Set 7 : Sem I

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Set 7 : Sem I - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Organel yang memusnahkah mikroorganisma yang memasuki sel ialah  

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Plasma membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosome is the correct answer because it is an organelle that contains enzymes responsible for breaking down waste materials and foreign substances, including microorganisms, that enter the cell. It acts as the cell's "garbage disposal" system, helping to maintain cellular homeostasis and protect the cell from harmful invaders. Lysosomes fuse with the engulfed microorganisms and release digestive enzymes to degrade them, effectively destroying the pathogens and preventing them from causing harm to the cell.

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  • 2. 

    Jenis epithelium yang membenarkan proses simple filtration berlaku di glomerulus  kidney iala

    • A.

      Ciliated epithelium.

    • B.

      Cuboidal epithelium.

    • C.

      Columnar epithelium.

    • D.

      Squamous epithelium.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cuboidal epithelium.
    Explanation
    Cuboidal epithelium is the correct answer because it is the type of epithelial tissue that allows for simple filtration to occur in the glomerulus of the kidney. Cuboidal epithelium is composed of cube-shaped cells that have specialized structures called microvilli on their surface, which increase the surface area for filtration. This type of epithelium is found in the renal tubules and allows for the selective reabsorption and secretion of substances during the filtration process.

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  • 3. 

    Organel yang didapati dengan banyaknya disel-sel aktif dalam catabolisme di hepar dan otot ialah

    • A.

      Nucleus.

    • B.

      Ribosome.

    • C.

      Lysosome.

    • D.

      Mitochondria.

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondria.
    Explanation
    The organelle that is found in abundance in active cells involved in catabolism in the liver and muscles is the mitochondria. Mitochondria are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. Since catabolism involves breaking down complex molecules to release energy, it requires a high amount of ATP production. Therefore, the presence of mitochondria, which are the powerhouse of the cell, is crucial in these active cells.

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  • 4. 

    Kitaran krebs adalah reaksi biokomia yang berlaku di

    • A.

      Nucleus.

    • B.

      Cytoplasm.

    • C.

      Mitochondria.

    • D.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondria.
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a biochemical reaction that occurs in the mitochondria. It is a series of chemical reactions that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell and is responsible for producing the majority of the cell's energy in the form of ATP. Therefore, it is the correct answer for where the Krebs cycle takes place.

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  • 5. 

    Connective tissue yang membantu pergerakan pada sendi adalah  

    • A.

      Elastic cartilage.

    • B.

      Hyaline cartilage.

    • C.

      Elastic connective tissue.

    • D.

      Reticular connective tissue.

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyaline cartilage.
    Explanation
    Hyaline cartilage is the correct answer because it is a type of connective tissue that helps in movement at joints. It is found in areas such as the nose, trachea, and the ends of long bones. It provides support, flexibility, and smooth surfaces for the articulation of bones, allowing for easy movement at the joints. Elastic cartilage, elastic connective tissue, and reticular connective tissue have different functions and are not specifically involved in facilitating movement at joints.

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  • 6. 

    Ligament yang terdapat di sendi synovial berfungsi untuk

    • A.

      Stabilkan sendi.

    • B.

      Serap hentakan.

    • C.

      Kurangkan geseran.

    • D.

      Bantu dalam pergerakan.

    Correct Answer
    A. Stabilkan sendi.
    Explanation
    Ligament yang terdapat di sendi synovial berfungsi untuk menstabilkan sendi. Ligamen ini adalah jaringan ikat yang menghubungkan tulang dengan tulang di sendi. Fungsi utama ligamen adalah untuk menjaga stabilitas sendi dan mencegah pergerakan yang berlebihan atau tidak normal. Dengan adanya ligamen, sendi dapat tetap dalam posisi yang tepat dan tidak mudah bergeser atau terkilir.

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  • 7. 

    Pemecahan sel darah merah berlaku di

    • A.

      Liver.

    • B.

      Spleen.

    • C.

      Tisu lymphoid.

    • D.

      Red bone marrow.

    Correct Answer
    B. Spleen.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is spleen. The process of erythrocyte breakdown, also known as hemolysis, occurs in the spleen. The spleen is responsible for filtering the blood and removing old or damaged red blood cells from circulation. It breaks down the red blood cells and recycles their components, such as iron, for future use. The spleen also plays a role in immune function by producing and storing white blood cells.

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  • 8. 

    Struktur yang membawa darah beroksigen masuk ke atrium kiri adalah

    • A.

      Aorta.

    • B.

      Pulmonary vein.

    • C.

      Pulmonary artery.

    • D.

      Superior vena cava.

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonary vein.
    Explanation
    The pulmonary vein is the correct answer because it is the blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart. The other options (aorta, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava) are all blood vessels, but they do not carry oxygenated blood into the left atrium.

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  • 9. 

    Internal respiration merupakan pertukaran gas yang berlaku di antara

    • A.

      Capillary dan tissue.

    • B.

      Capillary dan alveoli.

    • C.

      Alveoli dan lung tissue.

    • D.

      Alveoli dan atmosphere air.

    Correct Answer
    A. Capillary dan tissue.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is capillary dan tissue. Internal respiration refers to the exchange of gases that occurs between the capillaries and the tissues. Oxygen from the capillaries diffuses into the tissues, while carbon dioxide produced by the tissues diffuses into the capillaries to be transported back to the lungs for elimination. This exchange of gases allows for the delivery of oxygen to the cells and the removal of waste carbon dioxide.

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  • 10. 

    Bahan yang terdapat dalam darah dan merangsang pusat pernafasan adalah

    • A.

      Asid karbonik.

    • B.

      Ion bikarbonat.

    • C.

      Karbon dioksida.

    • D.

      Karbon monoksida.

    Correct Answer
    C. Karbon dioksida.
    Explanation
    Karbon dioksida (CO2) adalah bahan yang terdapat dalam darah dan merangsang pusat pernafasan. Ketika kadar CO2 dalam darah meningkat, pusat pernafasan di otak akan merespons dengan meningkatkan frekuensi dan kedalaman pernapasan untuk mengeluarkan CO2 dari tubuh. Hal ini penting untuk menjaga keseimbangan pH darah dan menghindari penumpukan CO2 yang berlebihan. Asid karbonik dan ion bikarbonat juga terkait dengan keseimbangan pH darah, tetapi tidak secara langsung merangsang pusat pernafasan. Karbon monoksida (CO) adalah gas beracun yang dapat menggantikan oksigen dalam darah, tetapi tidak berperan dalam merangsang pusat pernafasan.

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  • 11. 

    Struktur  pada soft palate yang membantu mencegah makanan daripada memasuki rongga hidung semasa menelan adalah

    • A.

      Uvula.

    • B.

      Epiglotis.

    • C.

      Palatine tonsil.

    • D.

      Lingual frenulum.

    Correct Answer
    A. Uvula.
    Explanation
    The uvula is the correct answer because it is a structure located at the back of the soft palate that helps prevent food from entering the nasal cavity while swallowing. It hangs down from the middle of the soft palate and acts as a barrier, blocking the passage to the nose. The uvula also plays a role in speech and helps with the production of certain sounds.

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  • 12. 

    Turutan yang betul bagi lapisan tisu di sepanjang trek gastrointestinal daipada lapisan luar ke dalam adalah

    • A.

      Serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa.

    • B.

      Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.

    • C.

      Muscularis, mucosa, submucosa, serosa.

    • D.

      Submucosa, mucosa, muscularis, serosa.

    Correct Answer
    A. Serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa." This is the correct sequence of tissue layers along the gastrointestinal tract, starting from the outermost layer (serosa) and moving inward towards the innermost layer (mucosa). The serosa is the outermost layer that provides protection and support to the digestive organs. The muscularis layer contains smooth muscle tissue that helps in the movement and contraction of the digestive tract. The submucosa layer contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support the mucosa layer. The mucosa layer is the innermost layer that is responsible for absorption and secretion in the digestive tract.

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  • 13. 

    Bahagian otak yang mengawal koordinasi pergerakan otot skeletal

    • A.

      Cerebrum.

    • B.

      Cerebellum.

    • C.

      Pons varolii.

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cerebellum.
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls the coordination of skeletal muscle movements. It receives information from the sensory systems, spinal cord, and other parts of the brain to regulate and fine-tune motor movements. It plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, posture, and smooth coordination of voluntary movements. The cerebrum, pons varolii, and medulla oblongata have other important functions in the brain, but they are not specifically responsible for controlling the coordination of skeletal muscle movements.

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  • 14. 

    Antara berikut yang manakah akibat berlebihan hormon pertumbuhan sewaktu dewasa?

    • A.

      Obesity.

    • B.

      Dwarfism.

    • C.

      Gigantism.

    • D.

      Acromegaly.

    Correct Answer
    D. Acromegaly.
    Explanation
    Acromegaly is the correct answer because it is a condition caused by excessive growth hormone production in adults. It leads to the enlargement of bones and tissues, resulting in enlarged hands, feet, and facial features. Obesity, dwarfism, and gigantism are not caused by excessive growth hormone in adults. Obesity is the condition of being overweight, dwarfism is a condition of short stature, and gigantism is a condition of excessive growth in children due to overproduction of growth hormone.

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  • 15. 

    Penyerapan semula kalium dan asid amino dari renal tubules adalah melalui proses

    • A.

      Filtration.

    • B.

      Diffusion.

    • C.

      Osmosis.

    • D.

      Active transportation.

    Correct Answer
    A. Filtration.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is filtration because the process of reabsorption of potassium and amino acids from the renal tubules involves the movement of these substances from the tubules into the blood through small pores in the walls of the tubules. This movement occurs due to the pressure gradient created by the filtration process, where substances are filtered out of the blood into the tubules in the first place.

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  • 16. 

    Struktur otot di myometrium yang tersusun secara berselang seli adalah untuk

    • A.

      Mempercepatkan effacement cervix.

    • B.

      Membantu dalam pembukaan cervix.

    • C.

      Mengawal perdarahan di peringkat ketiga labor.

    • D.

      Menggalakkan kontraksi uterus di peringkat pertama labour

    Correct Answer
    C. Mengawal perdarahan di peringkat ketiga labor.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mengawal perdarahan di peringkat ketiga labor." This is because the alternating arrangement of muscle fibers in the myometrium helps to control bleeding during the third stage of labor. The myometrium contracts and compresses the blood vessels, reducing the risk of excessive bleeding after the delivery of the baby and placenta.

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  • 17. 

    Fungsi kelenjar peluh adalah

    • A.

      Menghasilkan peluh 

    • B.

      Menyimpan vitamin D. 

    • C.

      Mengawal suhu badan.

    • D.

      Merembeskan hormon

    Correct Answer
    C. Mengawal suhu badan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mengawal suhu badan." The sweat glands in our body help regulate body temperature by producing sweat. When we sweat, the moisture on our skin evaporates, which cools down our body. This process helps maintain a stable body temperature, especially during physical activity or in hot environments.

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  • 18. 

    Salur eustachian di bahagian tengah telinga memainkan peranan bagi . 

    • A.

      Membolehkan gegendang telinga bergerak

    • B.

      Kemasukkan udara ke bahagian tengah telinga.

    • C.

      Mengimbangkan tekanan udara luar dengan dalam.

    • D.

      Menghubungkan telinga tengah dengan kerongkong.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mengimbangkan tekanan udara luar dengan dalam.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "mengimbangkan tekanan udara luar dengan dalam." The eustachian tube in the middle ear helps to equalize the pressure between the outer and inner ear. This is important because changes in air pressure can cause discomfort and affect the functioning of the eardrum. By opening and closing the eustachian tube, the pressure on both sides of the eardrum can be balanced, allowing it to vibrate properly and maintain normal hearing.

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  • 19. 

    Berikut adalah pernyataan yang tepat berkait dalam terminology dalam microbiologi.

    • A.

      Bacteriostatic  Bakteria dalam darah.

    • B.

      Bacteriacidal  Berupaya  membunuh bakteria.

    • C.

      Anaerobe  Organisma yang perlukan oksigen.

    • D.

      Aerobe   Organisma yang tidak perlukan oksigen.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacteriacidal  Berupaya  membunuh bakteria.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Bacteriacidal Berupaya membunuh bakteria." This is because the term "bacteriacidal" refers to the ability to kill bacteria, while the other options refer to different aspects of bacteria or their requirements. "Bacteriostatic" refers to the ability to inhibit the growth or reproduction of bacteria, "anaerobe" refers to organisms that do not require oxygen, and "aerobe" refers to organisms that do require oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is the option that specifically relates to killing bacteria.

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  • 20. 

    Kenyataan ini adalah tepat  mengenai  terminal disinfection.

    • A.

      Pembersihan yang dilakukan semasa pesakit berada di wad.

    • B.

      Pembersihan yang dilakukan selepas pesakit keluar dari wad.

    • C.

      Pembersihan yang dilakukan kepada pesakit dan alatan pesakit.

    • D.

      Pembersihan yang dilakukan semasa dan selepas pesakit berada di wad.

    Correct Answer
    B. Pembersihan yang dilakukan selepas pesakit keluar dari wad.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Pembersihan yang dilakukan selepas pesakit keluar dari wad." This means that the statement is accurate in relation to terminal disinfection. Terminal disinfection refers to the cleaning that is done after a patient has been discharged from a ward or healthcare facility. This helps to prevent the spread of infections and ensure a clean and safe environment for the next patient.

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  • 21. 

    Tindakan ubat anticholinergics yang di beri kepada pesakit sebelum pembedahan ialah untuk mengurangkan

    • A.

      Anxiety.

    • B.

      Laryngospasm.

    • C.

      Risiko amnesia.

    • D.

      Penghasilan sekresi gaster.

    Correct Answer
    D. Penghasilan sekresi gaster.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "penghasilan sekresi gaster" which means "reduction of gastric secretion" in English. Anticholinergic drugs are given to patients before surgery to reduce the production of stomach acid and other digestive secretions. This helps to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia and gastric reflux during anesthesia and surgery. By reducing gastric secretion, the risk of aspiration and other related complications can be minimized, ensuring a safer surgical procedure.

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  • 22. 

    Jenis anesthesia dimana ubat anesthetic disuntik ke dalam ruang subarachnoid dikenali sebagai

    • A.

      Epidural block.

    • B.

      Spinal anesthesia.

    • C.

      Topical anesthesia.

    • D.

      Local nerve infiltration.

    Correct Answer
    B. Spinal anesthesia.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is spinal anesthesia. In spinal anesthesia, the anesthetic drug is injected into the subarachnoid space, which is the space between the spinal cord and the protective covering called the arachnoid membrane. This type of anesthesia is commonly used for surgeries involving the lower abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. It provides a more extensive block of sensation compared to local nerve infiltration or topical anesthesia, and is different from epidural block where the anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.

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  • 23. 

    Proses perubahan tingkahlaku bagi memadan dengan individu lain dalam kumpulan dikenali sebagai      

    • A.

      Norming.

    • B.

      Conformity

    • C.

      Standardization.

    • D.

      Social contract.

    Correct Answer
    B. Conformity
    Explanation
    Conformity refers to the process of adjusting one's behavior to match the norms and expectations of a group. It involves adopting the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that are considered socially acceptable within a particular group or society. This process of conformity helps individuals fit in and maintain social harmony within the group. It is a natural tendency for individuals to conform to group norms in order to gain acceptance, avoid rejection, and feel a sense of belonging.

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  • 24. 

    Seorang penerima  mesej telah menyalahertikan maksud orang yang menghantar mesej kerana beberapa faktor, kecuali       

    • A.

      Prasangka penerima

    • B.

      Perasaan penyampai yang bercelaru

    • C.

      Intonasi penyampaian oleh  penyampai

    • D.

      Kelemahan fizikal seperti kebisingan, lokasi, jarak

    Correct Answer
    B. Perasaan penyampai yang bercelaru
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "perasaan penyampai yang bercelaru" because the question asks for an exception to the reasons why the recipient misunderstood the message. The other options (prasangka penerima, intonasi penyampaian oleh penyampai, kelemahan fizikal seperti kebisingan, lokasi, jarak) are all valid factors that could contribute to the recipient misunderstanding the message.

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  • 25. 

    Puan M  sedang menerima infusi intravena Ringer’s lactate.  Anda dapati tempat kemasukan branula bengkak dan sejuk.  Apakah tindakan kejururawatan anda?  

    • A.

      Hentikan infusi dan keluarkan branula

    • B.

      Teruskan infusi tetapi pelahankan alirannya

    • C.

      Teruskan infusi dan tinggikan tempat terlibat     

    • D.

      Tukar ke heparin block sementara bengkak berkurangan

    Correct Answer
    A. Hentikan infusi dan keluarkan branula
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to stop the infusion and remove the cannula. The swelling and coolness at the insertion site may indicate infiltration, which occurs when the infused fluid leaks into the surrounding tissues instead of entering the bloodstream. Infiltration can cause tissue damage and compromise the effectiveness of the infusion. Therefore, it is important to stop the infusion and remove the cannula to prevent further complications.

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  • 26. 

    Encik M dimasukkan ke wad kerana demam. Beliau telah diberi cecair melalui intravena. Apakah akan berlaku pada paras serum natrium sekiranya cecair hipotonik diberi berlebihan kepada beliau?  

    • A.

      Menurun.

    • B.

      Meningkat.

    • C.

      Tidak berubah.

    • D.

      Berubah sedikit

    Correct Answer
    A. Menurun.
    Explanation
    Apabila cecair hipotonik diberi berlebihan kepada Encik M melalui intravena, ini bermaksud bahawa jumlah air dalam badannya akan meningkat. Ini akan menyebabkan pencairan natrium dalam badan Encik M menjadi lebih terlarut, yang pada gilirannya akan menurunkan paras serum natrium. Oleh itu, paras serum natrium Encik M akan menurun.

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  • 27. 

    Memahami tentang diri sendiri dan memahami kesan perlakuan kita terhadap orang lain adalah bermaksud

    • A.

      Kesedaran kendiri 

    • B.

      Pendedahan kendiri 

    • C.

      Penerimaan kendiri 

    • D.

      Kepercayaan kendiri

    Correct Answer
    A. Kesedaran kendiri 
    Explanation
    Kesedaran kendiri refers to self-awareness, which means understanding oneself and being aware of our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It also involves recognizing the impact of our actions and behavior towards others. Therefore, the correct answer implies that understanding oneself and being aware of the effects of our behavior towards others is the purpose or meaning of self-awareness.

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  • 28. 

    Personaliti di bawah kesedaran yang terdiri daripada desakan biologi bagi memenuhi kepuasan ialah                             

    • A.

        id.

    • B.

      Ego.

    • C.

      Superego.  

    • D.

      Subconscious

    Correct Answer
    A.   id.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "id". The id is a part of the personality that operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification of basic needs and desires. It is driven by biological urges and operates at a subconscious level. The id is responsible for impulsive and instinctual behavior.

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  • 29. 

    Kegagalan perkembangan identiti seseorang secara konsisten adalah hasil dari     

    • A.

      Rasa rendah diri.

    • B.

      Peranan kekeliruan

    • C.

      Pengasingan sosial.

    • D.

      Keadaan yang tidak berkembang.

    Correct Answer
    B. Peranan kekeliruan
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "peranan kekeliruan." This means that consistent failure in the development of one's identity is a result of the role of confusion or misunderstanding. It suggests that when someone is confused or mistaken about their identity, it can hinder their growth and development in this aspect.

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  • 30. 

    Tahap-tahap sosialisasi  dikelaskan seperti berikut, kecuali  

    • A.

      Primer.

    • B.

      Desosialisation

    • C.

      Resosialisation   

    • D.

      Socialisation

    Correct Answer
    D. Socialisation
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "socialisation". This is because the question is asking for an exception among the listed classifications of the stages of socialization. The other options, such as "primer", "desosialisation", and "resosialisation" are all stages of socialization, while "socialisation" is not a stage but rather the process itself.

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  • 31. 

    Tortoticolis terjadi akibat dari kecederaan ke atas otot  

    • A.

      Facial.

    • B.

      Clavicular

    • C.

      Lassitimus dorsi

    • D.

      Stenocleidomastoid

    Correct Answer
    D. Stenocleidomastoid
    Explanation
    Torticollis is a condition characterized by the twisting or tilting of the neck due to muscle tightness or injury. The stenocleidomastoid muscle, located in the neck, is responsible for the rotation and flexion of the head. If this muscle is injured or strained, it can lead to torticollis. Therefore, the stenocleidomastoid muscle is the correct answer as it is directly related to the occurrence of torticollis.

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  • 32. 

    Volksmann’s contracture yang berlaku akibat fraktur tangan adalah disebabkan oleh kecederaan pada

    • A.

      Otot.

    • B.

      Saraf.

    • C.

      Arteri.

    • D.

      Ligamen.

    Correct Answer
    C. Arteri.
    Explanation
    Volksmann's contracture is a condition that occurs as a result of a hand fracture. It is caused by injury to the arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscles and tissues in the hand. This lack of blood flow can cause muscle and tissue damage, leading to contracture and stiffness in the hand.

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  • 33. 

    Pemeriksaan neurovascular yang dilakukan selepas pembalutan adalah dengan  

    • A.

      Mendengar aduan pesakit.

    • B.

      Melihat warna kuku pesakit seperti pucat.

    • C.

      Melepaskan tekanan dan melihat warna kulit kembali kemerahan

    • D.

      Menekan di bahagian hujung jari selama 5 minit sehingga kelihatan   pucat

    Correct Answer
    C. Melepaskan tekanan dan melihat warna kulit kembali kemerahan
    Explanation
    After the wrapping is done, the neurovascular examination is performed by releasing pressure and observing if the skin color returns to its normal reddish hue. This is because releasing pressure allows blood flow to return to the area, resulting in the restoration of normal skin color. This observation helps to assess the adequacy of blood supply to the area and can indicate any potential neurovascular complications.

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  • 34. 

    Peranan utama Lembaga Bidan Malaysia adalah

    • A.

      Mengawal institusi kebidanan.

    • B.

      Mendaftar jururawat kebidanan.

    • C.

      Mengawal temuduga jururawat kebidanan.

    • D.

      Meluluskan kenaikkan pangkat jururawat bidan.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mengawal institusi kebidanan.
    Explanation
    The main role of the Malaysian Midwifery Board is to regulate the midwifery institutions.

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  • 35. 

    Cik K berumur 25 tahun telah meninggal dunia di rumah. Individu yang layak menuntut sijil kematian Cik K di Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara adalah

    • A.

      Ayah si mati.

    • B.

      Tunang si mati.

    • C.

      Majikan si mati.

    • D.

      Rakan karib si mati.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ayah si mati.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "ayah si mati" because in most cases, the next of kin who is eligible to claim the death certificate is the deceased person's closest living relative, which is usually their parents. Since Cik K is not married or has any children mentioned, her father would be the appropriate person to claim the death certificate.

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  • 36. 

    Kepentingan mengamalkan model kejururawatan adalah untuk 

    • A.

      Memudahkan hubungan antara jururawat.

    • B.

      Jagaan yang diberi adalah konsistensi   

    • C.

      Sebagai tanggungjawab menjalankan tugasan. 

    • D.

      Merancang jagaan kejururawatan yang akan diberi kepada pesakit.

    Correct Answer
    B. Jagaan yang diberi adalah konsistensi   
    Explanation
    The importance of practicing the nursing model is to ensure consistency in the care provided to patients. This consistency is crucial in fulfilling the responsibilities of nurses and in planning the nursing care that will be given to patients.

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  • 37. 

    Fasa proses kejururawatan yang tepat ialah:  

    • A.

      Asesmen, masalah kejururawatan, perancangan, intervensi dan penilaian

    • B.

      Asesmen, perancangan, intervensi, masalah kejururawatan dan penilaian.

    • C.

      Intervensi, asesmen, masalah kejururawatan, perancangan dan penilaian.

    • D.

      Perancangan, asesmen, masalah kejururawatan, intervensi dan penilaian.

    Correct Answer
    A. Asesmen, masalah kejururawatan, perancangan, intervensi dan penilaian
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Asesmen, masalah kejururawatan, perancangan, intervensi dan penilaian". This is the correct order of the nursing process, which involves assessing the patient's condition, identifying nursing problems, planning interventions, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the outcomes.

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  • 38. 

    Fasa pertama dalam proses kejururawatan ialah

    • A.

      Planning 

    • B.

      Evaluation 

    • C.

      Assessment

    • D.

      Implementation 

    Correct Answer
    C. Assessment
    Explanation
    The first phase in the nursing process is assessment. Assessment involves gathering information about the patient's health status, including their physical, emotional, and social well-being. This is done through various methods such as interviewing the patient, conducting physical examinations, and reviewing medical records. Assessment is crucial as it helps the nurse to identify the patient's needs, establish a baseline for comparison, and develop a comprehensive care plan. It sets the foundation for the subsequent phases of planning, implementation, and evaluation in the nursing process.

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  • 39. 

    Berikut adalah tujuan nursing process, kecuali  

    • A.

      Membantu  pesakit sepenuhnya dalam activity daily living. 

    • B.

      Membuat perancangan untuk memenuhi keperluan yang dikenalpasti.

    • C.

      Memberi intervensi kejururawatan yang spesifik untuk memenuhi keperluan.

    • D.

      Mengenalpasti status dan masalah jagaan kesihatan secara actual atau potensi.

    Correct Answer
    A. Membantu  pesakit sepenuhnya dalam activity daily living. 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Membantu pesakit sepenuhnya dalam activity daily living." This is because the nursing process does not solely focus on assisting patients with their activities of daily living. The nursing process involves making plans to meet identified needs, providing specific nursing interventions to meet those needs, and identifying the actual or potential status and healthcare issues.

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  • 40. 

    Jururawat yang tidak mementingkan diri sendiri dan menganggap perkhidmatan yang diberikan adalah demi kepentingan masyarakat. Ini menunjukkan beliau memenuhi kriteria profesion iaitu

    • A.

      Altruism.

    • B.

      Autonomy. 

    • C.

      Ethics professional.

    • D.

      Philosophy professional.

    Correct Answer
    C. Ethics professional.
    Explanation
    The given answer, "ethics professional," is the correct choice because the statement describes a nurse who prioritizes the needs of the community over her own interests. This demonstrates the nurse's commitment to ethical principles and professional conduct. The nurse's selflessness and dedication to serving the community align with the ethical standards expected of professionals in the healthcare field.

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  • 41. 

    Tujuan kod etika profesyen kejururawatan adalah untuk memberi panduan kepada 

    • A.

      Ahli keluarga dan jururawat.

    • B.

      Tindakan dan perlakuan jururawat.

    • C.

      Anggota perubatan dan jururawat.

    • D.

      Kelakuan  jururawat dan jururawat masyarakat.

    Correct Answer
    B. Tindakan dan perlakuan jururawat.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tindakan dan perlakuan jururawat." The purpose of the code of ethics in the nursing profession is to provide guidance on the actions and behaviors of nurses. It outlines the expected conduct and standards for nurses in their practice, ensuring that they uphold ethical principles and provide quality care to their patients. The code of ethics helps to maintain professionalism, integrity, and accountability within the nursing profession.

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  • 42. 

    Apakah polisi kerajaan Malaysia dalam memperkembangkan kerjaya kejururawatan ?

    • A.

      Mengiktiraf lulusan ijazah kejururawatan.

    • B.

      Melaksanakan kenaikan pangkat secara time base.

    • C.

      Memberi biasiswa pendidikan kepada semua jururawat.

    • D.

      Memberi anugerah kecemerlangan kepada semua jururawat.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mengiktiraf lulusan ijazah kejururawatan.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Mengiktiraf lulusan ijazah kejururawatan." This means that the Royal Malaysian Police recognizes graduates with a nursing degree. This suggests that the police force is actively promoting the development of a nursing career by acknowledging the qualifications of those who have obtained a nursing degree.

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  • 43. 

    Diazepam di preskripsikan kepada pesakit yang mengalami depression. Jururawat perlu  memaklumkan kepada pesakit mengenai kesan ubat  ini yang boleh menyebabkan 

    • A.

      Batuk

    • B.

      Tinnitus

    • C.

      Ataksia

    • D.

      Sakit kepala

    Correct Answer
    C. Ataksia
    Explanation
    Diazepam is a medication commonly prescribed for patients with depression. One of the side effects of this medication is ataxia, which refers to a loss of muscle coordination and balance. Therefore, it is important for nurses to inform patients about this potential side effect of the medication.

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  • 44. 

    Semasa berkomunikasi dengan pesakit paranoid, prinsip utama yang perlu diamalkan oleh seorang jururawat adalah

    • A.

      Menggunakan logic dan sentiasa tegas 

    • B.

      Mewujudkan suasana bebas dari kebimbangan

    • C.

      Menggalakkan pesakit menyuarakan perasaan marah

    • D.

      Menyuarakan masalah tetapi elak dari bertengkar 

    Correct Answer
    A. Menggunakan logic dan sentiasa tegas 
    Explanation
    The main principle that a nurse should practice when communicating with a paranoid patient is to use logic and be firm. This means that the nurse should rely on rationality and reasoning when interacting with the patient, and also maintain a firm and assertive approach. This approach helps to establish clear boundaries and promote a sense of stability and security for the patient. It also allows for effective communication and helps to address any irrational thoughts or fears that the patient may have.

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  • 45. 

    Rawatan yang paling berkesan bagi pengidap depressive psychosis yang mempunyai niat membunuh diri ialah 

    • A.

      Psychotherapy

    • B.

      Major tranquillizer

    • C.

      Occupational therapy

    • D.

      Electro- convulsive therapy

    Correct Answer
    D. Electro- convulsive therapy
    Explanation
    Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for individuals with depressive psychosis who have suicidal intentions. ECT involves passing electrical currents through the brain to induce a controlled seizure, which can help alleviate symptoms of depression and psychosis. It is often used when other treatments, such as medication or psychotherapy, have not been successful or are not feasible. ECT has been shown to have a high success rate in reducing suicidal thoughts and improving overall mental health in individuals with severe depression and psychosis.

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  • 46. 

    Electrolyte utama yang manakah didapati dengan banyak di dalam ruang intrasel ?

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Magnesium

    • D.

      Potassium

    Correct Answer
    D. Potassium
    Explanation
    Potassium is the main electrolyte found in high concentrations within the intracellular space. It plays a crucial role in maintaining normal cell function, including regulating the balance of fluids and electrolytes within cells. Potassium is essential for proper nerve and muscle function, including the contraction of the heart muscle. It also helps to maintain normal blood pressure and pH levels. Therefore, potassium is the correct answer as the main electrolyte found in high concentrations within the intracellular space.

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  • 47. 

     Sistem buffer membantu didalam kesimbangan asid base dan mengekalkan pH darah diantara 

    • A.

      7.25 – 7.30

    • B.

      7.35 – 7.45

    • C.

      7.45 – 7.55

    • D.

      7.55 – 7.60

    Correct Answer
    B. 7.35 – 7.45
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 7.35 - 7.45. The buffer system helps maintain the pH balance in the blood within this range. A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added to it. In the human body, the buffer system consists of various chemicals, such as bicarbonate ions, that can accept or donate hydrogen ions to maintain the pH balance. This range of pH is important for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.

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  • 48. 

     Tekanan hidrostatik yang menolak cecair keluar dari kapilari ditentang oleh tekanan colloid osmotik yang melibatkan 

    • A.

      Kurang rembesan sekresi renin

    • B.

      Tingkatkan penghasilan aldosteron

    • C.

      Merencatkan penghasilan anti diuretic hormone

    • D.

      Meningkatkan penghasilan rembesan anti diuretic hormon

    Correct Answer
    D. Meningkatkan penghasilan rembesan anti diuretic hormon
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that increasing the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) counteracts the hydrostatic pressure that pushes fluid out of the capillaries. ADH promotes water reabsorption in the kidneys, which helps to increase blood volume and maintain blood pressure. By increasing the secretion of ADH, the body can retain more water and prevent excessive fluid loss through urine, thus opposing the hydrostatic pressure.

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  • 49. 

    Keputusan ABG seorang pesakit ialah  PH         -  7.33 Paco2   -  40mm/Hg HCO3   -  19mmEq/: Intepretasi keputusan diatas memungkinkan

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Respiratory alkolosis

    • C.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D.

      Metabolic alkolosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Metabolic acidosis
    Explanation
    The given values of pH, Paco2, and HCO3 indicate a low pH, normal Paco2, and low HCO3 levels. This pattern suggests metabolic acidosis, which is characterized by a decrease in pH and HCO3 levels. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are characterized by abnormal Paco2 levels, while metabolic alkalosis is characterized by an increase in HCO3 levels. Therefore, the interpretation of the given results suggests metabolic acidosis.

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  • 50. 

    Manifestai klinikal yang mungkin ditunjukkan oleh pesakit yang mengalami severe dehydration akibat muntah dan diarrhoea yang berterusan  ialah

    • A.

      Rapid bunding pulse and dyspnoea

    • B.

      Weak thread pulse and hypotension

    • C.

      Rapid bounding pulse and poor skin turgor

    • D.

      Engorgement of jugular vein and poor skin turgor

    Correct Answer
    C. Rapid bounding pulse and poor skin turgor
    Explanation
    Severe dehydration can lead to a rapid bounding pulse due to the body's attempt to compensate for the lack of fluid volume. Poor skin turgor is also a manifestation of severe dehydration, as the skin loses its elasticity and becomes less resilient.

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