# National Public Health Championship, Indonesian Public Health Student Summit (Iphss) 2019

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Annisa Fitriana
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Sebelum menjawab pertanyaan, perhatikan petunjuk dibawah! Soal berjumlah 70 Waktu pengerjaan selama 60 menit dan otomatis akan berhenti pada menit ke-60 Jawaban benar bernilai +2 Jawaban salah bernilai -1 Tidak menjawab bernilai 0   SELAMAT MENGERJAKAN!

• 1.

### Pada Probability Samples terdapat teknik sampling yang paling sederhana (simple). Sampel diambil secara acak, tanpa memperhatikan tingkatan yang ada dalam populasi. Teknik apakah itu?

• A.

Systematic

• B.

Proportionate Stratified

• C.

Cluster Sampling

• D.

Simple Random

• E.

Sampling Kuota

D. Simple Random
Explanation
Simple Random sampling is the technique where samples are taken randomly without considering any strata or levels within the population. This means that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample. It is the most basic and straightforward technique in probability sampling.

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• 2.

### Menurut Repisti (2015), kesalahan juga bisa terjadi saat peneliti tidak memperhatikan tata cara atau persyaratan penarikan kesimpulan sesuai dengan metode pengujian tertentu. Metode apakah itu?

• A.

Populasi

• B.

Sampel

• C.

Variabel

• D.

Standar Deviasi

• E.

Hipotesis

E. Hipotesis
Explanation
The correct answer is "Hipotesis". According to Repisti (2015), one possible mistake that researchers can make is not following the proper procedures or requirements for drawing conclusions based on a specific testing method. The hypothesis is a crucial part of the scientific method, as it is a statement that is tested and either supported or rejected based on the evidence gathered during the research. Therefore, not properly formulating or testing the hypothesis can lead to incorrect conclusions.

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• 3.

### Hipotesis yang menyatakan tidak ada perbedaan sesuatu kejadian antara kedua kelompok, seperti pada contoh: Tidak ada hubungan merokok dengan berat badan bayi. Contoh dan pengertian diatas merupakan hipotesis?

• A.

Hipotesis Alternatif

• B.

Hipotesis Bermakna

• C.

Hipotesis Tidak Bermakna

• D.

Hipotesis Nol

• E.

Hipotesis Ha

E. Hipotesis Ha
Explanation
The correct answer is "Hipotesis Ha" because "Ha" stands for "Hipotesis Alternatif" or alternative hypothesis. In this context, the alternative hypothesis is the one that states there is a difference between the two groups or events being compared. Therefore, the given statement about there being no relationship between smoking and baby weight is contrary to the alternative hypothesis.

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• 4.

### Hipotesis yang menyatakan adanya perbedaan suatu kejadian antara kedua kelompok disebut hipotesis…

• A.

Hipotesis Alternatif

• B.

Hipotesis Nol

• C.

Hipotesis Bermakna

• D.

Hipotesis Tidak Bermakna

• E.

Hipotesis Ho

A. Hipotesis Alternatif
Explanation
The correct answer is "Hipotesis Alternatif". In hypothesis testing, the alternative hypothesis (Hipotesis Alternatif) is the hypothesis that states there is a difference or relationship between the variables being studied. It is the opposite of the null hypothesis (Hipotesis Nol), which assumes no difference or relationship between the variables. The alternative hypothesis is the one that researchers want to support or prove through their study. Therefore, it is the hypothesis that suggests the presence of a difference or effect in the population being studied.

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• 5.

### Menurut Saputra (2016) obyek penelitian adalah sesuatu yang akan diteliti oleh peneliti. Obyek penelitian bisa manusia, makhluk hidup (tumbuhan dan hewan), benda mati (udara, rumah, pasar) dan benda abstrak (kegiatan, waktu). Kumpulan unsur obyek penelitian yang sejenis yang akan dikaji karakteristiknya disebut...

• A.

Populasi

• B.

Sampel

• C.

Sampling

• D.

Cluster

• E.

Data

A. Populasi
Explanation
The correct answer is "Populasi". According to Saputra (2016), the object of research refers to something that will be studied by the researcher. The object of research can include humans, living organisms (plants and animals), inanimate objects (air, houses, markets), and abstract concepts (activities, time). In this context, the term "populasi" refers to a collection of similar elements of the research object that will be studied for their characteristics.

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• 6.

### Menurut Holly (2006), langkah-langkah evaluasi pada evidence kesehatan masyarakat adalah: mengembangkan model logis, mengindentifikasi konsep-konsep teoritis menjadi terukur dan mengembangkan serta menguji indikator yang spesifik. Berikut ini adalah indikator spesifik, kecuali:

• A.

Sasaran populasi yang tepat

• B.

Validitas

• C.

Timelines

• D.

Availability data

• E.

Reliabilitas

E. Reliabilitas
Explanation
The given options are all related to the steps of evaluating public health evidence. The options include specific indicators that are necessary for evaluation, such as the target population, validity, timelines, and availability of data. However, reliability is not mentioned as one of the specific indicators. Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of measurements or data, and while it is an important aspect of evaluation, it is not listed as one of the indicators in this context.

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• 7.

### Analisis yang menghubungkan antara beberapa variabel independen secara simultan dengan satu variabel dependen disebut dengan analisis

• A.

Analisis Analitik Multivariable

• B.

Analisis Analitik Bivariable

• C.

Analisis Deskriptif

• D.

Analisis Univariabel

• E.

Analisis Kuantitatif

A. Analisis Analitik Multivariable
• 8.

### Dalam suatu penelitian didapatkan hasil yang tidak akurat disebabkan kelemahan dalam pembuatan kuesioner, ketidakmampuan enumerator dalam memandu pengisian kuesioner serta pernyataan yang tercantum dalam kuesioner cenderung mengarah pada jawaban responden. Berdasarkan pernyataan di atas, kesalahan apa yang terjadi dalam penelitian?

• A.

Spesifikasi

• B.

Cakupan populasi

• C.

Pengukuran

• D.

Penarikan sampel

• E.

Ketidaklengkapan respon

C. Pengukuran
Explanation
The given statement suggests that the inaccuracy of the results in the research is caused by weaknesses in the questionnaire construction, the enumerator's inability to guide the questionnaire filling, and the tendency of the questionnaire statements to lead respondents to certain answers. Based on this, the error that occurred in the research is related to the measurement process, indicating that the measurement was not accurately capturing the intended data.

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• 9.

### Pembagian data menurut cara memperolehnya yaitu?

• A.

Data internal dan data eksternal

• B.

Data primer dan data sekunder

• C.

Data kuantitatif dan data kualitatif

• D.

Data diskrit dan data kontinu

• E.

Data cross sectional dan data time series

B. Data primer dan data sekunder
Explanation
The correct answer is "Data primer dan data sekunder". This is because data can be classified into two categories based on how it is obtained. Data primer refers to the original data that is collected firsthand by the researcher for a specific purpose, while data sekunder refers to existing data that is collected by someone else for a different purpose but can be used by the researcher for their own study.

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• 10.

### Pembagian data menurut waktu pengumpulan yaitu?

• A.

Data internal dan data eksternal

• B.

Data primer dan data sekunder

• C.

Data kuantitatif dan data kualitatif

• D.

Data diskrit dan data kontinu

• E.

Data cross sectional dan data time series

E. Data cross sectional dan data time series
Explanation
The division of data according to the time of collection refers to cross-sectional data and time series data. Cross-sectional data refers to data collected at a specific point in time, providing information about a particular group or population at that moment. Time series data, on the other hand, refers to data collected over a period of time, allowing for the analysis of trends and patterns over that time period.

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• 11.

### Pada peringatan hari AIDS sedunia, Anda berdiri di pintu suatu Mall di Kota Depok kemudian meminta kesediaan pengunjung untuk mengisi kuesioner tentang HIV/AIDS. Sebanyak 200 pengunjung berhasil mengisi kuesioner dan 20 orang memiliki pengetahuan yang baik. Kemudian anda simpulkan bahwa hanya 10% penduduk kota Depok yang memiliki pengetahuan yang baik tentang HIV/AIDS.  Kesimpulan anda salah, karena sampel anda tidak dipilih secara random dari populasi penduduk di kota Depok. Berdasarkan uraian di atas, kesalahan interpretasi tersebut termasuk ke dalam kesalahan …

• A.

Terlalu mendewakan nilai signifikan

• B.

Kesalahan menyimpulkan sebab-akibat

• C.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Hanya menampilkan hasil penelitian yang penting menurut peneliti

• D.

â€‹â€‹â€‹Hasil penelitian selalu dapat menggambarkan populasi umum

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Random sampling tetapi secara teknis tidak random

E. â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Random sampling tetapi secara teknis tidak random
Explanation
The correct answer is "Random sampling tetapi secara teknis tidak random." The explanation for this answer is that the conclusion drawn from the survey is incorrect because the sample of 200 visitors at a mall in Depok is not randomly selected from the population of Depok city. Random sampling involves selecting individuals from a population in a way that each individual has an equal chance of being chosen. In this case, the sample was taken from mall visitors, which may not be representative of the entire population of Depok. Therefore, the conclusion about the percentage of people with good knowledge about HIV/AIDS in Depok cannot be accurately inferred from this sample.

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• 12.

### Dalam suatu penelitian status gizi pada suatu Sekolah Dasar. Status gizi responden  diukur berdasarkan Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT) untuk itu dilakukan pengukuran  tinggi badan dan berat badan siswa. Hasil pengukuran dipisahkan antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Data tinggi badan dan berat badan tersebut kemudian digunakan untuk menghitung IMT responden. Hasil IMT lalu disusun sesuai dengan kategori yang telah ditentukan: kurang, normal, overweight, obesitas.   Dalam tahapan biostatistik manakah peneliti tersebut?

• A.

Pengumpulan data dan pengolahan data

• B.

Pengolahan data dan penyajian data

• C.

Penyajian dan interpretasi data

• D.

Pengumpulan data

• E.

Pengolahan data

A. Pengumpulan data dan pengolahan data
Explanation
The researcher is in the stage of data collection and data processing. They are collecting data on height and weight of students and using that data to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the respondents. This process involves both collecting the data (height and weight measurements) and processing the data (calculating the BMI). Therefore, the researcher is in the stage of data collection and data processing.

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• 13.

### Pilar utama Program Indonesia Sehat yang dilaksanakan dengan melakukan peningkatan akses pelayanan kesehatan, optimalisasi sistem rujukan, peningkatan mutu pelayanan kesehatan, menggunakan pendekatan continum of care dan intervensi berbasis resiko kesehatan, yaitu...

• A.

• B.

Penguatan pelayanan kesehatan primer

• C.

Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional

• D.

RPJMN bidang Kesehatan

• E.

Rencana Strategis Kementerian Kesehatan

B. Penguatan pelayanan kesehatan primer
Explanation
The main pillar of the Healthy Indonesia Program is the strengthening of primary health care services. This means that the program focuses on improving and enhancing the quality of primary health care services, which are the first point of contact for individuals seeking healthcare. By strengthening these services, the program aims to provide better access to healthcare for the population, optimize the referral system, and ultimately improve the overall quality of healthcare in Indonesia.

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• 14.

### Kebijakan Kesehatan Masyarakat berarti sebuah peraturan, hukum, prosedur, tindakan administratif, dorongan, atau praktik yang dibuat secara sadar oleh sebuah badan atau instansi. Alasan utama dibuatnya sebuah kebijakan kesehatan masyarakat adalah untuk…

• A.

Menentukan arah pembangunan bidang kesehatan

• B.

Menyelesaikan/mengatasi permasalahan kesehatan yang terjadi di masyarakat

• C.

Meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan kesehatan masyarakat

• D.

Memandu jalannya program kesehatan masyarakat

• E.

B. Menyelesaikan/mengatasi permasalahan kesehatan yang terjadi di masyarakat
Explanation
The main reason for the creation of public health policies is to address and solve health issues that occur in society. These policies are designed to identify and tackle the problems that affect the health of the public. By implementing effective policies, governments and organizations can take necessary actions to prevent and control diseases, promote healthy behaviors, and improve overall public health outcomes. This helps in ensuring the well-being of the community and reducing the burden of health problems on individuals and society as a whole.

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• 15.

### Yang bukan termasuk sasaran Program Indonesia Sehat, adalah

• A.

Meningkatnya status kesehatan dan gizi ibu dan anak

• B.

Meningkatkan responsivitas sistem kesehatan

• C.

Meningkatnya sanitasi lingkungan

• D.

Meningkatnya pengendalian penyakit

• E.

Terpenuhinya kebutuhan tenaga kesehatan, obat dan vaksin

C. Meningkatnya sanitasi lingkungan
Explanation
The answer "Meningkatnya sanitasi lingkungan" is not included in the targets of the Indonesian Healthy Program. The other options, such as improving the health and nutrition status of mothers and children, increasing the responsiveness of the health system, enhancing disease control, and meeting the needs of healthcare professionals, medicines, and vaccines, are all mentioned as targets of the program.

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• 16.

### Peran stakeholder sangat penting dalam pengambilan keputusan pada kebijakan kesehatan salah satunya adalah stakeholder primer yang memiliki kaitan kepentingan secara langsung dengan suatu kebijakan, program dan proyek kesehatan. Mereka harus ditempatkan sebagai penentu utama dalam proses pengambilan keputusan. Berikut yang  merupakan stakeholder primer adalah...

• A.

Kepala pemerintahan kota/kabupaten

• B.

Masyarakat yang terakit dengan proyek

• C.

Ahli keilmuwan kesehatan

• D.

Tokoh masyarakat yang berpengaruh

• E.

B. Masyarakat yang terakit dengan proyek
Explanation
The primary stakeholders are those who have a direct interest in a policy, program, or health project. In this context, the "Masyarakat yang terakit dengan proyek" (community members affected by the project) are the primary stakeholders because they are directly impacted by the health project. The other options, such as the head of government, health experts, influential community figures, and non-governmental organizations, may also be stakeholders but they are not directly affected by the project, making them secondary stakeholders.

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• 17.

### Program Indonesia sehat dilaksanakan dengan menegakkan 3 pilar utama yaitu : (1) penerapan paradigma sehat, (2) penguatan pelayanan kesehatan, (3) pelaksanaan jaminan kesehatan nasional (JKN). Yang merupakan penerapan pilar pertama di bawah ini adalah…

• A.

Penguatan upaya promotif dan preventif, pemberdayaan masyarakat

• B.

Optimalisasi sistem rujukan

• C.

Peningkatan mutu dengan pendekatan continuum of care

• D.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Intervensi berbasis resiko kesehatan

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Strategi perluasan sasaran dan manfaat

A. Penguatan upaya promotif dan preventif, pemberdayaan masyarakat
Explanation
The correct answer is "Penguatan upaya promotif dan preventif, pemberdayaan masyarakat". This is because the first pillar of the Program Indonesia sehat is the implementation of a healthy paradigm, which includes strengthening promotive and preventive efforts and empowering the community. This involves promoting healthy behaviors and preventing diseases through education, awareness campaigns, and community involvement. Empowering the community also means involving them in decision-making processes and giving them the resources and support to take control of their own health.

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• 18.

### Permasalahan kesehatan jiwa masih menjadi area prioritas pembangunan kesehatan tahun 2015-2019. Data riskesdas tahun 2013, menunjukkan prevalensi gangguan mental emosional sebesar 14 juta jiwa. Gangguan jiwa berat seperti gangguan psikosis dialami sebesar 400.000 orang. Prioritas untuk kesehatan jiwa ini adalah mengembangkan Upaya Kesehatan Jiwa Berbasis Masyarakat (UKJBM) yang bekerjasama dengan masyarakat. Lembaga yang berfungsi sebagai ujung tombak program tersebut adalah…

• A.

TNI

• B.

Puskesmas

• C.

Rumah Sakit Jiwa

• D.

Polri

• E.

Dokter Jiwa

B. Puskesmas
Explanation
The correct answer is Puskesmas. The passage mentions that the priority for mental health is to develop a community-based mental health program. Puskesmas, or community health centers, are known for providing primary healthcare services, including mental health services, to the community. Therefore, Puskesmas is the institution that serves as the forefront of the program.

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• 19.

### Cakupan program JKN yang masih berkembang saat ini diharapkan pada tahun 2019 program JKN sudah dapat mencakup 100% dari total penduduk Indonesia. Semakin berkembangnya cakupan program JKN ini, semakin banyak orang, terutama mereka yang berasal dari kelompok yang berpenghasilan rendah, dapat memperoleh akses ke pelayanan kesehatan. Tantangan terbesar yang dihadapai oleh program JKN adalah...

• A.

Defisit anggaran program JKN disetiap tahunnya

• B.

Pemerintah yang belum bisa membenahi kebijakan terutaman JKN secara maskimal

• C.

Masyarakat yang tidak tahu bagaimana cara mendapatkan dan menggunakan layanan JKN

• D.

Tidak banyaknya Yankes menggunakan JKN

• E.

Perubahan peraturan setiap periode yang merugikan kedua belah pihak

A. Defisit anggaran program JKN disetiap tahunnya
Explanation
The biggest challenge faced by the JKN program is the deficit in its budget every year. This means that the program does not have enough funds to cover all the healthcare services and benefits for the population. This can result in limited access to healthcare for the people, especially those from low-income groups. The deficit in the budget needs to be addressed in order to ensure that the program can provide comprehensive healthcare coverage for all Indonesians.

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• 20.

### Salah satu pernyataan di bawah adalah mengenai tujuan pembangunan berkelanjutan terkait dengan sektor kesehatan adalah...

• A.

Meningkatnya status kesehatan dan gizi ibu dan anak

• B.

Meningkatnya pengendalian penyakit

• C.

Terpenuhi kebutuhan kesehatan obat dan vaksin

• D.

Menjamin kehidupan yang sehat dan mendorong kesejahteraan bagi semua orang disegala usia

• E.

Meningkatnya responsivitas sistem kesehatan

D. Menjamin kehidupan yang sehat dan mendorong kesejahteraan bagi semua orang disegala usia
Explanation
The correct answer is "Menjamin kehidupan yang sehat dan mendorong kesejahteraan bagi semua orang disegala usia". This answer aligns with the goal of sustainable development related to the health sector, which aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all individuals at all ages. It encompasses the broader objective of improving overall health and well-being, rather than focusing on specific aspects such as maternal and child health, disease control, or healthcare system responsiveness.

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• 21.

### Program Indonesia Sehat merupakan salah satu program dari agenda ke-5 Nawa Cita dan direncanakan pencapaiannya melalui Rencana Strategis (Renstra) Kementerian Kesehatan Tahun 2015-2019. Program Indonesia Sehat dilaksanakan dengan menegakkan tiga pilar utama, salah satunya adalah penerapan paradigma sehat. Di bawah ini kebijakan pemerintah dalam mendukung penerapan paradigma sehat yaitu...

• A.

Kartu Indonesia Sehat (KIS)

• B.

Akreditasi Puskesmas

• C.

Gerakan Masyarakat Sehat (GERMAS)

• D.

Telemedicine

• E.

Sistem Penanggulangan Gawat Darurat Terpadu (SPGDT)

C. Gerakan Masyarakat Sehat (GERMAS)
Explanation
The correct answer is Gerakan Masyarakat Sehat (GERMAS) because it is mentioned in the passage as one of the main pillars of the Program Indonesia Sehat. The passage states that the program is implemented by upholding three main pillars, one of which is the application of a healthy paradigm. GERMAS, which translates to Healthy Community Movement, is a government policy aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles and behaviors among the community. Therefore, GERMAS is the correct answer as it aligns with the objective of the Program Indonesia Sehat.

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• 22.

### Seorang ibu ingin membawa anaknya yang berusia 2 tahun ke puskesmas untuk mendapatkan imunisasi tetapi dilarang oleh ayahnya. Bagaimana pendapat Saudara mengenai hal ini dikaitkan dengan ilmu kesehatan masyarakat?

• A.

Ayah tersebut melanggar hak setiap anak untuk mendapatkan derajat kesehatan yang lebih tinggi untuk terbebas dari penyakit-penyakit yang dapat membunuh

• B.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Ayah tersebut berhak untuk melarang karena memiliki hak atas anak tersebut

• C.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Ayah tersebut wajib melarang karena masih banyak kontroversi tentang manfaat imunisasi pada anak

• D.

Ayah tersebut dapat dikenakan sanksi pidana karena melanggar hak anak

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Ayah tersebut dibenarkan secara hukum untuk melarang ibu membawa anaknya untuk diimunisasi karena ayah wajib melindungi anak dari hal-hal yang mungkin

A. Ayah tersebut melanggar hak setiap anak untuk mendapatkan derajat kesehatan yang lebih tinggi untuk terbebas dari penyakit-penyakit yang dapat membunuh
Explanation
The answer suggests that the father is violating the child's right to receive necessary immunizations for a higher level of health and protection against life-threatening diseases. This viewpoint is related to public health because ensuring access to immunizations is a crucial aspect of public health initiatives in preventing the spread of infectious diseases and promoting overall population health.

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• 23.

### Menurut WHO Ethics Guidelines tahun 2011, terdapat 7 prinsip etika yaitu (1) desain ilmiah dan perilaku penelitian, (2) risiko dan manfaat penelitian, (3) pemilihan populasi penelitian dan rekrutmen peserta penelitian, (4) bujukan, manfaat finansial, dan biaya keuangan, (5) perlindungan privasi dan kerahasiaan peserta penelitian, (6) proses persetujuan yang diinformasikan (informed consent), dan (7) pertimbangan masyarakat. Salah satu contoh prinsip etika penelitian yang berhubungan dengan resiko dan manfaat penelitian di bawah ini adalah…

• A.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Identitas dari subjek penelitian di rahasiakan

• B.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Adanya persetujuan dari subjek penelitian untuk berpartisipasi dalam penelitian

• C.

Pemilihan subyek penelitian secara adil dalam populasi yang beraneka ragam

• D.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Peneliti memberikan informasi yang jelas yaitu memaparkan risiko dan manfaat penelitian kepada subyek penelitian

• E.

Peneliti mempertimbangkan dampak yang dirasakan oleh individu yang menjadi subyek tetapi juga komunitas yang berada di tempat penelitian

D. â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Peneliti memberikan informasi yang jelas yaitu memaparkan risiko dan manfaat penelitian kepada subyek penelitian
Explanation
The correct answer is "Peneliti memberikan informasi yang jelas yaitu memaparkan risiko dan manfaat penelitian kepada subyek penelitian." This is because one of the principles of research ethics according to the WHO Ethics Guidelines is the disclosure of risks and benefits of the research to the research subjects. It is important for researchers to provide clear information about the potential risks and benefits involved in the study to ensure informed consent and protect the well-being of the subjects.

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• 24.

### Berikut ini adalah faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi status kesehatan menurut teori H.L Blum, kecuali :

• A.

Lingkungan

• B.

Genetik

• C.

Gaya Hidup

• D.

Sosial budaya

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Pelayanan Kesehatan

D. Sosial budaya
Explanation
The given options are factors that influence health status according to H.L Blum's theory. They include environment, genetics, lifestyle, and healthcare services. However, social culture is not mentioned as one of the factors that affect health status according to the theory.

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• 25.

### Masalah determinan kesehatan di Indonesia yang paling sulit untuk ditangani adalah:

• A.

Masalah ketersediaan pelayanan kesehatan

• B.

Masalah lingkungan

• C.

Masalah genetik

• D.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Masalah perilaku

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Masalah sosial

D. â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Masalah perilaku
Explanation
The most difficult health determinant issue to handle in Indonesia is behavioral problems. This is because changing behaviors and habits can be a complex and challenging process. It requires a combination of education, awareness campaigns, and support systems to effectively address behavioral issues related to health. Additionally, cultural factors and societal norms can also influence behavior, making it even more difficult to tackle.

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• 26.

### Manusia sebagai makhluk hidup individu dan makhluk sosial selalu berinteraksi dengan sesamanya tidak dapat terlepas dari 4 nilai yang ada dalam kehidupannya, yaitu...

• A.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Nilai kesosialan, kebudayaan, moral dan keagamaan

• B.

Nilai kebudayaan, sosial, ekonomi, lingkungan

• C.

Nilai moral, kegamaan, kemanusiaan, ekonomi

• D.

Nilai keagamaan, kemanusiaan, moral, ekonomi

• E.

Nilai ekonomi, moral, kemanusiaan, lingkungan

A. â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Nilai kesosialan, kebudayaan, moral dan keagamaan
Explanation
Manusia sebagai makhluk hidup individu dan makhluk sosial selalu berinteraksi dengan sesamanya tidak dapat terlepas dari 4 nilai yang ada dalam kehidupannya, yaitu nilai kesosialan, kebudayaan, moral, dan keagamaan. Ini berarti bahwa manusia tidak hanya berhubungan dengan orang lain dalam masyarakat (nilai kesosialan), tetapi juga dipengaruhi oleh budaya yang ada di sekitarnya (nilai kebudayaan), memiliki prinsip moral dalam bertindak (nilai moral), dan memiliki keyakinan dan praktik keagamaan (nilai keagamaan).

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• 27.

### Berikut ini yang merupakan salah satu contoh misi promosi kesehatan “enable”, yaitu..

• A.

Menjalin kemitraan di berbagai program kesehatan

• B.

Berdiskusi dengan pengambil kebijakan

• C.

Masyarakat mampu melakukan gerakan 1 rumah 1 jumantik

• D.

Perwakilan mahasiswa berkonsolidasi dengan pembuat kebijakan di pemerintahan

• E.

Bekerjasama dengan berbagai lapisan masyarakat ketika ingin mengadakan kegiatan kemasyarakatan

C. Masyarakat mampu melakukan gerakan 1 rumah 1 jumantik
Explanation
The correct answer is "Masyarakat mampu melakukan gerakan 1 rumah 1 jumantik". This answer is correct because it aligns with the concept of "enable" in health promotion. The "1 rumah 1 jumantik" movement encourages communities to take responsibility for their own health by actively participating in mosquito control activities, such as eliminating breeding sites in and around their homes. By enabling the community to engage in this movement, it promotes a sense of ownership and empowerment in maintaining a healthy environment.

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• 28.

### Metode promosi kesehatan yang paling efektif untuk sasaran individu adalah..

• A.

Ceramah

• B.

Roleplay

• C.

Seminar

• D.

Wawancara

• E.

Snowball

D. Wawancara
Explanation
Wawancara adalah metode promosi kesehatan yang paling efektif untuk sasaran individu karena melibatkan interaksi langsung antara pemberi informasi (interviewer) dan penerima informasi (interviewee). Dalam wawancara, penerima informasi dapat mengajukan pertanyaan, mengungkapkan kekhawatiran, dan berbagi pengalaman secara pribadi. Hal ini memungkinkan pemberi informasi untuk memberikan informasi yang relevan dan spesifik sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan kondisi individu yang diwawancarai. Dengan demikian, wawancara dapat memberikan pendekatan yang lebih personal dan dapat disesuaikan untuk mempromosikan kesehatan individu.

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• 29.

• A.

5,4,3,2,1

• B.

5,2,4,1,3

• C.

5,2,1,3,4

• D.

5,2,3,1,4

• E.

5,2,4,3,1

B. 5,2,4,1,3
Explanation
The correct sequence of adoption stages in the innovation adoption theory is as follows: Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial, and Adoption. This sequence suggests that individuals first become aware of the innovation, then develop an interest in it, evaluate its potential benefits, try it out, and finally decide to adopt it. Therefore, the correct answer is 5,2,4,1,3.

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• 30.

### Dibawah ini merupakan unsur penting dalam komunikasi, kecuali…

• A.

Waktu

• B.

Komunikator

• C.

Sarana komunikasi

• D.

Dampak

• E.

Pesan

A. Waktu
Explanation
The given options consist of important elements in communication, such as the communicator, communication tools, the impact, and the message. However, "time" is not considered an essential element in communication. While time management may be crucial in certain contexts, it is not an inherent component of communication itself. Therefore, the answer "time" is the correct choice as the option that is not an important element in communication.

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• 31.

### Dalam proses organisasi, kegiatan penetapan struktur organisasi beserta tupoksinya termasuk dalam kegiatan..

• A.

Forecasting

• B.

Planning

• C.

Organizing

• D.

Directing/commanding

• E.

Coordinating

C. Organizing
Explanation
The correct answer is organizing. In the process of organizing, the activity of determining the organizational structure and its functions is included. This involves establishing the hierarchy of authority, dividing tasks and responsibilities, and creating a framework for coordination and communication within the organization. Organizing helps to establish clarity and order within the organization, ensuring that everyone knows their roles and responsibilities, and facilitates the efficient utilization of resources.

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• 32.

### Evaluasi yang dilakukan pada tahap awal program disebut..

• A.

Summative evaluation

• B.

Promotive evaluation

• C.

Preventive evaluation

• D.

Formative evaluation

• E.

Curative evaluation

D. Formative evaluation
Explanation
Formative evaluation is the evaluation that is conducted at the initial stage of a program. It is focused on providing feedback and information to improve the program and make necessary adjustments. This type of evaluation helps in identifying strengths and weaknesses, setting goals, and making improvements to the program. It is different from summative evaluation, which is conducted at the end of the program to assess its overall effectiveness. Promotive evaluation, preventive evaluation, and curative evaluation are not relevant to the initial stage of the program.

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• 33.

### Berdasarkan teori five level of prevention, yang dapat dilakukan sebagai pencegahan agar tidak semakin meningkatnya kasus adalah …

• A.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Rehabilitasi

• B.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Disability limitation

• C.

EDPT

• D.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Specific protection

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Health promotion

E. â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Health promotion
Explanation
The correct answer is "Health promotion" because according to the theory of five levels of prevention, health promotion focuses on preventing the occurrence of diseases or injuries by promoting healthy behaviors and lifestyles. It aims to educate and empower individuals and communities to make informed decisions about their health and adopt preventive measures. This level of prevention is proactive and emphasizes the importance of promoting health and preventing diseases before they occur.

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• 34.

### Menurut Lawrence Green, perilaku masyarakat sejatinya ditentukan oleh 3 faktor utama, manakah diantara faktor tersebut yang mendorong terjadinya suatu perilaku?

• A.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Enabling Factors

• B.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Predisposing Factors

• C.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹Behavioral Factors

• D.

Reinforcing Factors

• E.

Non behavioral Factors

D. Reinforcing Factors
Explanation
Reinforcing factors are the factors that encourage or reinforce certain behaviors in society. These factors can include rewards, punishments, social norms, and peer pressure. They play a significant role in shaping and maintaining behavior within a community. Therefore, it can be concluded that reinforcing factors are the main factors that drive the occurrence of a behavior, according to Lawrence Green.

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• 35.

### Mengacu kepada essentials public health services, tahap penjaminan tenaga kerja layanan kesehatan perorangan dan layanan kesehatan masyarakat yang kompeten, termasuk ke dalam tahap?

• A.

Assurance

• B.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹assessment

• C.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹policy and development

• D.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹innovation

• E.

â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹reassembly

A. Assurance
Explanation
The given answer, "assurance", is correct because it refers to the essential public health service of ensuring a competent healthcare workforce and competent public health services. Assurance involves making sure that the necessary resources and systems are in place to provide quality healthcare and public health services to the community. This includes monitoring and evaluating the performance of healthcare providers and implementing quality improvement measures.

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• 36.

### Sisa kegiatan sehari-hari manusia dan/atau proses alam yang berbentuk padat yang terdiri dari zat organik dan zat anorganik yang dianggap tidak berguna lagi dan harus dikelola agar tidak membahayakan lingkungan dan melindungi investasi pembangunan, merupakan definisi dari…

• A.

Sampah

• B.

Tempat sampah

• C.

Pemrosesan Sampah

• D.

Tempat pengelolaan sampah

• E.

Tempat pembuangan akhir sampah

A. Sampah
Explanation
The given correct answer is "Sampah" because it refers to the solid waste generated from human activities and/or natural processes that consists of organic and inorganic substances that are considered useless and need to be managed to prevent environmental hazards and protect development investments.

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• 37.

### Metode pengelolaan sampah yang dilakukan dengan cara ditimbun, diratakan dan dipadatkan kemudian ditutup dengan tanah sebagai lapisan tanah, merupakan metode dari:

• A.

Open dumping

• B.

Sanitary landfill

• C.

Controlled landfill

• D.

Higienitas landfill

• E.

Open closed dumping

B. Sanitary landfill
Explanation
The correct answer is Sanitary landfill. This method of waste management involves burying and compacting waste, then covering it with soil as a protective layer. This helps to minimize the environmental impact and prevent the spread of diseases and contamination. It is a more controlled and regulated method compared to open dumping, controlled landfill, and open closed dumping. The term "higienitas landfill" is not a recognized method of waste management.

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• 38.

### Berikut termasuk parameter fisik untuk mengukur air, kecuali…

• A.

Bau

• B.

Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)

• C.

• D.

Suhu

• E.

Kekeruhan

Explanation
Kesadahan is not a physical parameter for measuring water. The other options - Bau, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Suhu, and Kekeruhan - are all physical parameters that can be used to measure water quality. Kesadahan refers to the hardness of water, which is a measure of the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions in the water.

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• 39.

### Parameter kualitas lingkungan dalam Integrated Risk Based Approach (IRBA) mengkategorikan lindi menjadi beberapa kriteria parameter, yaitu:

• A.

Luas TPA

• B.

Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)

• C.

Permeabilitas tanah

• D.

Kedalaman tanah

• E.

Kandungan B3 dalam sampah

B. Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)
Explanation
In the Integrated Risk Based Approach (IRBA), the parameter of environmental quality categorizes lindi into various criteria, including the Total Dissolved Solid (TDS). TDS refers to the measurement of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances that are dissolved in a liquid, in this case, lindi. It is an important parameter to consider as it indicates the level of pollutants and contaminants present in the lindi, which can have significant implications for the overall environmental quality and potential risks associated with it.

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• 40.

### Dalam pelabelan dan warna wadah sampah harus dibedakan sesuai dengan jenis sampah yang dihasilkan, untuk sampah yang mudah terurai warna wadah adalah:

• A.

Biru

• B.

Hijau

• C.

Merah

• D.

Kuning

• E.

Abu-abu

B. Hijau
Explanation
The correct answer is "Hijau" because green is commonly associated with organic waste or biodegradable waste. This type of waste includes items like food scraps, garden waste, and paper products. By using green containers for this type of waste, it helps to distinguish it from other types of waste and promotes proper waste management and recycling practices.

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• 41.

### Kemampuan sungai/badan air untuk menjernihkan kembali air yang tercemar disebut..

• A.

Bioremediasi

• B.

Self purification

• C.

Bio purification

• D.

Blooming

• E.

Ekstraksi

B. Self purification
Explanation
Self purification refers to the ability of rivers or bodies of water to naturally cleanse or purify contaminated water. This process involves the breakdown and removal of pollutants through various biological, physical, and chemical processes. It is a natural mechanism that helps restore the quality of water by reducing or eliminating harmful substances.

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• 42.

### Ada beberapa penyakit yang masuk dalam kategori water-borne disease, atau penyakit-penyakit yang dibawa oleh air. Mikroba apakah yang dapat menjadi agen dari penyakit Disentri?

• A.

Balantidia coli

• B.

Giarda lamblia

• C.

Entamuba histolytica

• D.

Diphyllobothrium latum

• E.

Vibrio cholerae

C. Entamuba histolytica
Explanation
Entamuba histolytica is the microbe that can cause dysentery, a water-borne disease.

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• 43.

### Dampak apabila seseorang terlalu lama dalam lingkungan dingin adalah....

• A.

Heat cramps

• B.

Frosbite

• C.

Trench foot

• D.

A, B, C benar

• E.

B dan C benar

E. B dan C benar
Explanation
If someone stays in a cold environment for too long, they can experience both frostbite and trench foot. Frostbite occurs when the skin and underlying tissues freeze due to prolonged exposure to extreme cold, leading to damage and potential loss of affected body parts. Trench foot, on the other hand, is a condition caused by prolonged exposure to wet and cold conditions, which can result in damage to the feet due to restricted blood flow. Therefore, the correct answer is B dan C benar (B and C are correct).

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• 44.

### Beberapa penyakit endemis di Indonesia ditularkan melalui gigitan nyamuk, di antaranya filariasis, malaria, dengue haemoragic fever. Nyamuk apakah yang menjadi vektor dari penyakit filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti?

• A.

Culex

• B.

Aedes aegypti

• C.

Anopheles

• D.

Mansonia

• E.

Aedes sundaicus

A. Culex
Explanation
The correct answer is Culex. Culex mosquitoes are known to be the vector for filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. They transmit the parasite when they bite infected humans and then spread the infection to other individuals when they bite them. Aedes aegypti is the vector for dengue fever, Anopheles is the vector for malaria, Mansonia is the vector for some types of filariasis, and Aedes sundaicus is not a known vector for any of these diseases.

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• 45.

### “Pencemaran air adalah masuknya atau dimasukkannya makhluk hidup, zat, energi dan/atau komponen lain ke dalam air oleh kegiatan manusia sehingga kualitas air turun sampai ke tingkat tertentu yang menyebabkan air tidak berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukkannya.” Definisi pencemaran air tersebut mengacu pada

• A.

PERMENKES 416/1990

• B.

PP No. 20/1990

• C.

UU Kesehatan No. 23 Tahun 1992

• D.

UU No.23/1997

• E.

Kep.51/MENKLH/10/1995

B. PP No. 20/1990
Explanation
The correct answer for this question is PP No. 20/1990. This is because the given definition of water pollution matches the definition provided in PP No. 20/1990, which is a government regulation in Indonesia. The regulation specifically defines water pollution as the entry or inclusion of living organisms, substances, energy, and/or other components into water by human activities, resulting in a decrease in water quality to a certain level that causes it to no longer function according to its intended purpose.

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• 46.

### Kondisi lingkungan kerja yang mempengaruhi kesehatan kerja secara fisik yaitu, kecuali..

• A.

Getaran

• B.

Cahaya

• C.

Tekanan

• D.

Kebisingan

• E.

Semua salah

E. Semua salah
Explanation
This answer is correct because it states that all of the options listed (vibration, light, pressure, and noise) are not environmental conditions that physically affect work health.

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• 47.

### Heat exhaustion merupakan salah satu dampak lingkungan kerja panas terhadap kesehatan yang sangan dipengaruhi oleh...

• A.

Usia

• B.

Jenis Kelamin

• C.

• D.

Jumlah jam kerja

• E.

Semua benar

C. Kemampuan beradaptasi dengan suhu udara
Explanation
The correct answer is "Kemampuan beradaptasi dengan suhu udara" because heat exhaustion is a health impact of working in a hot environment that is greatly influenced by an individual's ability to adapt to the temperature. Some people may have a higher tolerance for heat and are able to adapt better, while others may struggle to adjust to high temperatures. Therefore, the ability to adapt to the air temperature plays a significant role in determining the likelihood of experiencing heat exhaustion in a hot working environment.

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• 48.

### Berikut adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur suhu basah....

• A.

Termometer bola

• B.

Termometer kata

• C.

Psychrometer

• D.

Questemp

• E.

Semua benar

C. Psychrometer
Explanation
Psychrometer adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur suhu basah. Alat ini terdiri dari dua termometer, yaitu termometer basah yang dililitkan dengan kain yang dibasahi air dan termometer kering yang tidak terkena air. Perbedaan suhu antara kedua termometer ini digunakan untuk mengukur suhu basah. Alat ini biasanya digunakan untuk mengukur kelembaban udara.

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• 49.

• A.

25 ppm

• B.

26 ppm

• C.

27 ppm

• D.

28 ppm

• E.

29 ppm

A. 25 ppm
Explanation
The maximum allowable level of carbon monoxide in a room is 25 ppm. This means that if the concentration of carbon monoxide in the room exceeds 25 parts per million, it is considered unsafe and can pose a health risk to individuals. It is important to monitor and maintain the air quality in enclosed spaces to ensure the safety and well-being of occupants.

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• 50.

### PT Casuarina Hannisindo telah melakukan pelanggaran hukum yaitu PP Nomor 18 tahun 1999 tentang Pengelolaan Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun. Adapun sanksi yang didapat oleh PT Casuarina Hannisindo adalah : Memberhentikan sementara atau mencabut sementara izin operasional kerja Ancaman pidana paling lama 5-6 tahun Sanksi administratif  sebesar Rp 300.000.000,00 Pencabutan izin kerja perusahaan Pernyataan diatas yang benar adalah…

• A.

1,2,3 benar

• B.

1 & 3 benar

• C.

2 & 4 benar

• D.

4 benar

• E.

Semua benar