Obturator–lateral thigh –adduction –L3L4
Femoral –anterior thigh –patellar reflex –leg extension
Tibial –posterior leg (calf) –ankle reflex –plantar extension
Lateral femoral cutaneous–lateral thigh –abduction –L4L5
Deep peroneal –anterior leg –foot drop –L5
Deep Peroneal Nerve
Release histamine in response to inflammation
Degrade extracellular matrix proteins
Responds to cytokines by activating transcription growth factors
Contains the largest ER of all connective tissue cells
Contain antigen presenting proteins
Blood vessels and lymphatics are present within epithelia
Type I collagen is deposited between epithelial cells
The basal layer of epithelium adheres to the basement membrane
Fibrosis occurs within the epithelium.
Fibrosis occurs within the epithelium
Type I collagen synthesis
Type I, a fibrillar collagen
Type IV, a network forming collagen
Fibril associated collagens (e.g. Type IX)
Facilitated Amino Acid Transporters
Na+-dependent amino acid transporters
Loose connective tissue
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Dense Regular Connective tissue
Collagen I expression is regulated in part by transcriptional controls.
Proper assembly ofprocollagen requires hydroxylation ofprolines.
Collagen fibers are assembled in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
One variant of EhlersDanlos Syndrome has two known lesions: one is dominant negative and involves the peptide sequence that is normally cleaved and resides in the N-terminal propeptide. The other, autosomal recessive, results from a defect in the enzyme that cleaves this peptide.
Fibrillar and fibril-associated collagens are two distinct groups of collagens
Overproduction of type I collagen.
Improper assembly of elastic fibers
Decreased elastin production.
Increased hyaluronan deposition
Protein turnover leads to hydrolysis and resynthesis of approximately 56 g of body protein each day.
Amino acids in excess of biosynthetic needs are stored as proteins.
An aminotransferase reaction using alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate yields glutamate and oxaloacetateas products.
Urea is quantitatively the most important nitrogen-containing compound in urine.
Glutamine is not found in tissue proteins
Glutamine is found in tissue proteins.
The only fate of glutamine is hydrolysis to glutamate and ammonia.
Glutamine is responsible for the transport of ammonia in non-toxic form.
ATP is required for synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia
In liver glutamine is hydrolyzed to glutamate and ammonia.
Carbomoyl phosphate synthetase
None of the above
NH++ CO+ 2 ATP --> carbomoyl phosphate
Ornithine + carbomoyl phosphate --> citrulline.
Citrulline+ aspartate --> arginocuccinate
Arginosuccinate --> arginine + fumarate.
Arginine --> urea + ornithine
Aspartate Amino Transferase
Glutamine and glutamate
Leucine and lysine
Tyrosine and isoleucine
Leucine and isoleucine
None of the above
Aromatic amino acids
Branched chain amino acids