1.
What is the estimator of standard deviation in the x bar and R charts?
Correct Answer
B. Mean of whole process
Explanation
The estimator of standard deviation in the x bar and R charts is the mean of the whole process. This means that the standard deviation is estimated by calculating the average of the individual standard deviations of all the samples taken throughout the entire process. This provides a more accurate representation of the variability within the process as a whole, rather than just considering the variability within each individual sample.
2.
LCL for the R chart is given by ____
Correct Answer
A. D3 R
Explanation
The correct answer is D3 R. The LCL (Lower Control Limit) for the R chart is calculated using the formula R - D3 R. D3 R represents a constant value that is determined based on the sample size. Subtracting D3 R from the calculated R value helps determine the lower limit beyond which any data points would be considered statistically significant and indicative of a process shift or variation.
3.
In the general equation of UCL of a control chart, for any x chart, which of these is used as the estimator of μ?
Correct Answer
C. X double bar
Explanation
The correct answer is X double bar. In a control chart, X double bar is used as the estimator of the mean, denoted as μ. X double bar represents the average of the subgroup means, which provides an estimate of the overall process mean. It is commonly used in control charts to monitor the central tendency of a process and detect any shifts or deviations from the target value.
4.
In phase I application of x and R chart, the control limits obtained from the equations are treated as ______
Correct Answer
B. Trial limits
Explanation
In phase I application of x and R chart, the control limits obtained from the equations are treated as trial limits. These trial limits are used to establish a baseline for the process and determine if it is in control. They are not the final control limits, but rather a starting point to monitor the process and identify any potential issues. The data collected during this phase is used to calculate the actual control limits that will be used in phase II. Therefore, the control limits obtained in phase I are considered trial limits.
5.
Which term is having a closest meaning as Sampling Distributions?
Correct Answer
A. Control charts
Explanation
Control charts are statistical tools used to monitor and control a process over time. They involve collecting and analyzing data from samples taken at different intervals. Similarly, sampling distributions involve collecting and analyzing data from samples to make inferences about a population. Both control charts and sampling distributions are related to the concept of sampling and statistical analysis. Therefore, control charts have the closest meaning to sampling distributions among the given options.
6.
Process capability generally uses ____
Correct Answer
A. Specifications
Explanation
Process capability generally uses specifications to determine if a process is capable of producing products within the desired range of values. Specifications define the acceptable limits for key characteristics of the product, such as dimensions, performance, or quality. By comparing the process output to the specifications, process capability analysis can assess whether the process is capable of meeting the customer's requirements. Control limits, process standard deviation, and mean of any one sample are not directly used in process capability analysis, although they may be relevant in other statistical process control techniques.
7.
Is there any relationship between specification limits and control limits of x and R charts?
Correct Answer
C. No
Explanation
The correct answer is "no". This means that there is no relationship between specification limits and control limits of x and R charts. Specification limits represent the acceptable range of a product or process parameter set by the customer or regulatory standards, while control limits indicate the natural variation in the process. These two limits serve different purposes and are not directly related to each other.
8.
Control limits are ___
Correct Answer
B. Limits driven by the natural variability of the process
Explanation
Control limits are limits that are driven by the natural variability of the process. These limits are determined based on statistical analysis and are used to distinguish between common cause variation (within the control limits) and special cause variation (beyond the control limits). Control limits help in monitoring and controlling the process to ensure that it is stable and predictable. They are not defined by customers or driven by the inherent variability of the process, but rather by the natural variation that occurs in the process.
9.
The natural variability of the process is measured by ____
Correct Answer
C. Process standard deviation
Explanation
The natural variability of a process refers to the inherent fluctuations or differences that occur in the output of the process. The process standard deviation is a measure of this natural variability. It quantifies how much the individual data points deviate from the process mean, providing insight into the spread or dispersion of the data. Therefore, the process standard deviation is an appropriate measure to assess the natural variability of a process.
10.
What type of chart will be used to plot the number of defectives in the output of any process?
Correct Answer
C. C chart
Explanation
A c chart is used to plot the number of defectives in the output of a process. It is a control chart that monitors the count of defects per unit, rather than the actual measurements of a process. The c chart is useful when the number of defects can vary, but the size of the sample remains constant. It helps to identify any shifts or trends in the number of defectives, allowing for timely corrective actions to be taken.