Harveymed.Org - History Of Medicine - Mock Test #1

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Harveymed.Org - History Of Medicine - Mock Test #1 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is the humor missing in this list according to Hippocratic Medicine?
    1.  ________.
    2. Black Bile.
    3. Blood.
    4. Phlegm.

    • A.

      Lymph

    • B.

      Urine

    • C.

      White Bile

    • D.

      Yellow bile

    Correct Answer
    D. Yellow bile
  • 2. 

    Medieval Arabic medicine was based on

    • A.

      Galenic-Hippocratic doctrine

    • B.

      The Ying-Yang theory of nature

    • C.

      Molecular medicine

    • D.

      Organ pathology

    Correct Answer
    A. Galenic-Hippocratic doctrine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Galenic-Hippocratic doctrine. Medieval Arabic medicine was heavily influenced by the teachings of Galen and Hippocrates, who were prominent figures in ancient Greek medicine. The Galenic-Hippocratic doctrine emphasized the balance of the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile) in the body and the importance of maintaining this balance for good health. This doctrine also focused on the idea that diseases were caused by imbalances in these humors and could be treated by restoring the balance through various methods such as diet, lifestyle changes, and herbal remedies.

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  • 3. 

    Who was the Arab physician who formulated the theory of pulmonary circulation?

    • A.

      Rhazes

    • B.

      Ibn Sina (Avicenna)

    • C.

      Ibn al Nafis

    • D.

      Maimonides

    Correct Answer
    C. Ibn al Nafis
    Explanation
    Ibn al Nafis was an Arab physician who formulated the theory of pulmonary circulation. He proposed that blood flows from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs, where it is oxygenated, and then returns to the left ventricle of the heart. This theory challenged the prevailing belief at the time, which stated that blood was produced in the liver and then consumed by the body. Ibn al Nafis' work on pulmonary circulation was groundbreaking and laid the foundation for our modern understanding of the circulatory system.

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  • 4. 

    The heritage of ancient culture has reached us through (Choose the wrong answer)

    • A.

      Translation in Arabic

    • B.

      Preservation of the Greek heritage in Constantinople and the Byzatine world

    • C.

      The Slavic Medicine

    • D.

      Translation in Latin from Greek and Arabic in the scriptoria of the medieval monasteries

    Correct Answer
    C. The Slavic Medicine
    Explanation
    The Slavic Medicine is the wrong answer because the heritage of ancient culture did not reach us through Slavic medicine. The other options mention the translation of texts in Arabic and Latin, as well as the preservation of Greek heritage in Constantinople and the Byzantine world, which are all valid ways through which the ancient culture has reached us. However, Slavic medicine is not directly related to the transmission of ancient culture.

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  • 5. 

    The first Western Universities were founded

    • A.

      Before the VIth centuary

    • B.

      Between VI-Xth centuary

    • C.

      Between XI-XIVth century

    • D.

      In the XVth centuary

    Correct Answer
    C. Between XI-XIVth century
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Between XI-XIVth century." During this time period, the first Western Universities were established. This was a period of significant growth and development in Europe, marked by the emergence of universities as centers of learning and intellectual inquiry. The establishment of these universities played a crucial role in the advancement of education and the dissemination of knowledge during the Middle Ages.

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  • 6. 

    According to sources, the first human dissections for anatomical knowledge were preformed by

    • A.

      Hippocrates

    • B.

       Asclepiades

    • C.

      Leonardo da Vinci

    • D.

      Herophilus and Erasistratus

    Correct Answer
    D. Herophilus and Erasistratus
    Explanation
    Herophilus and Erasistratus were the first to perform human dissections for anatomical knowledge. They were ancient Greek physicians who lived during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Their dissections allowed them to gain a deeper understanding of the human body's structure and function, making significant contributions to the field of anatomy. Their work laid the foundation for future advancements in medical knowledge and paved the way for the development of modern anatomy.

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  • 7. 

    Hippocratic Medicine Was?

    • A.

      Allophatic (contraria contrariis curantur)

    • B.

      Homeophatic (similia similibus curantur)

    • C.

      Only theoretical

    • D.

      Only practical

    Correct Answer
    A. Allophatic (contraria contrariis curantur)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Allophatic (contraria contrariis curantur). Allopathic medicine, also known as conventional or Western medicine, is based on the principle that diseases can be treated by using substances that produce opposite effects to the symptoms. This approach focuses on treating the symptoms rather than addressing the underlying cause of the disease. It is the most widely practiced form of medicine in the modern healthcare system.

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  • 8. 

    The most important anatomist of the Renaissance period was

    • A.

      Vesalius

    • B.

      Giovan Battista Morgagni

    • C.

      Galileo Galilei

    • D.

      William Harvey

    Correct Answer
    A. Vesalius
    Explanation
    Vesalius is considered the most important anatomist of the Renaissance period because of his groundbreaking work in human anatomy. He revolutionized the field by conducting detailed dissections and accurately documenting his findings in his book "De humani corporis fabrica." This publication challenged the traditional teachings of Galen and laid the foundation for modern anatomy. Vesalius' meticulous observations and illustrations greatly advanced the understanding of the human body, making him a pivotal figure in the history of anatomical studies during the Renaissance.

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  • 9. 

    Hippocratic medicine brought about

    • A.

      A complete fusion of medicine and technology

    • B.

      A separation between medicine and religion

    • C.

      The fusion of medicine with religion

    • D.

      The fusion of magic with medicine

    Correct Answer
    B. A separation between medicine and religion
    Explanation
    During the time of Hippocratic medicine, there was a shift in thinking that separated medicine from religion. Previously, medicine was closely tied to religious beliefs and practices. However, Hippocratic medicine emphasized observation, rationality, and natural explanations for diseases and illnesses. This marked a significant departure from the belief that illnesses were caused by supernatural or divine forces. Instead, Hippocratic medicine focused on understanding the human body and its functions, paving the way for a more scientific approach to medicine that was independent of religious beliefs.

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  • 10. 

    Who is considered the founder of Histology?

    • A.

      R. Virchow

    • B.

      G.B. Morgagni

    • C.

      F.X. Bichat

    • D.

      W. Harvey

    Correct Answer
    C. F.X. Bichat
    Explanation
    F.X. Bichat is considered the founder of Histology because he was the first to systematically study the microscopic structure of tissues and organs. He introduced the concept of tissues as distinct units of the body and laid the foundation for modern histology. Bichat's work revolutionized the understanding of anatomy and paved the way for further advancements in the field.

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  • 11. 

    Which was the Golden age of the medical school founded in Salerno?

    • A.

      624-780 BC

    • B.

      300-500 AD

    • C.

      1096-1270 AD

    • D.

      1500-1700 AD

    Correct Answer
    C. 1096-1270 AD
    Explanation
    The Golden age of the medical school founded in Salerno was from 1096-1270 AD. This period is considered the peak of the school's development and influence in the field of medicine. During this time, the school gained recognition for its innovative teaching methods, emphasis on practical experience, and contributions to medical knowledge. It attracted students and scholars from all over Europe, leading to the dissemination of medical knowledge and advancements. The medical school in Salerno played a crucial role in shaping the future of medicine during this period.

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  • 12. 

    Who wrote that the world is a great book written in a mathematical language?

    • A.

      A. Cornelio Celso

    • B.

      Galileo Galilei

    • C.

      Gerolamo Fracastoro

    • D.

       Rudolf Virchow

    Correct Answer
    B. Galileo Galilei
    Explanation
    Galileo Galilei wrote that the world is a great book written in a mathematical language. Galileo was an Italian astronomer, physicist, and mathematician who made significant contributions to the scientific revolution. He believed that the laws of nature could be understood through mathematics and that the universe was governed by mathematical principles. Galileo's work laid the foundation for modern physics and his ideas revolutionized our understanding of the natural world. His statement about the world being a great book written in a mathematical language reflects his belief in the fundamental role of mathematics in understanding the universe.

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  • 13. 

    Who discovered the world of microorganisms?

    • A.

      Marcello Malpighi

    • B.

      Francesco Stelluti

    • C.

      Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

    • D.

      Robert Koch

    Correct Answer
    C. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
    Explanation
    Antoni van Leeuwenhoek is credited with discovering the world of microorganisms. He was a Dutch scientist who made significant contributions to the field of microbiology. Using his self-made microscopes, he observed and described various microorganisms, including bacteria and protozoa, for the first time. His discoveries paved the way for the understanding of the microscopic world and laid the foundation for modern microbiology.

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  • 14. 

    Which were the two important factor which were at the base of the rebirth of medicine in the late Middle Ages?

    • A.

      The invention of the microscope

    • B.

      The invention of lancet

    • C.

      He transition from hunting and gathering food directly from the environment to agriculture and domestication of animals

    • D.

      The foundation of the Universities and Hospitals

    Correct Answer
    D. The foundation of the Universities and Hospitals
    Explanation
    The foundation of universities and hospitals were the two important factors that were at the base of the rebirth of medicine in the late Middle Ages. These institutions provided a structured environment for the study and practice of medicine, allowing for the advancement of medical knowledge and the training of physicians. Universities offered formal education in medicine, while hospitals served as centers for medical treatment and research. The establishment of these institutions created a foundation for the development of modern medicine and contributed to the overall improvement of healthcare during that time period.

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  • 15. 

    Who introduced the term "cells" to define the small microscopic spaces of the cork?

    • A.

      Nehemiah Grew

    • B.

       William Harvey

    • C.

      Robert Hooke

    • D.

      Felice Fontana

    Correct Answer
    C. Robert Hooke
    Explanation
    Robert Hooke introduced the term "cells" to define the small microscopic spaces of the cork.

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  • 16. 

    In the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, the reason which hindered the dissection if human cadavers were:

    • A.

      Because the cadaver was considered sacred

    • B.

      Because the cadaver was was considered the site of the soul

    • C.

      Because the cadaver was considered impure and polluting

    • D.

      Because the medical doctors feared microbes coming from the human cadavers

    Correct Answer
    C. Because the cadaver was considered impure and polluting
    Explanation
    In the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, the dissection of human cadavers was hindered because they were considered impure and polluting. The belief was that coming into contact with a cadaver would contaminate and defile the individuals involved in the dissection. This belief stemmed from cultural and religious norms that emphasized purity and cleanliness. Therefore, the fear of impurity and pollution prevented the practice of cadaver dissection in those societies.

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  • 17. 

    Who is considered the discoverer of the cell nucleus?

    • A.

      Theodor Schwann

    • B.

      Rudolf Virchow

    • C.

      Robert Brown

    • D.

       Robert Koch

    Correct Answer
    C. Robert Brown
    Explanation
    Robert Brown is considered the discoverer of the cell nucleus. He observed and named the nucleus in plant cells in 1831. Brown's discovery was significant because it provided evidence that cells have a distinct structure and organization. This finding laid the foundation for the modern understanding of cells and their components.

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  • 18. 

    The most important book published by Vesalius was?

    • A.

      De humani corporis fabrica

    • B.

      Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis un animalibus

    • C.

      De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

    • D.

      De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis

    Correct Answer
    A. De humani corporis fabrica
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "De humani corporis fabrica". This book, published by Vesalius, is considered one of the most important works in the history of anatomy. It revolutionized the understanding of human anatomy by providing detailed and accurate illustrations of the human body. Vesalius emphasized the importance of direct observation and dissection, challenging the traditional teachings of Galen. "De humani corporis fabrica" played a crucial role in advancing the field of anatomy and laying the foundation for modern medicine.

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  • 19. 

    Who formulated the cell theory?

    • A.

      Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden

    • B.

      James Watson and Francis Circk

    • C.

      Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal

    • D.

      Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur

    Correct Answer
    A. Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden
    Explanation
    The cell theory was formulated by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden. They both independently proposed the idea that all living organisms are composed of cells, which are the basic units of structure and function. Schwann focused on animal cells, while Schleiden studied plant cells. Their work laid the foundation for our understanding of cells and revolutionized the field of biology.

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  • 20. 

    Who firstly demonstrated in animals that an infectious disease is produced by microorganisms?

    • A.

      Robert Koch

    • B.

      Louis Pasteur

    • C.

      Fritz Schaudinn

    • D.

      Agostino Bassi

    Correct Answer
    A. Robert Koch
    Explanation
    Robert Koch is the correct answer because he was the first to demonstrate that an infectious disease is caused by microorganisms. Koch's work on anthrax in the late 19th century provided evidence that a specific bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, was responsible for the disease. He developed a set of postulates, known as Koch's postulates, which are still used today to determine the causative agent of a disease. Koch's discoveries laid the foundation for the field of medical microbiology and his work revolutionized our understanding of infectious diseases.

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  • 21. 

    Who was the lady who diffused variolation in Europe?

    • A.

      Trorula

    • B.

      Mary Montague

    • C.

      Rita Levi Montalcini

    • D.

      Marie Curie

    Correct Answer
    B. Mary Montague
    Explanation
    Mary Montague is the correct answer because she was a British aristocrat who introduced and promoted the practice of variolation in Europe. Variolation was a precursor to vaccination and involved deliberately infecting individuals with a milder form of smallpox to provide immunity against the disease. Montague herself had suffered from smallpox and was left with facial scars, which motivated her to advocate for variolation as a means of preventing the disease. Her efforts helped to popularize and spread the practice in Europe, ultimately leading to the development of the smallpox vaccine.

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  • 22. 

    Who published a book based on the concept of a strict relationship among alternations of the organs and clinical symptoms?

    • A.

      Robert Hooke

    • B.

      Marcello Malpighi

    • C.

      William Harvey

    • D.

      Giovanni Battista Morgagni

    Correct Answer
    D. Giovanni Battista Morgagni
    Explanation
    Giovanni Battista Morgagni published a book based on the concept of a strict relationship among alternations of the organs and clinical symptoms. This suggests that Morgagni was the author who explored the connection between changes in organs and the corresponding symptoms observed in patients.

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  • 23. 

    According to Galen, blood was formed in:

    • A.

      The bone marrow

    • B.

      The liver

    • C.

      The spleen

    • D.

      The brain

    Correct Answer
    B. The liver
    Explanation
    According to Galen, blood was formed in the liver. Galen was a prominent physician in ancient Rome and believed that the liver played a crucial role in the formation of blood. He believed that the liver produced a substance called "vital spirits" which were then transformed into blood. This belief was widely accepted during Galen's time and influenced medical understanding for centuries. However, modern scientific knowledge has since shown that blood cells are actually formed in the bone marrow.

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  • 24. 

    Which is the concept of pathology missing in this list: 1. Theurgic and religious. 2. Humoral pathology (Hippocrates, Galen). 3. Organ pathology (Morgagni). 4. []. 5. Cellular pathology. 6. Molecular pathology.

    Correct Answer
    tissues, TISSUES, Tissues
  • 25. 

    Who introduced the term "syphilis"?

    • A.

      Gerolamo Fracastoro

    • B.

      Charles VIII King of France

    • C.

      Voltaire

    • D.

       Wasserman

    Correct Answer
    A. Gerolamo Fracastoro
    Explanation
    Gerolamo Fracastoro is credited with introducing the term "syphilis." He was an Italian physician and scholar who wrote a poem called "Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus" in 1530, where he described the symptoms and transmission of the disease. Fracastoro's work was influential in naming the disease and distinguishing it from other similar illnesses. His contribution to the understanding and naming of syphilis makes him the correct answer to this question.

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  • 26. 

    Which is the most accepted theory of the origin of syphilis?

    • A.

      Russian origin theory.

    • B.

      European origin theory.

    • C.

      American origin theory.

    • D.

      Asian origin theory.

    Correct Answer
    C. American origin theory.
    Explanation
    The American origin theory is the most accepted explanation for the origin of syphilis. This theory suggests that syphilis was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus and his crew after their voyage to the Americas. The disease then spread rapidly throughout Europe and other parts of the world. This theory is supported by historical evidence and the fact that syphilis was not documented in Europe before Columbus' return. Additionally, genetic studies have shown that the strains of syphilis found in the Americas are the oldest and most diverse, further supporting the American origin theory.

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  • 27. 

    Who was the second researcher who introduced the second successful vaccination?

    • A.

      Louis Pasteur

    • B.

      Edward Jenner

    • C.

       Napoleon

    • D.

      Luigi Sacco

    Correct Answer
    A. Louis Pasteur
    Explanation
    Louis Pasteur is the correct answer because he was a renowned French scientist who made significant contributions to the field of microbiology and immunology. Pasteur developed the process of pasteurization and also created the first successful vaccines for diseases such as rabies and anthrax. His work laid the foundation for modern vaccination techniques and greatly advanced the understanding of infectious diseases.

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  • 28. 

    Smallpox is a human disease which is due to a

    • A.

      Bacterial infection

    • B.

      Viral infection

    • C.

      Protozoan infection

    • D.

      Worm infection

    Correct Answer
    B. Viral infection
    Explanation
    Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, which is a highly contagious and deadly virus. It is not caused by bacteria, protozoa, or worms. The virus spreads from person to person through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. Smallpox is characterized by a high fever, rash, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters on the skin. It has been eradicated worldwide through vaccination efforts.

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  • 29. 

    The most massive plague pandemic affected the world population during the:

    • A.

      Fourteenth century

    • B.

      Nineteenth century

    • C.

      The second World War

    • D.

      The invasion of Italy by the army of King Charles VIII during the year 1494-95

    Correct Answer
    A. Fourteenth century
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Fourteenth century. This was the time when the most massive plague pandemic, known as the Black Death, occurred. The Black Death was a devastating epidemic caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, which was spread by fleas that infested black rats. It originated in Asia and spread to Europe, killing an estimated 75-200 million people, which was around 30-60% of Europe's population at the time. The pandemic had a profound impact on society, causing widespread death, economic decline, and social upheaval.

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  • 30. 

    Which are the three forms of the plague (complete the list)? 1. Bubonic. 2. Pulmonary. 3. []

    Correct Answer
    Septi-semic, Black form, black form, BLACK FORM, black plague, Black plague, BLACK FORM, septisemic, Septisemic, SEPTI-SEMIC, black
  • 31. 

    Which one of these statements are in agreement with the Hippocratic oath?

    • A.

      A physician must adopt professional secrecy in his/her conduct

    • B.

      A physician could adopt euthanasia in some particular situation.

    • C.

      It is allowed to a physician to have sex with patients both female and male, be they free or slaves

    • D.

      In some situations it is possible for a physician to give lethal drug if specifically asked by a patient.

    Correct Answer
    A. A physician must adopt professional secrecy in his/her conduct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A physician must adopt professional secrecy in his/her conduct." This statement aligns with the Hippocratic oath, which emphasizes the importance of confidentiality and maintaining patient privacy. It is a fundamental ethical principle for healthcare professionals to respect and protect the confidential information shared by their patients.

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