# Science Exam: Ultimate Questions! Quiz

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• 1.

### The property of a material that relates the lateral strain to longitudinal strain.

• A.

Stress

• B.

Strain

• C.

Possion's ratio

• D.

Endurance

C. Possion's ratio
Explanation
Poisson's ratio is the property of a material that relates the lateral strain to the longitudinal strain. It is a measure of the deformation that occurs perpendicular to an applied force. Poisson's ratio is defined as the negative ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain. It is an important parameter in materials science and engineering as it helps to understand how a material will deform under different types of stress.

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• 2.

### Ability to resist deformation under stress.

• A.

Plasticity

• B.

All of these

• C.

Stiffness

• D.

Toughness

C. Stiffness
Explanation
Stiffness refers to the ability of a material to resist deformation under stress. It is a measure of how much a material will bend or stretch when a force is applied to it. In the context of the given question, stiffness is the correct answer because it directly relates to the ability to resist deformation under stress. Plasticity refers to the ability of a material to permanently deform without breaking, while toughness refers to the ability to absorb energy before fracturing. While both plasticity and toughness are related to deformation and stress, stiffness specifically addresses the resistance to deformation. Therefore, stiffness is the most appropriate answer.

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• 3.

### The changes in shape or geometry of the body due to action of a force on it, is called deformation or _____

• A.

Sheer stresses

• B.

Stresses

• C.

Compressive stress

• D.

Strain

D. Strain
Explanation
Deformation refers to the changes in shape or geometry of a body caused by the application of a force. Strain is a measure of this deformation, indicating the extent to which the body has been distorted or stretched. It is a measure of the relative change in shape or size of the body due to the applied force. Therefore, strain is the correct term to describe the changes in shape or geometry of a body caused by the action of a force.

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• 4.

### Which of the following is not the structural class of steel?

• A.

High speed steel

• B.

Tool and die

• C.

Low carbon

• D.

High carbon

B. Tool and die
Explanation
The structural class of steel refers to the different types of steel used in construction and engineering applications. High speed steel, low carbon, and high carbon are all examples of structural classes of steel. However, "tool and die" is not a structural class of steel. Tool and die steel is a specific type of steel used in the manufacturing of tools, dies, and molds, but it is not classified as a structural steel.

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• 5.

### Continuous stretching under load even if the stress is less than the yield point:

• A.

Plasticity

• B.

Elasticity

• C.

Creep

• D.

Ductility

C. Creep
Explanation
Creep refers to the gradual deformation of a material over time when it is subjected to a constant load or stress, even if the stress is below the yield point. This phenomenon occurs due to the rearrangement of atoms or molecules within the material, leading to a slow and permanent change in shape. Creep is commonly observed in materials such as metals, plastics, and concrete, and it can have significant implications for the structural integrity and lifespan of components under long-term loading conditions.

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• 6.

### Most popular soldering material:

• A.

10/80

• B.

45/55

• C.

50/50

• D.

60/40

C. 50/50
Explanation
The correct answer is 60/40. This refers to the ratio of tin to lead in the soldering material. 60/40 solder is the most commonly used soldering material because it has a good balance of melting point, strength, and electrical conductivity. It is suitable for a wide range of applications and is preferred by many soldering professionals.

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• 7.

### The following pertain to joining of metals except:

• A.

Welding

• B.

Soldering

• C.

Casting

• D.

Brazing

C. Casting
Explanation
Casting is the process of pouring molten metal into a mold to create a solid object. It involves melting and shaping the metal, but it does not involve joining separate pieces of metal together. Welding, soldering, and brazing, on the other hand, all involve joining separate pieces of metal together. Welding involves melting the edges of the metal pieces and fusing them together, soldering involves melting a filler metal to join the pieces, and brazing involves heating the metal pieces and using a filler metal with a lower melting point to join them.

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• 8.

### Killed steel is always associated with

• A.

Silicon

• B.

Manganese

• C.

Phosphorus

• D.

Sulfur

A. Silicon
Explanation
Killed steel is a type of steel that has been deoxidized using elements such as silicon, manganese, phosphorus, or sulfur. These elements help to remove oxygen and other impurities from the steel during the manufacturing process, resulting in a more uniform and refined steel product. Therefore, the correct answer is silicon, as it is one of the elements commonly used in the production of killed steel.

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• 9.

### The good deoxidizer in steel melting:

• A.

Manganese

• B.

Silicon

• C.

All of these

• D.

Aluminum

C. All of these
Explanation
All of these options (manganese, silicon, and aluminum) are good deoxidizers in steel melting. Deoxidizers are added to remove oxygen from the steel, preventing the formation of unwanted oxides. Manganese reacts with oxygen to form manganese oxide, silicon reacts to form silicon oxide, and aluminum reacts to form aluminum oxide. By adding these deoxidizers, the steel can be purified and have improved mechanical properties. Therefore, all of these options are correct.

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• 10.

### Good stabilizer in stainless steel:

• A.

Columbium

• B.

Titanium

• C.

All of these

• D.

Aluminum

C. All of these
Explanation
All of these elements, columbium, titanium, and aluminum, are good stabilizers in stainless steel. These elements help to prevent the formation of harmful carbides during the heating and cooling processes involved in stainless steel production. By stabilizing the steel, they improve its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, making it more durable and suitable for various applications.

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• 11.

### It is considered a semi-solid lubricant.

• A.

All of these

• B.

Lube oil

• C.

Graphite

• D.

Grease

D. Grease
Explanation
Grease is considered a semi-solid lubricant because it is a mixture of oil and a thickening agent, usually a soap or a metallic soap. This combination creates a semi-solid consistency that allows the grease to adhere to surfaces and provide lubrication. Grease is commonly used in applications where high viscosity and resistance to water and contaminants are required. Therefore, it can be categorized as a semi-solid lubricant along with lube oil and graphite.

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• 12.

### Metals are conductive because:

• A.

The electronics are loosely bounded to the nuclei therefore mobile

• B.

Having characteristics metallic luster

• C.

They are on the left side of the periodic table

• D.

They have an extra electrons as exhibited normally possible balance state

A. The electronics are loosely bounded to the nuclei therefore mobile
Explanation
Metals are conductive because the electrons in their outer energy levels are not tightly bound to the nuclei of their atoms. This allows the electrons to move freely within the metal, creating a flow of electric charge. This mobility of electrons is what makes metals good conductors of electricity.

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• 13.

### That property of matter which causes it to resist any change in its motion or state of rest:

• A.

Brake

• B.

Friction

• C.

Inertia

• D.

Impulse

C. Inertia
Explanation
Inertia is the property of matter that causes it to resist any change in its motion or state of rest. It is the tendency of an object to maintain its current state unless acted upon by an external force. This means that an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will continue moving at a constant velocity, unless a force is applied to change its state. Inertia is a fundamental concept in physics and is related to the mass of an object. The greater the mass, the greater the inertia.

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• 14.

### The ability of metal to be deformed considerably without rapture is called:

• A.

Plasticity

• B.

All of these

• C.

Ductility

• D.

Malleability

A. Plasticity
Explanation
Plasticity refers to the property of a material, specifically metal in this case, to undergo significant deformation without rupturing or breaking. It is the ability of a metal to change shape permanently under applied stress without losing its integrity. This property is highly desirable in engineering and manufacturing processes as it allows for the shaping and forming of metals into various desired shapes and structures. Ductility and malleability are related properties but specifically refer to the ability of a metal to be stretched or hammered into thin sheets respectively. Therefore, plasticity encompasses both ductility and malleability, making "plasticity" the correct answer.

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• 15.

### Permanent deformation or strain may occur without fracture:

• A.

Malleability

• B.

Elasticity

• C.

Ductility

• D.

Plasticity

D. Plasticity
Explanation
Plasticity refers to the ability of a material to undergo permanent deformation or strain without fracturing. It is the property that allows a material to be molded or shaped into different forms. Unlike malleability, which specifically refers to the ability of a material to be hammered or rolled into thin sheets, plasticity encompasses a broader range of deformations. Elasticity, on the other hand, describes the ability of a material to return to its original shape after being deformed. Ductility refers to the ability of a material to be stretched into a wire. Therefore, plasticity is the correct answer as it best describes the given statement.

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• 16.

### Metal that assists the lubrication or lubricant itself:

• A.

Zinc

• B.

Antimony

• C.

Babbit

• D.

C. Babbit
Explanation
Babbit is a type of metal alloy that is commonly used as a bearing material in machinery. It has excellent lubricating properties, which means it can assist in the lubrication process or even act as a lubricant itself. Babbit alloys typically consist of tin, copper, and antimony, which provide low friction and wear resistance. This makes babbit an ideal choice for applications where lubrication is crucial, such as in engine bearings, bushings, and other rotating parts.

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• 17.

### Which of the following is not structural class of steel?

• A.

Low carbon steel

• B.

Tool and die steel

• C.

High chrome alloy steel

• D.

High strength low alloy steel

B. Tool and die steel
Explanation
Tool and die steel is not a structural class of steel. It is a type of steel specifically designed for making tools and dies for manufacturing processes. Structural classes of steel, on the other hand, are used for constructing buildings, bridges, and other load-bearing structures. Low carbon steel, high chrome alloy steel, and high strength low alloy steel are examples of structural classes of steel that are commonly used in construction.

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• 18.

### Possion’s ratio is the ratio of:

• A.

Shear strain to compressive strain

• B.

Elastic limit to compressive strain

• C.

Lateral strain to longitudinal limit

• D.

Elastic limit to proportional limit

C. Lateral strain to longitudinal limit
Explanation
Poisson's ratio is a measure of the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain in a material. It describes how a material deforms when subjected to an applied force. Lateral strain refers to the change in width or thickness of a material, while longitudinal strain refers to the change in length. The ratio between these two strains is known as Poisson's ratio and is a fundamental property of materials.

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• 19.

### All are associated with the grade of steel except:

• A.

SAE 43XX

• B.

SAE 13 XX

• C.

SAE10XX

• D.

SAE 74XX

D. SAE 74XX
Explanation
The given options are all associated with the grade of steel except SAE 74XX. The other options, SAE 43XX, SAE 13 XX, and SAE 10XX, are all examples of steel grade designations. The SAE 74XX is not a recognized steel grade designation, making it the correct answer.

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• 20.

### The property of material that relates the lateral strain to longitudinal strain

• A.

Stress

• B.

Strain

• C.

Possion's ratio

• D.

Endurance

C. Possion's ratio
Explanation
Poisson's ratio is a property of material that relates the lateral strain to the longitudinal strain. It is a measure of the ratio of the amount of transverse or lateral strain to the amount of longitudinal strain in a material. Poisson's ratio is important in determining the deformation behavior of materials under stress and is used in various engineering applications, such as in designing structures to withstand loads and in predicting material failure.

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• 21.

### Cold working of steel plates make the metal:

• A.

Tougher

• B.

More ductile

• C.

Harder

• D.

More malleable

C. Harder
Explanation
Cold working of steel plates involves subjecting the metal to mechanical stress at temperatures below its recrystallization point. This process causes the grains of the metal to deform and align, resulting in an increase in hardness. Therefore, the correct answer is harder.

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• 22.

### The property that characterizes a material ability to be drawn into wire:

• A.

Ductility

• B.

Thermal conductivity

• C.

Tensile strength

• D.

Endurance limit

A. Ductility
Explanation
Ductility is the property that characterizes a material's ability to be drawn into wire. This means that the material can be stretched and deformed without breaking, allowing it to be formed into thin wires. Thermal conductivity refers to a material's ability to conduct heat, tensile strength refers to its ability to withstand tension, and endurance limit refers to the maximum stress level that a material can endure without breaking.

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• 23.

### Normal stress relieving temperature for cast steel:

• A.

200 â€“ 350 deg F

• B.

400 â€“ 500 deg F

• C.

300 â€“ 400 deg F

• D.

450 â€“ 550 deg F

D. 450 â€“ 550 deg F
Explanation
The correct answer is 450 - 550 deg F. Stress relieving is a heat treatment process used to reduce internal stresses in a material caused by processes such as casting or welding. The temperature range of 450 - 550 deg F is commonly used for stress relieving cast steel. This temperature range allows for the redistribution of internal stresses, improving the material's mechanical properties and reducing the risk of cracking or distortion.

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• 24.

### Most effective alloying element for reducing brittleness of steel at very low temperature:

• A.

Manganese

• B.

Molybdenum

• C.

Silicon

• D.

Nickel

D. Nickel
Explanation
Nickel is the most effective alloying element for reducing brittleness of steel at very low temperatures. Nickel has the ability to improve the toughness and ductility of steel, making it less prone to cracking and breaking when exposed to low temperatures. It forms a solid solution with iron, which helps to stabilize the microstructure of the steel and prevent the formation of brittle phases. Additionally, nickel also increases the strength and corrosion resistance of steel, making it a versatile and valuable alloying element in various applications.

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• 25.

### Ordinary steel begins to lose strength and elasticity significantly at about _____.

• A.

900 - 1000 deg F

• B.

800 â€“ 900 deg F

• C.

750 â€“ 850 deg F

• D.

600 â€“ 700 deg F

D. 600 â€“ 700 deg F
Explanation
Ordinary steel starts to lose its strength and elasticity significantly when it reaches temperatures between 600 and 700 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature range, the steel undergoes a process called tempering, which causes the material to become softer and less resistant to deformation. Temperatures above this range can further weaken the steel, leading to potential structural failure. Therefore, it is crucial to avoid exposing ordinary steel to temperatures higher than 600-700 degrees Fahrenheit to maintain its mechanical properties.

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• 26.

### For a high corrosion resistant stainless steel, what minimum chromium content is required?

• A.

8%

• B.

4.3%

• C.

1.1%

• D.

5.8%

A. 8%
Explanation
A minimum chromium content of 8% is required for a high corrosion resistant stainless steel. Chromium is a key element in stainless steel that provides corrosion resistance by forming a passive oxide layer on the surface of the steel. The higher the chromium content, the better the corrosion resistance. Therefore, a minimum of 8% chromium ensures that the stainless steel has a high level of corrosion resistance.

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• 27.

### The capacity of metal to withstand load without breaking is:

• A.

Strength

• B.

Stress

• C.

Elasticity

• D.

Strain

A. Strength
Explanation
Strength is the correct answer because it refers to the capacity of a metal to withstand load without breaking. It is a measure of the material's ability to resist deformation or failure under applied forces or loads. Strength is an important property in engineering and structural design, as it ensures the structural integrity and safety of the metal component. Stress, elasticity, and strain are related concepts, but they do not specifically address the metal's ability to withstand load without breaking.

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• 28.

### Copper and most of its alloys can be hardened by:

• A.

Patenting

• B.

Cold working

• C.

Case hardening

• D.

Soaking

B. Cold working
Explanation
Cold working is a process that involves deforming the metal at room temperature, such as through rolling or hammering. This causes the metal to become stronger and harder, as the dislocations in the crystal structure of the metal are increased. Copper and its alloys can be hardened through cold working because they have a face-centered cubic crystal structure, which allows for easy dislocation movement. Patenting, case hardening, and soaking are not methods typically used to harden copper and its alloys.

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• 29.

### Which of the following is not the structural class of steel?

• A.

Low carbon

• B.

Stainless steel

• C.

Medium carbon steel

• D.

Tool and die steel

D. Tool and die steel
Explanation
Tool and die steel is not a structural class of steel. It is a type of steel that is specifically designed for use in tooling and die making applications. It is known for its high hardness, wear resistance, and toughness, making it suitable for cutting, shaping, and forming materials. On the other hand, low carbon, stainless steel, and medium carbon steel are all structural classes of steel that are commonly used in various construction and engineering applications.

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• 30.

### A material that should be avoided in constructing wood pattern:

• A.

Sap wood

• B.

Kiln dried wood

• C.

Heart wood

• D.

Core portion wood

A. Sap wood
Explanation
Sapwood should be avoided in constructing wood patterns because it is the outermost portion of the tree trunk and contains living cells responsible for transporting water and nutrients. It is more prone to decay, insect infestation, and warping compared to the inner heartwood. Using sapwood in wood patterns could result in a weaker and less durable construction, affecting the overall quality and longevity of the pattern.

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• 31.

### The gradual chemical reaction by other substance such that metal is converted to an oxide or other compounds:

• A.

Corrosion

• B.

Cheaping

• C.

Rusting

• D.

Weathering

A. Corrosion
Explanation
Corrosion refers to the gradual chemical reaction that occurs when a metal reacts with other substances, resulting in the conversion of the metal into an oxide or other compounds. This process is commonly observed in metals exposed to moisture or certain chemicals, leading to the formation of rust or other corrosion products.

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• 32.

### What is the difference between brass and bronze?

• A.

Brass is composed of copper and zinc while bronze is composed of copper and tin

• B.

Brass is composed of copper and zinc while bronze is basically copper and tin plus non-ferrous alloy such as manganese, aluminum, chromium

• C.

Bronze is reddish in color while brass is a mixture of copper and antimony

• D.

Bronze is mostly an alloy of copper and tin while brass is a mixture of copper and antimony

A. Brass is composed of copper and zinc while bronze is composed of copper and tin
Explanation
The correct answer states that brass is composed of copper and zinc, while bronze is composed of copper and tin. This explanation accurately describes the main difference between brass and bronze, which is the composition of the two alloys. Brass is a combination of copper and zinc, while bronze is a combination of copper and tin.

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• 33.

### A liquid metal:

• A.

Mercury

• B.

• C.

Zinc

• D.

Aluminum

A. Mercury
Explanation
Mercury is a liquid metal because it has a low melting point of -38.83 degrees Celsius (-37.89 degrees Fahrenheit). This allows it to exist in a liquid state at room temperature. Lead, zinc, and aluminum, on the other hand, have higher melting points and are solid at room temperature.

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• 34.

### What is a metal characteristic to withstand forces that cause twisting?

• A.

Torsional strength

• B.

Modulus of elasticity

• C.

Twisting moment

• D.

Elasticity

A. Torsional strength
Explanation
Torsional strength refers to a metal's ability to resist forces that cause twisting or torsion. It is a measure of the metal's ability to withstand rotational forces without deforming or breaking. This characteristic is important in applications where the metal is subjected to twisting or rotational forces, such as in shafts, gears, or springs. Torsional strength is different from modulus of elasticity, which measures a material's ability to deform under an applied force, and twisting moment, which refers to the force that causes the twisting. Elasticity, on the other hand, is a general property of materials that describes their ability to return to their original shape after being deformed.

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• 35.

### In greater quantity, this element is harmful to the ferrous metal:

• A.

Sulfur

• B.

Silicon

• C.

Zinc

• D.

Aluminum

A. Sulfur
Explanation
Sulfur is harmful to ferrous metal in greater quantities because it can react with iron to form iron sulfide, which weakens the metal's structure and makes it more prone to corrosion. This reaction can lead to the formation of rust and ultimately degrade the metal's integrity. Therefore, an increased presence of sulfur can be detrimental to ferrous metals.

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• 36.

### It has molybdenum alloy except:

• A.

SAE 43XX

• B.

SAE 41XX

• C.

SAE 6XXX

• D.

SAE 5XXX

C. SAE 6XXX
Explanation
The SAE 6XXX alloy does not contain molybdenum.

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• 37.

### Cast alloy steel for very high temperature application:

• A.

Manganese-nickel steel castings

• B.

High chrome steel casting

• C.

Chrome-nickel casting

• D.

High manganese casting

C. Chrome-nickel casting
Explanation
Chrome-nickel casting is the correct answer for high temperature applications because it has excellent heat resistance and oxidation resistance. The addition of chromium and nickel to the alloy improves its ability to withstand high temperatures without losing its strength and integrity. This type of casting is commonly used in industries such as aerospace, power generation, and chemical processing where extreme heat is a factor.

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• 38.

### What heat treatment process can cast steel materials of high chrome, high manganese etc. type steel be subjected for the purpose of machining process?

• A.

Annealing

• B.

Tempering

• C.

Normalizing

• D.

Quenching

A. Annealing
Explanation
Cast steel materials of high chrome, high manganese, etc. type steel can be subjected to the annealing heat treatment process for the purpose of machining. Annealing involves heating the steel to a specific temperature and then slowly cooling it, which helps to relieve internal stresses, increase ductility, and improve machinability. This process also reduces hardness and improves the overall mechanical properties of the steel, making it easier to machine without causing excessive wear on cutting tools.

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• 39.

### Galvanized steel plate is a plate coated with:

• A.

Aluminum

• B.

Tin

• C.

Zinc

• D.

Manganese

C. Zinc
Explanation
Galvanized steel plate is coated with zinc. This coating provides protection against corrosion and extends the lifespan of the steel plate. Zinc is commonly used for galvanization due to its excellent corrosion resistance properties. It forms a protective layer on the steel surface, preventing the underlying metal from coming into contact with moisture and oxygen, which are key factors in causing rust. Zinc-coated steel plates are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, and manufacturing, due to their durability and resistance to corrosion.

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• 40.

### One of the following materials is unsuitable as a bearing:

• A.

Teflon

• B.

Low carbon steel

• C.

Cast iron

• D.

Nylon

B. Low carbon steel
Explanation
Low carbon steel is unsuitable as a bearing material because it has a low hardness and is prone to wear and deformation under heavy loads and friction. Bearings require materials with high hardness and wear resistance to ensure smooth movement and reduce friction. Teflon, cast iron, and nylon are all commonly used as bearing materials due to their high strength and low friction properties.

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• 41.

### Which is not generally used standard:

• A.

ASTM

• B.

SAE

• C.

IPS

• D.

AISIS

C. IPS
Explanation
IPS stands for International Pipe Standard and is not generally used as a standard in the same way as ASTM, SAE, and AISI. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is a widely recognized standard for materials and products, SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) is a standard for automotive engineering, and AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) is a standard for iron and steel products. IPS, on the other hand, specifically pertains to pipe standards and is less commonly used in other industries.

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• 42.

### Alloy steel known for its resistance to corrosion, abrasion and wear that is usually ideal for mill grinding of ore in cement and concentrator application. It is usually combined with molybdenum to increase the depth hardening:

• A.

Manganese chromium steel

• B.

Chromium molybdenum steel

• C.

Chrome-nickel-moly steel

• D.

Manganese-moly steel

B. Chromium molybdenum steel
Explanation
Chromium molybdenum steel is the correct answer because it is known for its resistance to corrosion, abrasion, and wear, making it ideal for mill grinding of ore in cement and concentrator applications. It is also usually combined with molybdenum to increase the depth hardening.

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• 43.

### Commonly utilized/ cheapest shaft material available in the market with carbon content of 0.28 -0.34% C.

• A.

SAE 4132

• B.

SAE 4320

• C.

SAE 1030

• D.

SAE 4130

C. SAE 1030
Explanation
SAE 1030 is the correct answer because it is a commonly utilized and cheapest shaft material available in the market. It has a carbon content of 0.28-0.34% C, which falls within the given range.

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• 44.

### Major component of bronze casting:

• A.

Copper

• B.

Manganese

• C.

Zinc

• D.

A. Copper
Explanation
Bronze is an alloy that is primarily composed of copper. Copper is the major component of bronze casting because it provides the base metal for the alloy. Other elements like zinc and manganese are often added to bronze to enhance its properties, such as improving its strength or corrosion resistance. However, copper remains the main component in bronze casting.

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• 45.

### Heating metal above the critical temperature and then cooling slowly usually in the furnace to reduce the hardness and improve the machinability is called:

• A.

Normalizing

• B.

Annealing

• C.

Tempering

• D.

Quenching

B. Annealing
Explanation
Annealing is the process of heating metal above its critical temperature and then cooling it slowly, usually in a furnace. This process helps to reduce the hardness of the metal and improve its machinability. It allows the metal to undergo recrystallization, which helps to relieve internal stresses and improve its overall structure. Annealing is commonly used to soften metals and make them more workable for further processing or shaping.

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• 46.

### Killed steel is very much associated with:

• A.

Manganese

• B.

Sulfur

• C.

Phosphorus

• D.

Silicon

D. Silicon
Explanation
Killed steel is a type of steel that has been deoxidized with the addition of silicon. Silicon is added to the steel during the manufacturing process to remove any oxygen present, which helps improve the steel's properties. This process also helps to reduce the formation of undesirable impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus. Therefore, silicon is closely associated with killed steel.

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• 47.

### It is hardening treatment whereby a cast metal is being heated to a very high temperature then suddenly subjected to rapid cooling to improve hardenability or wear resistance is called:

• A.

Normalizing

• B.

Tempering

• C.

Quenching

• D.

Annealing

C. Quenching
Explanation
Quenching is a hardening treatment process in which a cast metal is heated to a high temperature and then rapidly cooled. This sudden cooling helps to improve the hardenability and wear resistance of the metal. During quenching, the metal undergoes a phase transformation, resulting in an increase in its hardness. This process is often used in industries such as automotive and manufacturing to enhance the mechanical properties of metal components.

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• 48.

### SAE steel that responds to heat treatment:

• A.

SAE 1060

• B.

SAE 1117

• C.

SAE 1030

• D.

SAE 1020

B. SAE 1117
Explanation
SAE 1117 is the correct answer because it is a low carbon steel that responds well to heat treatment. Heat treatment is a process that involves heating and cooling the steel in order to alter its physical and mechanical properties. SAE 1117 can be easily machined and has good case hardening properties, making it suitable for applications that require high strength and wear resistance. On the other hand, SAE 1060, SAE 1030, and SAE 1020 are not known for their heat treatability and may not exhibit the same level of response to heat treatment as SAE 1117.

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• 49.

### A unit of deformation is called:

• A.

Torsion

• B.

Strain

• C.

Stress

• D.

Shear

B. Strain
Explanation
Strain is the correct answer because it refers to the unit of deformation. When an object undergoes deformation due to the application of a force, strain measures the amount of deformation that occurs. It quantifies how much an object has stretched or compressed compared to its original size. Torsion, stress, and shear are not units of deformation but rather describe different types or causes of deformation.

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• 50.

• A.

Crevice

• B.

Erosion

• C.

Galvanic

• D.

Apitting