable X follows a Normal distribution with mean 1 and variance 4, then the transformation Y=(X+1)/2 does not follow any of the given options. The transformation Y is obtained by adding 1 to X and dividing it by 2. This will shift the mean of X by 1 unit to the right and scale it down by a factor of 2. Therefore, Y will follow a Normal distribution with mean (1+1)/2=1 and variance (4/2)^2=1. Hence, the correct answer is "None of these".

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  • 38. 

    The mean of Binomial(10,1/2)  

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. 5
    Explanation
    The mean of a binomial distribution is calculated by multiplying the number of trials by the probability of success in each trial. In this case, the number of trials is 10 and the probability of success is 1/2. Therefore, the mean is 10 * (1/2) = 5.

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  • 39. 

    The mean of uniform(0,2)  

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      10

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    The mean of a uniform distribution is the average of the minimum and maximum values of the distribution. In this case, the minimum value is 0 and the maximum value is 2. Therefore, the mean is (0+2)/2 = 1.

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  • 40. 

    The mean of normal(10,1/2)  

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. 10
    Explanation
    The mean of a normal distribution with parameters (10, 1/2) is 10. This means that the average value of the data points in this distribution is 10.

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