Server Admin Review Quiz

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Server Admin Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The foundation edition of Windows Server 2012, although limited, supports Hyper-V, and can be installed with a VM

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The foundation edition of Windows Server 2012 does not support Hyper-V and cannot be installed with a VM.

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  • 2. 

    The Line Printer Daemon role service provides print compatibility with Linux/ Unix Clients

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Line Printer Daemon role service enables print compatibility with Linux/Unix clients. This means that if this role service is enabled on a Windows server, it allows Linux/Unix clients to send print jobs to printers connected to that server. Therefore, the statement "The Line Printer Daemon role service provides print compatibility with Linux/Unix Clients" is true.

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  • 3. 

    What file system below does not support encryption, file based compress, and disk quotas, but does support extremely large volume sizes?

    • A.

      NTFS

    • B.

      FAT16

    • C.

      FAT32

    • D.

      ReFS

    Correct Answer
    D. ReFS
    Explanation
    ReFS (Resilient File System) is the file system that does not support encryption, file-based compression, and disk quotas, but it does support extremely large volume sizes. This means that ReFS is unable to encrypt files, compress them to save space, or set disk quotas to limit the amount of storage used by a user or application. However, it is capable of handling very large volumes, making it suitable for scenarios that require high-capacity storage.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following choices is not a service supported by Windows 8.1?

    • A.

      Hyper-V

    • B.

      File and Printer Sharing

    • C.

      FTP Server

    • D.

      DHCP Server

    Correct Answer
    D. DHCP Server
    Explanation
    Windows 8.1 does not support the DHCP Server service. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is responsible for assigning IP addresses to devices on a network. While Windows 8.1 supports other services like Hyper-V (a virtualization platform), File and Printer Sharing, and FTP Server, it does not have built-in support for acting as a DHCP Server.

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  • 5. 

    Select the Active Directory server role that provides the functions of the Active Directory without the requirements of forests, domains, and domain controllers

    • A.

      AD DS

    • B.

      AD LDS

    • C.

      AD FS

    • D.

      AD RMS

    Correct Answer
    B. AD LDS
    Explanation
    AD LDS stands for Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. It is a server role that provides the functions of Active Directory without the requirements of forests, domains, and domain controllers. AD LDS is used to create and manage directory services for applications that require a lightweight directory access protocol (LDAP) directory. It allows organizations to deploy a directory service for specific applications or services without the need for a full Active Directory infrastructure. AD LDS is ideal for scenarios where a separate directory service is needed to store application-specific data or to provide authentication for non-domain users.

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  • 6. 

    What edition of Windows Server 2012 R2 can have up to 4TB of RAM, and function as a virtualization host with unlimited virtual instances?

    • A.

      Foundation

    • B.

      Datacenter

    • C.

      Essentials

    • D.

      Standard

    Correct Answer
    B. Datacenter
    Explanation
    Windows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter edition is the correct answer because it is the only edition that supports up to 4TB of RAM and can function as a virtualization host with unlimited virtual instances. The Foundation edition has limitations on RAM and virtual instances, while the Essentials and Standard editions also have limitations on RAM and virtualization capabilities.

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  • 7. 

    How many users can be supported by the Essentials Edition of Windows Server 2012?

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      15

    • C.

      25

    • D.

      50

    Correct Answer
    C. 25
    Explanation
    The Essentials Edition of Windows Server 2012 can support up to 25 users. This edition is designed for small businesses with up to 25 users and 50 devices. It provides essential features such as file and printer sharing, remote access, and data backup. This edition is more affordable and has limitations compared to other editions of Windows Server 2012, making it suitable for small-scale environments.

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  • 8. 

    Select the utility below that provides a single interface for installing, configuring, and removing a variety of server roles and features as well as providing a place to view server status

    • A.

      Server Manager

    • B.

      Active Directory Users and Computers

    • C.

      MMC

    • D.

      PowerShell

    Correct Answer
    A. Server Manager
    Explanation
    Server Manager is the correct answer because it is a utility that allows users to install, configure, and remove server roles and features in a single interface. It also provides a place to view server status, making it a comprehensive tool for managing servers. Active Directory Users and Computers is specific to managing user accounts and groups in an Active Directory environment. MMC (Microsoft Management Console) is a framework for hosting administrative tools, but it does not provide the same level of functionality as Server Manager. PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language, which can be used for server management, but it does not provide the same graphical interface as Server Manager.

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  • 9. 

    What Windows Server 2012 R2 server role provides the Host Credential Authorization Protocol (HCAP) role service?

    • A.

      Remote Access

    • B.

      Print and Document Service

    • C.

      Windows Deployment Services

    • D.

      Network Policy and Access Services

    Correct Answer
    D. Network Policy and Access Services
    Explanation
    Network Policy and Access Services is the correct answer because it provides the Host Credential Authorization Protocol (HCAP) role service. This role service allows administrators to control access to network resources based on the health of the client computer. It helps ensure that only healthy and compliant devices are allowed to connect to the network, enhancing network security. Remote Access, Print and Document Service, and Windows Deployment Services are not directly related to HCAP.

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  • 10. 

    A ___________ is composed of two parts: NIC hardware and device drivers 

    Correct Answer
    Network interface
    network interface
    Network Interface
    Explanation
    A network interface is composed of two parts: NIC hardware and device drivers. The NIC hardware is the physical component that allows a computer to connect to a network, while the device drivers are the software that enable the operating system to communicate with the NIC hardware. Together, they form the network interface, which enables the computer to send and receive data over the network.

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  • 11. 

    ____________ is a collection of technologies for abstracting the details of how applications, storage, network, and other computing resources are delivered to users

    Correct Answer
    cloud computing
    cloud services
    Explanation
    Cloud computing is a collection of technologies that provide users with abstracted details of how applications, storage, network, and other computing resources are delivered. Cloud services, on the other hand, refer to the specific services and applications that are provided by cloud computing. In this context, both cloud computing and cloud services are correct answers as they are related to the abstraction and delivery of computing resources to users.

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  • 12. 

    The ability to assign system policies, deploy software, and assign permissions and rights to users of network resources in a centralized manner is a feature of what Windows Server 2012 R2 service?END OF CHAPTER 1

    Correct Answer
    Active Directory
    Explanation
    Active Directory is a service in Windows Server 2012 R2 that allows administrators to manage and control network resources in a centralized manner. It provides the ability to assign system policies, deploy software, and assign permissions and rights to users. With Active Directory, administrators can easily manage user accounts, groups, computers, and other network resources, making it an essential feature for network administration in Windows Server 2012 R2.

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  • 13. 

    When selecing disk subsystems for enterprise or servers accessed 24/7, SAS is a preferred technology

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    SAS (Serial Attached SCSI) is a preferred technology for disk subsystems in enterprise or servers accessed 24/7. SAS offers several advantages such as higher data transfer rates, better reliability, and improved scalability compared to other technologies like SATA (Serial ATA). It is designed for high-performance and high-reliability applications, making it suitable for continuous operation in enterprise environments. Therefore, it is true that SAS is a preferred technology for disk subsystems in such scenarios.

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  • 14. 

    The first server in a Windows domain network is an ideal candidate for a Server Core installation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The first server in a Windows domain network is not an ideal candidate for a Server Core installation. Server Core is a minimal installation option of Windows Server that does not include a graphical user interface. It is typically recommended for experienced administrators who prefer to use command-line tools and remote management. As the first server in a domain network, it is important to have a full graphical user interface for easier setup, configuration, and management of the network. Therefore, it is not advisable to use Server Core for the initial server in a Windows domain network.

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  • 15. 

    If the wrong server edition is installed, what command can be used to change to a different edition?

    • A.

      Netdom

    • B.

      Change-edition

    • C.

      Dism

    • D.

      Netsh

    Correct Answer
    C. Dism
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "dism". DISM stands for Deployment Image Servicing and Management, and it is a command-line tool used to service Windows images offline before deployment. It can be used to change the server edition by using the "/Set-Edition" parameter followed by the desired edition name. This allows users to upgrade or downgrade their server edition without the need for reinstalling the operating system.

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  • 16. 

    What CPU extensions are a prerequisite for installing the Hyper-V role?

    • A.

      32 or 64-bit

    • B.

      MMX3 or MMX4

    • C.

      Intel-VT or AMD-V

    • D.

      SAS or SATA

    Correct Answer
    C. Intel-VT or AMD-V
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Intel-VT or AMD-V. These CPU extensions, also known as virtualization technology, are necessary for installing the Hyper-V role. They provide hardware support for virtualization, allowing the CPU to efficiently run multiple virtual machines simultaneously. Without these extensions, the Hyper-V role cannot be installed and utilized effectively.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding an RODC?

    • A.

      The RODC has Active Directory write capabilities

    • B.

      A local administrator can be created for an RODC

    • C.

      An RODC increases the amount of security risk

    • D.

      The use of an RODC uses more bandwidth over a WAN connection than a regular domain controller

    Correct Answer
    B. A local administrator can be created for an RODC
    Explanation
    An RODC (Read-Only Domain Controller) is a type of domain controller that holds a read-only copy of the Active Directory database. It does not have write capabilities, meaning it cannot make changes to the Active Directory. However, it is possible to create a local administrator account specifically for the RODC. This allows for local management and administration of the RODC without compromising the security of the Active Directory.

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  • 18. 

    When working with a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2012, what utility should be used to preform the initial configuration?

    • A.

      MMC

    • B.

      Server Manager

    • C.

      Sconfig

    • D.

      Netdom

    Correct Answer
    C. Sconfig
    Explanation
    The utility that should be used to perform the initial configuration when working with a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2012 is "sconfig". This utility allows administrators to configure various aspects of the server, such as setting the IP address, joining a domain, installing updates, and enabling remote management. It provides a command-line interface that is specifically designed for managing Server Core installations efficiently. Using "sconfig" is the recommended method for performing initial configuration tasks on a Server Core installation.

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  • 19. 

    The Windows default password complexity settings require at least how many different character types?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 3
    Explanation
    The Windows default password complexity settings require at least three different character types. This means that when creating a password, it must include characters from at least three of the following categories: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters. This requirement helps to enhance the security of passwords by making them more difficult to guess or crack. By including a mix of different character types, the password becomes more complex and less susceptible to brute-force attacks.

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  • 20. 

    Under what circumstances would be the use of a read only domain controller (RODC) be ideal?

    • A.

      When deploying the first domain controller

    • B.

      When setting up a domain controller in a branch office

    • C.

      When creating a new AD forest

    • D.

      When creating a second domain controller in a domain

    Correct Answer
    B. When setting up a domain controller in a branch office
    Explanation
    A read-only domain controller (RODC) would be ideal when setting up a domain controller in a branch office. This is because a branch office typically has limited physical security and IT staff presence. By using an RODC, the risk of unauthorized access to sensitive domain controller data is reduced. RODCs store a read-only copy of the Active Directory database, preventing any modifications to the database from being made locally. This helps to protect the integrity of the domain controller and minimize the potential impact of a security breach in the branch office.

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  • 21. 

    What server role is installed along with Active Directory Domain Server if no other servers with this role are available?

    • A.

      DCHP

    • B.

      IIS

    • C.

      NCAP

    • D.

      DNS

    Correct Answer
    D. DNS
    Explanation
    When Active Directory Domain Server is installed and no other servers with the DNS role are available, the DNS server role is automatically installed along with it. This is because DNS (Domain Name System) is a critical component for the functioning of Active Directory. DNS is responsible for translating domain names into IP addresses and vice versa, allowing clients to locate domain controllers and other network resources. Therefore, when setting up Active Directory, it is essential to have a DNS server to ensure proper name resolution within the network.

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  • 22. 

    Windows Server 2012 is the first Windows Server to have ___________ , which allows for the removal of installation files for the features that are not used.

    Correct Answer
    Features on demand
    Explanation
    Windows Server 2012 introduces "Features on demand," which enables the removal of installation files for unused features. This means that administrators can free up disk space by removing unnecessary features, reducing the overall footprint of the operating system. The feature allows for a more streamlined and efficient server environment, as only the necessary components are installed and maintained.

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  • 23. 

    The _________ file system is the default file system used during a Windows Server 2012 installation.

    Correct Answer
    NTFS
    Explanation
    NTFS (New Technology File System) is the default file system used during a Windows Server 2012 installation. It offers advanced features such as file and folder permissions, encryption, compression, and disk quotas. NTFS provides better performance, reliability, and security compared to other file systems like FAT32. It supports larger file sizes and has built-in fault tolerance mechanisms. Therefore, NTFS is the preferred choice for Windows Server 2012 installations.

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  • 24. 

    The user account utilized by a service to log into a system can be set within the service's properties

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because when setting up a service, the user account that the service will use to log into the system can be specified within the service's properties. This allows the service to have the necessary permissions and access to resources on the system. By setting the user account within the service's properties, it ensures that the service can authenticate and interact with the system effectively.

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  • 25. 

    A Server Core installation can't be converted to a Minimal Server Interface

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A Server Core installation can be converted to a Minimal Server Interface. The Minimal Server Interface is a new installation option available in Windows Server 2012 and later versions that allows certain graphical management tools and features to be added to a Server Core installation. This enables administrators to have a more streamlined and efficient management experience while still maintaining a minimal footprint and reducing the attack surface.

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  • 26. 

    What PowerShell cmdlet can be utilized to pause a specified running service, or multiple services, separated by a comma

    • A.

      Stop-Service

    • B.

      Pause-Service

    • C.

      Suspend-Service

    • D.

      Halt-Service

    Correct Answer
    C. Suspend-Service
    Explanation
    The PowerShell cmdlet "Suspend-Service" can be utilized to pause a specified running service or multiple services, separated by a comma. This cmdlet temporarily stops the service without terminating it completely. It allows for the service to be resumed later without losing any data or configuration settings.

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  • 27. 

    The Windows Server 2012 R2 remote management features are enabled via what Windows component?

    • A.

      Windows Remote Management (WinRM)

    • B.

      Windows Management Infrastructure (WMI)

    • C.

      Windows Management Framework (WFM)

    • D.

      Windows Remote Administration (WMA)

    Correct Answer
    A. Windows Remote Management (WinRM)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Windows Remote Management (WinRM). WinRM is a Windows component that enables remote management of Windows servers. It allows administrators to remotely execute commands, access event logs, and manage various aspects of the server. This feature is essential for efficient administration and troubleshooting of Windows Server 2012 R2.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following choices is not one of the three teaming modes?

    • A.

      Switch independent

    • B.

      Static teaming

    • C.

      LACP

    • D.

      Address Hashing

    Correct Answer
    D. Address Hashing
    Explanation
    Address Hashing is not one of the three teaming modes. The three teaming modes are Switch independent, Static teaming, and LACP. Address Hashing is a load balancing algorithm used in network switches to distribute traffic across multiple links based on the source and destination IP addresses. While it is a method of load balancing, it is not considered one of the teaming modes for network teaming.

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  • 29. 

    Select the parameter that can be included with the Install WindowsFeature command in order to automatically install management tools associated with a role

    • A.

      -IncludeAllSubs

    • B.

      -IncludeAllSubFeatures

    • C.

      -IncludeAdminTools

    • D.

      -IncludeManagementTools

    Correct Answer
    D. -IncludeManagementTools
    Explanation
    The parameter "-IncludeManagementTools" can be used with the Install WindowsFeature command to automatically install management tools associated with a role. This parameter ensures that all necessary management tools are installed along with the selected role, making it easier to manage and administer the system.

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  • 30. 

    A server that distributes traffic across two or more interfaces is utilizing which choice below?

    • A.

      Failover

    • B.

      Load Balancing

    • C.

      Traffic spreading

    • D.

      Packet prioritizing

    Correct Answer
    B. Load Balancing
    Explanation
    Load balancing is the correct answer because it refers to the practice of distributing network traffic across multiple interfaces, servers, or resources to optimize performance, maximize throughput, and ensure high availability. By evenly distributing the workload, load balancing helps prevent any single interface from becoming overwhelmed and ensures that traffic is efficiently managed across multiple interfaces, resulting in improved performance and reliability.

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  • 31. 

    If an admin wants to test the results of a PowerShell cmdlet without actually performing the cmdlet's operations, what option would should they select?

    • A.

      -WhatIf

    • B.

      -TestOnly

    • C.

      -Results

    • D.

      -TestRun

    Correct Answer
    A. -WhatIf
    Explanation
    The correct option for an admin who wants to test the results of a PowerShell cmdlet without actually performing the cmdlet's operations is "-WhatIf". This option allows the admin to simulate the execution of the cmdlet and see what changes would be made, without actually making any changes to the system. It is a useful tool for testing and verifying the impact of a cmdlet before executing it.

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  • 32. 

    What type of Windows Server 2012/R2 installation takes up the least amount of space?

    • A.

      Server Core

    • B.

      Minimal Server

    • C.

      Full Installation

    • D.

      Upgrade

    Correct Answer
    A. Server Core
    Explanation
    Server Core is a type of Windows Server 2012/R2 installation that takes up the least amount of space. It is a minimalistic installation option that only includes the essential components and services required to run the server. By excluding unnecessary features and graphical user interface (GUI), Server Core reduces the disk footprint significantly, resulting in a smaller installation size compared to other options like Full Installation or Minimal Server. This makes it ideal for environments where disk space is limited or for servers that require minimal resource usage.

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  • 33. 

    What command can be used to add a remote server to the TrustedHosts list?

    Correct Answer
    Set-Item
    Explanation
    The Set-Item command can be used to add a remote server to the TrustedHosts list. This command allows users to modify the value of a specified item. In this case, it can be used to add the remote server to the TrustedHosts list, which is used for allowing remote connections to PowerShell sessions.

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  • 34. 

    Roles and features can be installed to an offline VHD file by using the __________ option.

    Correct Answer
    -VHD
    VHD
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "-VHD,VHD". This means that roles and features can be installed to an offline VHD file by using the "-VHD" option. This option allows the user to specify the VHD file to which the roles and features should be installed. The second "VHD" in the answer is likely a typographical error and does not provide any additional information.

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  • 35. 

    What command can be used to launch the Server Manager within Minimal Server interface?END OF CHAPTER 3

    Correct Answer
    servermanager
    Explanation
    The command "servermanager" can be used to launch the Server Manager within the Minimal Server interface.

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  • 36. 

    A parity space storage layout is similar to a RAID 1 volume, in that a parity bit is written to the spare drive

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A parity space storage layout is not similar to a RAID 1 volume. In a parity space storage layout, parity bits are distributed across multiple drives in the storage array, rather than being written to a spare drive as in RAID 1. This allows for more efficient use of storage space and better fault tolerance. Therefore, the statement that a parity bit is written to the spare drive is incorrect.

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  • 37. 

    Thin provisioning allocates all configured space immediately ensuring that the space is available for the specified virtual disk.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Thin provisioning does not allocate all configured space immediately. Instead, it dynamically allocates storage space as it is needed, allowing for more efficient use of storage resources. This means that the space is not immediately available for the specified virtual disk, but rather allocated on-demand. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 38. 

    A simple space storage layout is similar to which non-fault tolerant RAID technology?

    • A.

      RAID0

    • B.

      RAID1

    • C.

      RAID5

    • D.

      RAIN6

    Correct Answer
    A. RAID0
    Explanation
    A simple space storage layout is similar to RAID0 because both do not provide fault tolerance. In RAID0, data is striped across multiple drives without any redundancy, which means that if one drive fails, all data is lost. Similarly, a simple space storage layout also lacks redundancy, making it susceptible to data loss if a drive fails. Therefore, RAID0 is the most appropriate non-fault tolerant RAID technology that is similar to a simple space storage layout.

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  • 39. 

    Due to the limitations of MBR partitioning, what type of partition must be created in order to utilize logical drives?

    • A.

      Primary Partition

    • B.

      Extended Partition

    • C.

      Logical Partition

    • D.

      Extra Partition

    Correct Answer
    B. Extended Partition
    Explanation
    An extended partition must be created in order to utilize logical drives because MBR (Master Boot Record) partitioning has a limitation of only allowing a maximum of four primary partitions. By creating an extended partition, it is possible to create multiple logical drives within it, thus overcoming the limitation of MBR partitioning.

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  • 40. 

    Under what circumstances would an administrator choose to format a volume using the FAT file system?

    • A.

      Volume must be accessible using Windows 9X

    • B.

      Volume requires encryption

    • C.

      Volume must support file sizes larger than 4GB

    • D.

      2TB volume must be formatted for use

    Correct Answer
    A. Volume must be accessible using Windows 9X
    Explanation
    An administrator would choose to format a volume using the FAT file system when it needs to be accessible using Windows 9X. The FAT file system is compatible with older versions of Windows such as Windows 9X, which may not support newer file systems like NTFS. By formatting the volume using FAT, it ensures that the volume can be accessed and used by computers running Windows 9X.

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  • 41. 

    If a disk pool becomes full, how does Windows Server 2012 respond?

    • A.

      More space is automatically allocated from available drives in the primordial pool

    • B.

      Affected volumes are marked as read-only until more space is provisioned

    • C.

      The disk pool is moved to an offline state until more physical storage is added

    • D.

      The Server notifies all users with data in the disk pool in order to encourage data cleaning activities

    Correct Answer
    C. The disk pool is moved to an offline state until more physical storage is added
  • 42. 

    Select the PowerShell cmdlet below that can be used to create a new volume

    • A.

      New-StoragePool

    • B.

      NewVirtual-Disk

    • C.

      New-Partition

    • D.

      Format-Volume

    Correct Answer
    C. New-Partition
    Explanation
    The New-Partition cmdlet in PowerShell can be used to create a new volume. This cmdlet allows users to create a new partition on a disk or a virtual disk, specifying the size and other parameters for the new volume. By using this cmdlet, users can easily create new volumes for storage purposes.

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  • 43. 

    The Windows folder is located on what volume?

    • A.

      Boot volume

    • B.

      System volume

    • C.

      Start volume

    • D.

      C volume

    Correct Answer
    A. Boot volume
    Explanation
    The Windows folder is located on the boot volume. The boot volume is the volume that contains the necessary files for starting up the operating system. It typically includes the Windows folder, which contains the core operating system files and system directories. The boot volume is essential for the initial booting process and is usually the primary hard drive or partition where the operating system is installed.

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  • 44. 

    A(n) _____________ is a physical component with a disk interface connector (such as SATA or SCSI) and a power connector

    Correct Answer
    disk drive
    disk
    drive
    Explanation
    A disk drive is a physical component with a disk interface connector (such as SATA or SCSI) and a power connector. It is responsible for reading and writing data to and from a disk. The disk refers to the physical storage medium, which can be a hard disk drive (HDD) or a solid-state drive (SSD). Drive is a more general term that can refer to any device that can read or write data, such as a CD drive or a DVD drive.

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  • 45. 

    A(n) ___________________ determines who can access a file or folder and what can be done with the file.

    Correct Answer
    Access Control List (ACL)
    ACL
    Access Control List
    Access Control List(ACL)
    Explanation
    An Access Control List (ACL) is a mechanism that determines who can access a file or folder and what actions can be performed on it. It is a list of permissions associated with an object, such as a file or folder, that specifies which users or groups are granted access and what level of access they have, such as read, write, or execute. ACLs are commonly used in operating systems and network devices to enforce security policies and restrict unauthorized access to sensitive data.

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  • 46. 

    Under what conditions can a hard drive be inserted into a server while it is powered on? The equipment is _________ capable.END OF CHAPTER 4

    Correct Answer
    hot-add
    hot-swap
    Explanation
    A hard drive can be inserted into a server while it is powered on if the equipment is hot-add or hot-swap capable. This means that the server is designed to allow for the addition or removal of hardware components without the need to power off or restart the system. Hot-add refers to the ability to add a component while the system is running, while hot-swap refers to the ability to remove and replace a component while the system is running. Both of these capabilities ensure uninterrupted operation and increased flexibility in managing hardware components.

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