Embryology: Ovarian Cycle, Genetics, Embryonic Development------------------------------

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| By Lanzrenan8
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Lanzrenan8
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 291
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Embryology: Ovarian Cycle, Genetics, Embryonic Development------------------------------ - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In what days does the embryo start to bend?

    • A.

      11-12 days

    • B.

      16-18 days

    • C.

      20-21 days

    • D.

      14-15 days

    Correct Answer
    C. 20-21 days
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 20-21 days. At this stage of embryonic development, the embryo starts to bend. This bending is an important process that allows the formation of the neural tube, which eventually develops into the brain and spinal cord. It also helps to shape the body and establish the basic structure of the developing organism.

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  • 2. 

    What week does the neural tube START to close

    • A.

      Week 1

    • B.

      Week 2

    • C.

      Week 3 

    • D.

      Week 4

    Correct Answer
    C. Week 3 
    Explanation
    During the third week of pregnancy, the neural tube begins to close. The neural tube is a structure that eventually develops into the baby's brain and spinal cord. This closure is a crucial step in the formation of the central nervous system. If the neural tube fails to close properly, it can lead to developmental abnormalities like spina bifida. Therefore, it is important for the neural tube to close during this specific week of pregnancy.

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  • 3. 

    The HOX/Homeobox gene is responsible for developing what part of the embryo

    • A.

      Craniocaudal region

    • B.

      Left-sided organs

    • C.

      Musculature of the limbs

    • D.

      Ventralization of organs

    Correct Answer
    A. Craniocaudal region
    Explanation
    The HOX/Homeobox gene is responsible for developing the craniocaudal region of the embryo. This region refers to the head-to-tail axis of the body, including the development of the spinal cord, vertebrae, and other structures along this axis. The HOX/Homeobox gene plays a crucial role in regulating the development and patterning of these structures, ensuring proper formation and alignment.

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  • 4. 

    There are some points in meiosis where the oocyte line is paused until certain conditions are met. What are these stages?

    • A.

      Prophase I and Telophase II

    • B.

      Telophase I and Prophase II

    • C.

      Metaphase I and Anaphase II

    • D.

      Prophase I and Metaphase II

    Correct Answer
    D. Prophase I and Metaphase II
    Explanation
    In meiosis, the oocyte line is paused at certain stages until specific conditions are met. Prophase I is the stage where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material, and it is paused until all chromosomes have undergone crossing over. Metaphase II is the stage where sister chromatids align at the equator of the cell, and it is paused until all chromosomes are properly aligned. Therefore, the correct answer is Prophase I and Metaphase II.

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  • 5. 

    In which of these situations does a primary oocyte turn into a secondary oocyte

    • A.

      When a follicle is formed

    • B.

      When it is released from the primary follicle

    • C.

      When it turns atretic

    • D.

      When it is released from the secondary follicle

    Correct Answer
    D. When it is released from the secondary follicle
    Explanation
    When a primary oocyte is released from the secondary follicle, it undergoes a process called meiosis I. This results in the formation of a secondary oocyte, which contains half the number of chromosomes as the original primary oocyte. This release of the secondary oocyte is known as ovulation and typically occurs during the menstrual cycle.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following structures is a precursor to the forebrain

    • A.

      Prechordal plate

    • B.

      Notochord

    • C.

      The first visceral arch

    • D.

      The second visceral arch

    Correct Answer
    A. Prechordal plate
    Explanation
    The prechordal plate is a structure that forms during early embryonic development and is located at the anterior end of the notochord. It plays a crucial role in the development of the forebrain, as it gives rise to the prechordal mesoderm and prechordal head mesenchyme. These structures provide important signals and support for the formation and growth of the forebrain. Therefore, the prechordal plate is considered a precursor to the forebrain.

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  • 7. 

    This is a condition in which the visceral organs are placed in the opposite direction

    • A.

      Eisenmenger's syndrome

    • B.

      Visceral Mirroring

    • C.

      Situs Invertus

    • D.

      Fetus deletus

    Correct Answer
    C. Situs Invertus
    Explanation
    Situs invertus is a condition in which the visceral organs are placed in the opposite direction. This means that the organs in the chest and abdomen are reversed from their normal positions. This condition can occur due to a developmental abnormality during embryogenesis. It is important to note that situs invertus is a rare condition and is usually not associated with any serious health issues.

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  • 8. 

    The contiguous deletion of chromosomes 15q11 to 15q13 can be seen in what disorder?

    • A.

      Angelman syndrome

    • B.

      Prader-Willi syndrome

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    C. Both
    Explanation
    The contiguous deletion of chromosomes 15q11 to 15q13 can be seen in both Angelman syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. This deletion affects the same chromosomal region in both disorders, leading to overlapping symptoms and genetic abnormalities. Therefore, individuals with either disorder can exhibit similar characteristics such as developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, and behavioral problems.

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  • 9. 

    The protein SHH (Sonic hedgehog protein) is synthesized by what?

    • A.

      Trophoblast

    • B.

      The yolk sac

    • C.

      Somite C3 to C5

    • D.

      Notochord

    Correct Answer
    D. Notochord
    Explanation
    The protein SHH, also known as Sonic hedgehog protein, is synthesized by the notochord. The notochord is a flexible rod-like structure that plays a crucial role in early embryonic development. It serves as a signaling center and secretes various proteins, including SHH, which is involved in patterning the developing embryo.

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  • 10. 

    BMP4 along with FGF8 can develop which part of the embryo

    • A.

      Ventral Side

    • B.

      Dorsal Side

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    A. Ventral Side
    Explanation
    BMP4 along with FGF8 can develop the ventral side of the embryo. BMP4 is a protein that plays a crucial role in embryonic development, specifically in determining cell fate and patterning. It promotes the formation of ventral structures in the embryo. FGF8, on the other hand, is a growth factor that is involved in various developmental processes, including the development of the nervous system and the formation of body axes. Together, BMP4 and FGF8 work synergistically to induce ventralization and promote the development of structures on the ventral side of the embryo.

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  • 11. 

    This is a type of chromosomal disorder in which parts of the chromosome breaks under certain conditions

    • A.

      The presence of fragile sites

    • B.

      Contiguous Gene Deletion

    • C.

      Genetic Mosaicism

    • D.

      Nondisjunction

    Correct Answer
    A. The presence of fragile sites
    Explanation
    Fragile sites are specific locations on chromosomes that are prone to breakage under certain conditions. These breaks can lead to chromosomal abnormalities and are associated with a type of chromosomal disorder. The presence of fragile sites indicates a higher risk for chromosomal breakage, which can result in genetic disorders. Therefore, the correct answer is "The presence of fragile sites."

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  • 12. 

    Mesoderm derivative responsible for developing the limb musculature of the embryo

    • A.

      Paraxial Mesoderm

    • B.

      Somite

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    C. Both
    Explanation
    Both the paraxial mesoderm and somite are responsible for developing the limb musculature of the embryo. The paraxial mesoderm is a layer of mesoderm that gives rise to the somites, which are segmented blocks of tissue. The somites further differentiate into various structures, including the muscles of the limbs. Therefore, both the paraxial mesoderm and somite play a crucial role in the development of limb musculature in the embryo.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a precursor to the kidneys

    • A.

      Intermediate mesoderm

    • B.

      Lateral plate mesoderm

    • C.

      Somite

    • D.

      Notochord

    Correct Answer
    A. Intermediate mesoderm
    Explanation
    The intermediate mesoderm is the precursor to the kidneys. During embryonic development, the intermediate mesoderm gives rise to the urogenital system, which includes the kidneys. The kidneys develop from a specific region of the intermediate mesoderm called the nephrogenic cord. This cord undergoes complex morphogenetic processes to form the nephrons, the functional units of the kidneys. Therefore, the intermediate mesoderm is the correct answer as it is the embryonic tissue from which the kidneys originate.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is a precursor to the Visceral serosa

    • A.

      Splanchnic Mesoderm

    • B.

      Somatic Mesoderm

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    A. Splanchnic Mesoderm
    Explanation
    The visceral serosa is derived from the splanchnic mesoderm. The splanchnic mesoderm is the layer of mesoderm that surrounds the developing organs in the body cavity, including the digestive and reproductive organs. It gives rise to the connective tissue and smooth muscle of the organs, as well as the visceral serosa, which is the outer layer of the organs. The somatic mesoderm, on the other hand, gives rise to the connective tissue and serosa of the body wall. Therefore, the correct answer is Splanchnic Mesoderm.

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  • 15. 

    Xq27 is the chromosomal abnormality behind what disease?

    • A.

      Edward's syndrome

    • B.

      Angelman

    • C.

      Miller-Dieker

    • D.

      Fragile X

    Correct Answer
    D. Fragile X
    Explanation
    Fragile X syndrome is caused by a chromosomal abnormality in the Xq27 region. This syndrome is a genetic condition that causes intellectual disability, behavioral and learning challenges, and physical characteristics such as a long face and large ears. It is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability.

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  • 16. 

    The trilaminar germ disc can be seen in what week?

    • A.

      Week 1 

    • B.

      Week 2

    • C.

      Week 3

    • D.

      Week 4

    Correct Answer
    C. Week 3
    Explanation
    The trilaminar germ disc can be seen in Week 3. During this week of embryonic development, the bilaminar germ disc, which consists of the epiblast and hypoblast layers, undergoes gastrulation. Gastrulation is the process in which the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, are formed. The trilaminar germ disc refers to the presence of these three germ layers, which are essential for the development of various organs and tissues in the embryo.

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  • 17. 

    The epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tract can be found in what germ cell derivative?

    • A.

      Endoderm

    • B.

      Somatic Mesoderm

    • C.

      Splanchnic Mesoderm

    • D.

      Ectoderm

    Correct Answer
    A. Endoderm
    Explanation
    The epithelial lining of the digestive and respiratory tract is derived from the endoderm. During embryonic development, the endoderm gives rise to the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the lining of the respiratory system. This includes the mucosa of the stomach, intestines, and lungs. The endoderm also gives rise to other organs such as the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder, which are associated with the digestive system. Therefore, the correct answer is endoderm.

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  • 18. 

    BMP can develop the dorsal side of the embryo when it interacts with which of the following molecules

    • A.

      FGF-8

    • B.

      Noggin, Follistatin, Chordin

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      SHH

    Correct Answer
    B. Noggin, Follistatin, Chordin
    Explanation
    Noggin, Follistatin, and Chordin are molecules that can interact with BMP to develop the dorsal side of the embryo. These molecules act as inhibitors of BMP signaling, preventing it from inducing ventral development. By blocking BMP, Noggin, Follistatin, and Chordin allow for the development of the dorsal side of the embryo. Therefore, the correct answer is Noggin, Follistatin, Chordin.

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  • 19. 

    Serotonin activates Mad-3. Mad3 can activate which of the following molecules?

    • A.

      PITX3

    • B.

      FGF

    • C.

      Nodal

    • D.

      Homeobox

    Correct Answer
    C. Nodal
    Explanation
    Serotonin activates Mad-3, and Mad-3 can activate Nodal.

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  • 20. 

    These substances play a role in cranio-caudal development

    • A.

      Vitamin A1

    • B.

      HOX

    • C.

      Both

    • D.

      Neither

    Correct Answer
    C. Both
    Explanation
    Both Vitamin A1 and HOX play a role in cranio-caudal development. Vitamin A1 is essential for the proper development of various organs and tissues, including the cranio-caudal axis. It helps regulate gene expression and cell differentiation during embryonic development. On the other hand, HOX genes are a group of genes that play a crucial role in determining the body plan and the proper development of structures along the cranio-caudal axis. They control the formation of different body segments and structures during embryogenesis. Therefore, both Vitamin A1 and HOX are involved in cranio-caudal development.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 15, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Lanzrenan8
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