Sem 1 : Cardiovaskular

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| By Naa Ali
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Naa Ali
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Quizzes Created: 6 | Total Attempts: 33,025
Questions: 64 | Attempts: 6,033

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Sem 1 : Cardiovaskular - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Manifestasi major pesakit dengan Acute Rheumatic Fever adalah semua berikut kecuali 

    • A.

      Karditis

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Poliartitis

    • D.

      Chorea

    Correct Answer
    B. Rhinitis
    Explanation
    Acute Rheumatic Fever is a condition characterized by inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the heart, joints, and central nervous system. The major manifestations of this condition include carditis (inflammation of the heart), polyarthritis (inflammation of multiple joints), and chorea (involuntary movements). Rhinitis, which refers to inflammation of the nasal passages, is not typically associated with Acute Rheumatic Fever. Therefore, rhinitis is the exception among the given manifestations.

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  • 2. 

    Seorang kanak - kanak akan kelihatan biru jika mengalami  penyakit berikut KECUALI

    • A.

      Transposition of the aorta

    • B.

      Atresia tricuspid

    • C.

      Atrial septal defect

    • D.

      Tetralogy of fallot

    Correct Answer
    C. Atrial septal defect
    Explanation
    Atrial septal defect is not a condition that would cause a child to appear blue. Transposition of the aorta, Atresia tricuspid, and Tetralogy of Fallot are all congenital heart defects that can result in cyanosis, or a bluish tint to the skin. However, Atrial septal defect is a hole in the wall between the heart's upper chambers, and it typically does not cause cyanosis.

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  • 3. 

    Pesakit dengn penyakit jantung kongenital ini akan mencangkung ( squatting ) selepas bersenam 

    • A.

      Ventricular septal defect

    • B.

      Atrial septal defect

    • C.

      Tetralogy of Fallot

    • D.

      Coarctation of the aorta

    Correct Answer
    C. Tetralogy of Fallot
    Explanation
    Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that involves four abnormalities in the heart. One of these abnormalities is a ventricular septal defect, which is a hole in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart. When a person with Tetralogy of Fallot exercises, they may experience a decrease in blood flow to the lungs, leading to a decrease in oxygen levels in the blood. Squatting can help increase blood flow to the lungs and improve oxygenation, making it a compensatory mechanism for individuals with Tetralogy of Fallot.

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  • 4. 

    Kongesi paru - paru adalah disebabkan oleh kelemahan 

    • A.

      Jantung kiri

    • B.

      Injap bikuspid

    • C.

      Jantung kiri dan kanan

    • D.

      Iinjap atrioventrikular

    Correct Answer
    A. Jantung kiri
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Jantung kiri." This suggests that the cause of kongesi paru-paru (pulmonary congestion) is a weakness in the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. If it is weak or not functioning properly, blood can back up into the lungs, leading to congestion.

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  • 5. 

    Berikut adalah sebab- sebab kejadian vena varikos

    • A.

      Injap kaki yang inkompeten

    • B.

      Gangguan dalam pembekuan darah

    • C.

      Peningkatan tekanan dalam vena

    • D.

      Kelemahan struktur salur darah

    Correct Answer
    B. Gangguan dalam pembekuan darah
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Gangguan dalam pembekuan darah" (Disorders in blood clotting). This is because varicose veins can occur when there is a disruption in the normal blood clotting process. When blood clotting is impaired, it can lead to the pooling of blood in the veins, causing them to become enlarged and twisted. This can result in the development of varicose veins.

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  • 6. 

    Encik Ong di diagnoskan menghidap ubstable angina pectoris. Sakit dada yang mencengkam adalah disebabkan oleh 

    • A.

      Kongesi di paru-paru

    • B.

      Kurang bekalan darah ke miokardium

    • C.

      Peningkatan kosentrasi karbon dioksida

    • D.

      Jantung disritmia jantung yang luar biasa

    Correct Answer
    B. Kurang bekalan darah ke miokardium
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Kurang bekalan darah ke miokardium" because unstable angina pectoris is caused by a reduced blood supply to the heart muscle (miokardium). This reduction in blood flow can lead to chest pain (sakit dada) and other symptoms.

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  • 7. 

    Encik Ahmad didiagnosakan menghidap cerebral vascular Accident dan dimasukkan ke wad dengan keadaan tidak sedar diri. Intervensi utama anda adalah

    • A.

      Beri terapi oksigen

    • B.

      Masukkan nasogastrik

    • C.

      Posisikan semipron

    • D.

      Sediakan infusi intravena

    Correct Answer
    C. Posisikan semipron
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Posisikan semipron" because positioning the patient in a semipron position can help improve blood flow to the brain and prevent further complications in patients with cerebral vascular accident. This position allows for better drainage of fluids from the lungs and reduces the risk of aspiration. It also helps to prevent pressure ulcers and maintain proper alignment of the body.

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  • 8. 

    Ciri sakit dada Myocardial Infarction adalah seperti berikut KECUALI

    • A.

      Jangkamasa sakit melebihi 20 minit

    • B.

      Berlaku apabila rehat

    • C.

      Merebak ke dahu dan tangan kiri

    • D.

      Lega dalam 5 minit selepas Tablet Glyceryl Trinitrate

    Correct Answer
    D. Lega dalam 5 minit selepas Tablet Glyceryl Trinitrate
    Explanation
    Myocardial Infarction, also known as a heart attack, is characterized by chest pain that typically lasts longer than 20 minutes, occurs at rest, and radiates to the left arm and shoulder. However, the statement "Lega dalam 5 minit selepas Tablet Glyceryl Trinitrate" is incorrect because relief from chest pain after taking Glyceryl Trinitrate typically occurs within a few minutes, not specifically within 5 minutes.

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  • 9. 

    Pendarahan di otak yng menyebabkan cerebral Vascular Accident adalah akibat dari 

    • A.

      Myocardial Infarction

    • B.

      Hypertension

    • C.

      Bacterial Endocarditis

    • D.

      Cardiomyopathy

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertension
    Explanation
    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can lead to cerebral vascular accidents, also known as strokes. When blood pressure is consistently high, it puts strain on the blood vessels in the brain, making them more prone to rupture or blockage. This can result in bleeding in the brain, leading to a cerebral vascular accident. Therefore, hypertension is the most likely cause of the bleeding in the brain that leads to a cerebral vascular accident.

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  • 10. 

    Encik Ali mengalami dispnea apabila menaiki tangga. Beliau menunjukkan tanda- tanda 

    • A.

      Hipernea

    • B.

      Ortopnea

    • C.

      Paraxysmal dyspnea

    • D.

      Exertional Dyspnea

    Correct Answer
    D. Exertional Dyspnea
    Explanation
    Exertional dyspnea refers to shortness of breath or difficulty breathing that occurs during physical activity or exertion. In this case, Encik Ali experiences dispnea (shortness of breath) when climbing stairs, which is a form of physical exertion. Therefore, the correct answer is Exertional Dyspnea.

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  • 11. 

    Tindakan yang terbaik apabila pesakit tiada bernafas dan nadi karotid tidak dapat dikesan ialah 

    • A.

      Panggil doktor dengan segera

    • B.

      Mulakan CPR ( cardio pulmonary resuscitation)

    • C.

      Beri pesakit oksigen

    • D.

      Letak pesakit terlentang dikatil

    Correct Answer
    B. Mulakan CPR ( cardio pulmonary resuscitation)
    Explanation
    The best course of action when a patient is not breathing and no carotid pulse can be detected is to start CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation). This is because CPR is a life-saving technique that involves chest compressions and rescue breaths to manually circulate oxygenated blood to the vital organs. CPR can help maintain some blood flow and oxygenation to the brain and other organs until advanced medical help arrives. Calling a doctor and providing oxygen are also important steps, but starting CPR should be the immediate priority in this situation.

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  • 12. 

    Makanan untuk peakit yang mengalami congestive cardiac Failure ialah

    • A.

      Tinggi kalorindan protein

    • B.

      Tinggi protein dan kurang garam

    • C.

      Tinggi kalori dan kurang garam

    • D.

      Kurang kalori dan garam

    Correct Answer
    D. Kurang kalori dan garam
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Kurang kalori dan garam." For patients with congestive cardiac failure, it is important to limit their calorie and salt intake. This is because excessive calorie intake can lead to weight gain and put additional strain on the heart, while high salt intake can cause fluid retention and worsen the condition. Therefore, a diet that is low in both calories and salt is recommended for patients with congestive cardiac failure.

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  • 13. 

    Tetraralogy of Fallot ialah kecacatan congenital yang melibatkan semua keadaan berikut KECUALI

    • A.

      Pulmonary stenosis

    • B.

      Atrial septal defect

    • C.

      Ventricular septal defect

    • D.

      Overriding aorta

    Correct Answer
    B. Atrial septal defect
    Explanation
    Tetraralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that involves four specific abnormalities: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Atrial septal defect is not a part of Tetraralogy of Fallot, so it is the exception in this case.

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  • 14. 

    Pemusnahan injap pada klien yang menghidapi infective endocarditis badan dikesan melalui 

    • A.

      Braadikadia

    • B.

      Murmur cardiac

    • C.

      Penyelidikan

    • D.

      Peningkatan tekanan darah

    Correct Answer
    B. Murmur cardiac
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Murmur cardiac." In infective endocarditis, the destruction of heart valves can lead to the development of a heart murmur. A heart murmur is an abnormal sound caused by turbulent blood flow through the damaged valves. It can be detected during a physical examination using a stethoscope. Therefore, the presence of a cardiac murmur can indicate the destruction of heart valves in a client with infective endocarditis.

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  • 15. 

    Pesakit kardiak yang dirawat dengan ubat diuretic dinasihatkan mengambil makanan yang tinggi dengan

    • A.

      Kalium

    • B.

      Natrium

    • C.

      Kalsium

    • D.

      Magnesium

    Correct Answer
    A. Kalium
    Explanation
    Patients with cardiac conditions who are being treated with diuretics are advised to consume foods that are high in potassium. This is because diuretics increase the excretion of potassium in the urine, leading to a potential deficiency. Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining proper heart function and electrolyte balance, and a deficiency can worsen cardiac symptoms. Therefore, consuming foods rich in potassium can help replenish the lost electrolyte and support overall heart health.

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  • 16. 

    Struktur ini dikenali sebagai “ peace maker” jantung

    • A.

      Sinoatrial node

    • B.

      Atriovenricle node

    • C.

      Bundle of His

    • D.

      Purkinjie Fiber

    Correct Answer
    A. Sinoatrial node
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sinoatrial node. The given statement refers to a structure known as the "peace maker" of the heart. The Sinoatrial node is often referred to as the pacemaker of the heart because it is responsible for initiating the electrical signals that regulate the heart's rhythm. It is located in the right atrium and generates electrical impulses that cause the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles.

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  • 17. 

    Pesakit yang mengalami myocardial infaction dinasihatkan rehat sepenuhnya di atas katil untuk

    • A.

      Mengurangkan sakit dada

    • B.

      Menambah output jantung

    • C.

      Menguatkan denyutan jantung

    • D.

      Mengurangkan aktiviti jantung

    Correct Answer
    D. Mengurangkan aktiviti jantung
    Explanation
    Rehat sepenuhnya di atas katil akan membantu mengurangkan aktiviti jantung. Ketika seseorang mengalami myocardial infarction, terdapat kekurangan oksigen yang berlaku pada jantung. Dengan mengurangkan aktiviti jantung, ia akan membantu mengurangkan beban kerja pada jantung dan membolehkannya pulih dengan lebih baik. Rehat sepenuhnya di atas katil juga dapat membantu mengurangkan risiko komplikasi dan memberikan kesempatan kepada jantung untuk pulih dengan lebih cepat.

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  • 18. 

    Sistem peredaran yng membawa darah ke jantung ialah peredaran darah 

    • A.

      Systemic

    • B.

      Pulmonary

    • C.

      Coronary

    • D.

      Hepatic

    Correct Answer
    C. Coronary
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Coronary." The question is asking for the system that carries blood to the heart. The coronary system is responsible for supplying blood to the heart muscle itself, ensuring that it receives the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function properly. The systemic system carries blood to the rest of the body, the pulmonary system carries blood between the heart and lungs, and the hepatic system carries blood to and from the liver.

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  • 19. 

    Jumlah darah yang di pam melalui ventricles dalam masa 1 minit digelar sebagai 

    • A.

      Kadar nadi

    • B.

      Ventricular contraction

    • C.

      Stroke volume

    • D.

      Cardiac output

    Correct Answer
    D. Cardiac output
    Explanation
    Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood pumped by the ventricles of the heart in one minute. It is a measure of the efficiency of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the body's tissues. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle with each beat) by the heart rate (the number of beats per minute). Therefore, the correct answer is "Cardiac output."

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  • 20. 

    Encik Ramli 48 tahun ya g mengalami infarksi miokardium dibawa ke unit kecemasan. Ubat ini diberikan oleh pakar perubatan untuk mengurangkan sakit dada beliau 

    • A.

      Voltaren

    • B.

      Pethidine

    • C.

      Tramal

    • D.

      Morphine sulphate

    Correct Answer
    D. Morphine sulphate
    Explanation
    Morphine sulfate is the correct answer because it is a commonly used medication for reducing chest pain associated with myocardial infarction. It is a potent analgesic that works by binding to opioid receptors in the central nervous system, thereby reducing the perception of pain. Morphine sulfate is often administered in the emergency department to provide immediate relief to patients experiencing severe chest pain due to a heart attack.

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  • 21. 

    Berikut adalah ciri kadar denyutan jantung yang menunjukkan atrial febrillation

    • A.

      300 denyutan per minit

    • B.

      400 denyutan per minit

    • C.

      500 denyutan per minit

    • D.

      600 denyutan per minit

    Correct Answer
    A. 300 denyutan per minit
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 300 denyutan per minit. Atrial fibrillation is a condition characterized by an irregular and often rapid heart rate. Normal resting heart rate for adults is typically between 60-100 beats per minute. A heart rate of 300 beats per minute is significantly higher than the normal range and is indicative of atrial fibrillation.

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  • 22. 

    Which one do you like?

    • A.

      Option 1

    • B.

      Option 2

    • C.

      Option 3

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Option 1
  • 23. 

    Jururawat boleh membantu melegakan sakit dada yang dialami oleh sesorang pesakit yang mengalami pericarditis dengan posisikan pesakit.

    • A.

      Supine - mengiring ke kanan

    • B.

      Supine- mengiring ke kiri

    • C.

      Semi fowlers

    • D.

      Duduk tegak-badan menghala ke hadapan

    Correct Answer
    D. Duduk tegak-badan menghala ke hadapan
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Duduk tegak-badan menghala ke hadapan." This position helps to relieve the chest pain experienced by a patient with pericarditis. Sitting upright and leaning forward can reduce pressure on the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, and alleviate discomfort. This position also allows for better lung expansion and can help with breathing difficulties that may accompany pericarditis.

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  • 24. 

    Pesakit yang mengalami miokardium infarksi menunjukkan perubahan ECG yang berikut

    • A.

      Jarak PR yang memanjang

    • B.

      Elevasi ST dan segment O wave yang luar biasa

    • C.

      Elevasi O wave dan T wave

    • D.

      P wave yang mendatar

    Correct Answer
    B. Elevasi ST dan segment O wave yang luar biasa
    Explanation
    Patients who experience myocardial infarction often show the following ECG changes: prolonged PR interval, remarkable ST elevation and O wave segment elevation, O wave elevation and T wave elevation, and flat P wave.

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  • 25. 

    Langkah kejururawatan dalam mengesan kesan toksik ubat digoxin ialah

    • A.

      Menimbang berat badan

    • B.

      Mengambil tekanan darah

    • C.

      Monitor suhu badan 4 jam sekali

    • D.

      Memeriksa apek beat

    Correct Answer
    D. Memeriksa apek beat
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Memeriksa apek beat." This is because checking the apex beat is a nursing intervention used to detect toxic effects of the medication digoxin. Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside that is commonly used to treat heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias. However, it can also have toxic effects on the heart, such as causing arrhythmias. By checking the apex beat, nurses can assess the rhythm and regularity of the heartbeat, which can help detect any abnormal cardiac effects of digoxin.

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  • 26. 

    Kenaikan suhu badan di antara 24 - 48 jam selepas serangan infeksi miokardium ialah 

    • A.

      Infeksi nosokomial

    • B.

      Reaksi terhadap tisu nekrosis

    • C.

      Iritasi otot miokardium

    • D.

      Endokarditis bakterial

    Correct Answer
    B. Reaksi terhadap tisu nekrosis
    Explanation
    The increase in body temperature between 24-48 hours after a myocardial infection is a reaction to tissue necrosis. This means that the body is responding to the death of heart tissue by increasing its temperature. This is a common response to tissue damage or injury, as the body tries to fight off infection and promote healing. It is not related to nosocomial infection (infection acquired in a hospital setting), bacterial endocarditis, or irritation of the myocardial muscle.

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  • 27. 

    Kegagalan penutupan dinding antara pulmonary artery dan aorta sejurus selepas bayi dilahirkan boleh menyebabkan kecacatan congenital ini

    • A.

      Tertralogy og fallot

    • B.

      Atrial septal defect

    • C.

      Pulmonary stenosis

    • D.

      Persistent Ductus arteriosus

    Correct Answer
    B. Atrial septal defect
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that the failure of the closure of the wall between the pulmonary artery and the aorta immediately after birth can lead to this congenital defect. The correct answer, Atrial septal defect, is a condition where there is a hole in the septum (wall) between the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). This hole allows blood to flow between the atria, causing oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix. This explanation aligns with the information provided in the statement.

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  • 28. 

    Komplikasi mungkin di alami oleh pesakit angina yang diberikan tablet Glycerine Trinitrate (GTN) ialah 

    • A.

      Palpitation

    • B.

      Hypotension

    • C.

      Pendarahan

    • D.

      Diaphoresis

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypotension
    Explanation
    One possible complication that may be experienced by a patient with angina who is given Glycerine Trinitrate (GTN) is hypotension. This is because GTN is a vasodilator medication that relaxes and widens the blood vessels, which can lead to a decrease in blood pressure. Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting. It is important for healthcare providers to monitor the patient's blood pressure closely when administering GTN to prevent or manage this potential complication.

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  • 29. 

    Pesakit yang mengalami Bacterial Endocarditis perlu diberikan ubat ini sebelum mencabut gigi

    • A.

      Antibiotik

    • B.

      Antipyrectic

    • C.

      Antihistamine

    • D.

      Anticoagulant

    Correct Answer
    A. Antibiotik
    Explanation
    Patients with Bacterial Endocarditis need to be given antibiotics before tooth extraction. This is because Bacterial Endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart and valves, and tooth extraction can introduce bacteria into the bloodstream, potentially causing the infection to spread. Antibiotics are given as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of complications and further infection.

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  • 30. 

    Puan A dimasukkan ke wad kerana mengalami uncontrolled hypertension dengan bacaan tekanan darah 200/ 120 mmHg . Apakah tindakan segera anda 

    • A.

      Rehatkan sepenuhnya di atas katil

    • B.

      Mwngambil sejarah perubatan yang lalu

    • C.

      Ambil tanda vital setiap 1/2 jam sehari

    • D.

      Beri ubat antihypertension secara oral

    Correct Answer
    A. Rehatkan sepenuhnya di atas katil
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to rest fully on the bed. This is because Puan A is experiencing uncontrolled hypertension with a blood pressure reading of 200/120 mmHg. Resting fully on the bed can help reduce physical exertion and stress, which can contribute to high blood pressure. By resting, it allows the body to relax and potentially lower blood pressure levels.

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  • 31. 

    IV Potassium chloride tidak boleh diberi secara bolus untuk mengelakkan 

    • A.

      Embolism

    • B.

      Cardiac arrest

    • C.

      Thrombophlebitis

    • D.

      Acute renal failure

    Correct Answer
    B. Cardiac arrest
    Explanation
    Giving IV potassium chloride as a bolus can lead to cardiac arrest. This is because a rapid infusion of potassium can cause hyperkalemia, which is an excessive amount of potassium in the blood. Hyperkalemia can disrupt the normal electrical activity of the heart, leading to arrhythmias and potentially cardiac arrest. Therefore, it is important to administer potassium chloride slowly and under close monitoring to avoid this serious complication.

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  • 32. 

    Bacaan ECG Encik L didapati T wave tall dan narrow . Beliau mungkin mengalami

    • A.

      Hypokalemia

    • B.

      Hyperkalemia

    • C.

      Hyponatremia

    • D.

      Hypernatremia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperkalemia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia refers to high levels of potassium in the blood. T wave tall and narrow on an ECG can be an indication of hyperkalemia. This condition can lead to various symptoms such as muscle weakness, palpitations, and abnormal heart rhythms. It can be caused by several factors including kidney problems, certain medications, and excessive potassium intake.

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  • 33. 

    Pesakit yang mengalami kekurangan isipadu badan akan menunjukkan 

    • A.

      Dypsnea dan orthopnea

    • B.

      Tachycardia dan hypotension

    • C.

      Tachycardia dan hypertension

    • D.

      Sakit kepala dan muscle spasm

    Correct Answer
    B. Tachycardia dan hypotension
    Explanation
    When a patient experiences a decrease in body volume, they will exhibit symptoms such as tachycardia (rapid heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure). These symptoms occur because the body is trying to compensate for the decreased volume by increasing the heart rate and lowering blood pressure in an attempt to maintain adequate blood flow to the organs.

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  • 34. 

    Encik N mengalami Acute Pulmonary Oedema (APO). Sifat sputum yang dikeluarkan oleh Encik N ialah

    • A.

      Pink frothy

    • B.

      Green watery

    • C.

      Mucopurulent

    • D.

      Whitish mucoid

    Correct Answer
    A. Pink frothy
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Pink frothy". Acute Pulmonary Edema (APO) is a condition where fluid accumulates in the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. The characteristic sputum produced in APO is pink and frothy, indicating the presence of blood in the fluid. This frothy appearance is due to the mixing of air and fluid in the lungs.

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  • 35. 

    Tujuan utama mengadakan program rehabilitasi bagi pesakit postmyocardial infaction adalah untuk 

    • A.

      Mengenalpasti dsrhytmias dengan awal

    • B.

      Memastikan senaman dilakukan secara berkala

    • C.

      Meningkatkan keupayaan jantung secara progresif

    • D.

      Mengurangkan tempoh pesakit perlu berada di wad

    Correct Answer
    C. Meningkatkan keupayaan jantung secara progresif
    Explanation
    The main goal of implementing a rehabilitation program for postmyocardial infarction patients is to gradually improve the heart's capacity. This means that the program aims to enhance the heart's ability to function and perform its tasks more effectively over time. By gradually increasing the heart's capacity, it can become stronger and more efficient, leading to better overall cardiovascular health.

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  • 36. 

    Pemerhatian rapi yang perlu dilakukan kepada Encik R yang mengalami cerebrovascular accident (CVA) adalah simptom

    • A.

      Kongesi pulmonari

    • B.

      Kegagalan fungsi renal

    • C.

      Kegagalan kontraksi jantung

    • D.

      Peningkatan tekanan intrakranial

    Correct Answer
    D. Peningkatan tekanan intrakranial
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Peningkatan tekanan intrakranial" because it is important to observe for symptoms of increased intracranial pressure in patients who have experienced a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Increased intracranial pressure can lead to serious complications and can indicate worsening of the patient's condition. Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure may include headache, nausea, vomiting, altered level of consciousness, and changes in vital signs. Monitoring for these symptoms is crucial in order to provide appropriate interventions and prevent further neurological damage.

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  • 37. 

    Komplikasi utama menyebabkan kadar kematian yang tinggi dalam kes acute myocardial infarction diperingkat awal 

    • A.

      Dysrhythmias

    • B.

      Aitic aneurysm

    • C.

      Left ventricular failure

    • D.

      Acute pulmonary oedema

    Correct Answer
    C. Left ventricular failure
    Explanation
    Left ventricular failure is the main complication that leads to a high mortality rate in cases of acute myocardial infarction at an early stage. This is because left ventricular failure occurs when the heart's left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the rest of the body. This can result in organ damage and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

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  • 38. 

    Berikut adalah cardiac enzymes yang diuji bagi mendiagnos mayocardial infarction kecuali

    • A.

      Amylase

    • B.

      Creatine kinase

    • C.

      Lactic dehydrogenase

    • D.

      Aspartate aminotransferase

    Correct Answer
    A. Amylase
    Explanation
    The cardiac enzymes that are tested to diagnose myocardial infarction include creatine kinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Amylase is not a cardiac enzyme and is not typically tested for myocardial infarction.

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  • 39. 

    Puan M telah dibenarkan discaj dan diberi tarikh temujanji untuk melakukan stress Test. Penerangan yang perlu diberi kepada Puan M tentang tujuan Stress Test dilakukan adalah untuk

    • A.

      Menilai patensi koronari arteri

    • B.

      Menilai fungsi injap-injap jantung

    • C.

      Mengetahui kekuatan kontraktiliti miokardium

    • D.

      Mengetahui status kardiovaskular terhadap aktiviti fizikal

    Correct Answer
    D. Mengetahui status kardiovaskular terhadap aktiviti fizikal
    Explanation
    The stress test is performed to assess the cardiovascular status in response to physical activity. It helps to determine how well the heart functions during exercise and how it responds to increased stress. By monitoring the heart's performance during exercise, the test can provide valuable information about the overall cardiovascular health and identify any potential issues or abnormalities in the heart's response to physical activity.

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  • 40. 

    Apakah penyebab edema berlaku dalam congesif cardiac Failure (CCF) 

    • A.

      Kegagalan renal

    • B.

      Kekurangan protein dalam darah

    • C.

      Pengambilan cecair yang berlebihan

    • D.

      Peningkatan tekanan dalam vena dan kapilari

    Correct Answer
    D. Peningkatan tekanan dalam vena dan kapilari
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Peningkatan tekanan dalam vena dan kapilari." Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a condition where the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, leading to a backup of blood in the veins and capillaries. This increased pressure in the veins and capillaries causes fluid to leak out into the surrounding tissues, leading to edema. The other options (renal failure, protein deficiency, excessive fluid intake) are not directly related to the pathophysiology of edema in CCF.

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  • 41. 

    Langkah utama dalam rawatan pesakit yang mengalami ventricular fibrillation adalah melakukan

    • A.

      Defibrillation

    • B.

      Carotid massage

    • C.

      Synchronized cardioversion

    • D.

      Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Correct Answer
    A. Defibrillation
    Explanation
    The main step in treating a patient experiencing ventricular fibrillation is defibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation is a life-threatening arrhythmia where the heart's electrical signals become chaotic, causing the heart to quiver instead of pumping blood effectively. Defibrillation involves delivering an electric shock to the heart to restore its normal rhythm. This shock helps to reset the heart's electrical activity and allows it to resume pumping blood effectively. Carotid massage, synchronized cardioversion, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are not the primary steps for treating ventricular fibrillation.

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  • 42. 

    Puan L telah di diagnos mengalami Angina Pectoris. Berikut merupakan manifestasi klinikal Angina Pectoris kecuali

    • A.

      Pallor

    • B.

      Cyanosis

    • C.

      Dyspnea

    • D.

      Chest pain

    Correct Answer
    B. Cyanosis
    Explanation
    Angina Pectoris is a condition characterized by chest pain that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscles. The chest pain is the primary symptom of Angina Pectoris. Pallor, dyspnea, and chest pain are all clinical manifestations commonly associated with Angina Pectoris. However, cyanosis, which refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to low oxygen levels in the blood, is not typically seen in Angina Pectoris. Hence, cyanosis is the exception among the given options.

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  • 43. 

    Encik L telah dirawat dengan ubat frusemide 40mg kerana menghidapi congestive cardiac failure. Kesan sampingan ubatan ini adalah

    • A.

      Hypertension

    • B.

      Hypocalamia

    • C.

      Fluid retension

    • D.

      Cardiac arrest

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypertension
    Explanation
    Frusemide is a diuretic medication commonly used to treat congestive cardiac failure. It works by increasing the excretion of water and salt from the body, which helps to reduce fluid retention and relieve symptoms of heart failure. However, one of the potential side effects of frusemide is hypertension, or high blood pressure. This can occur due to the rapid reduction in fluid volume caused by the medication. Therefore, it is important to monitor blood pressure regularly when taking frusemide to ensure that it does not become elevated.

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  • 44. 

    En.K mengalami serangan jantung. Selepas pemeriksaan doktor mengesahkan beliau mengalami Myocardium Infarction. Pemberian ubatan Streptokinase perlu di beri oksigen dengan kadar segera. Tujuan pemberian ubatan tersebut adalah

    • A.

      Menggalakkan pembentukkan thrombus

    • B.

      Mengurangkan risiko pembentukan thrombus

    • C.

      Menghancurkan thrombus yang sudah terbentuk

    • D.

      Menggelakkan thrombus disloge mengalir dalam salur darah

    Correct Answer
    C. Menghancurkan thrombus yang sudah terbentuk
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Menghancurkan thrombus yang sudah terbentuk". Myocardium infarction, also known as a heart attack, occurs when there is a blockage in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle. This blockage is usually caused by a blood clot or thrombus. Streptokinase is a medication that is used to dissolve or break down these blood clots, thus restoring blood flow to the affected area of the heart. By administering streptokinase, the aim is to destroy the already formed thrombus and prevent further damage to the heart muscle.

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  • 45. 

    Encik Ali  mengalami cerebral vascular accident ( CVA ) dan dimasukkan  ke wad dalam keadaan tidak sedar diri . Tindakan kejururawatan yang utama adalah 

    • A.

      Beri terapi oksigen

    • B.

      Nilai keadaan pesakit

    • C.

      Posisikan pesakit ke semipron

    • D.

      Bantu pemasangan infusi intravena

    Correct Answer
    C. Posisikan pesakit ke semipron
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Posisikan pesakit ke semipron" because positioning the patient in a semi-prone position can help improve ventilation and prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia. This position also helps with drainage of secretions and promotes better blood flow to the brain.

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  • 46. 

    Berikut adalah ‘acyanotic congenital heart disease ‘ KECUALI 

    • A.

      Atrial septal defect

    • B.

      Patent duktus arteriosus

    • C.

      Ventrikular septal defect

    • D.

      Tetralogy of fallot

    Correct Answer
    D. Tetralogy of fallot
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Tetralogy of Fallot. Tetralogy of Fallot is a cyanotic congenital heart disease characterized by four defects: a ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy. It is the only option in the given list that falls under the category of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect are acyanotic congenital heart diseases.

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  • 47. 

    Encik A dijadualkan untuk menjalani cardiac catheterization. Apakah aduan utama pesakit yang perlu intervensi segera semasa prosuder dijalankan 

    • A.

      Rasa untuk batuk

    • B.

      Aduan sakit dada

    • C.

      Warm dan flush feeling

    • D.

      Tekanan pada tempat tusukan

    Correct Answer
    B. Aduan sakit dada
    Explanation
    The main complaint that requires immediate intervention during the cardiac catheterization procedure is chest pain. This is because chest pain can be a symptom of a serious cardiac condition, such as a heart attack or angina. Prompt intervention is necessary to assess and address the cause of the chest pain and prevent any further complications.

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  • 48. 

    Graf pada electrocardiogram yang melambangkan gelombang QRS menunjukkan 

    • A.

      Atrial depolarization

    • B.

      Atrial repolarization

    • C.

      Ventricular depolarization

    • D.

      Ventricular repolarization

    Correct Answer
    C. Ventricular depolarization
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ventricular depolarization. The QRS complex on an electrocardiogram represents the electrical activity that occurs during ventricular depolarization. This means that the ventricles of the heart are contracting and preparing to pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial depolarization and repolarization occur during the P wave and T wave respectively, which are separate from the QRS complex.

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  • 49. 

    Asesmen yang dilakukan oleh jururawat bagi mengelakkan graf collapse bagi pesakit yabg telah menjalani CABG dengan vein graf adalah 

    • A.

      Ausculate lung sounds

    • B.

      Monitor for hypotension

    • C.

      Asses for motion and sensation

    • D.

      Observed for generalized hypothermia

    Correct Answer
    B. Monitor for hypotension
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Monitor for hypotension." After a patient undergoes CABG (coronary artery bypass graft) with vein graft, it is important for the nurse to monitor for hypotension. This is because hypotension (low blood pressure) can indicate complications such as bleeding or inadequate cardiac output. Monitoring for hypotension allows the nurse to intervene promptly and prevent further complications.

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  • 50. 

    Julie berumur 3 tahun mempunyai sejarah mudah kelihatan penat , letih serta menunjukkan clubbing of fingers. Keadaan ini menunjukkan adik julie mengalami penyakit 

    • A.

      Tetralogy of fallot

    • B.

      Coartation of the aorta

    • C.

      Patent ductus arteriousus

    • D.

      Ventricular septal defect

    Correct Answer
    A. Tetralogy of fallot
    Explanation
    Julie's symptoms of easy fatigue, tiredness, and clubbing of fingers are indicative of Tetralogy of Fallot. This congenital heart defect consists of four abnormalities: a ventricular septal defect (hole in the wall separating the heart's lower chambers), pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve and artery), overriding aorta (the aorta is positioned over both ventricles instead of just the left), and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the right ventricle). These abnormalities lead to oxygen-poor blood being pumped out to the body, causing symptoms like fatigue and clubbing.

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