Microsoft Networking Essentials 1

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Microsoft Networking Essentials 1 - Quiz

Network + Certification


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A baseband network can carry only one signal at a time.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Baseband technology can carry only one signal at a time. It is typically used in a local area network (LAN) environment where the medium is shared by all computers. An example of this is Ethernet or Token Ring. Only one system can transmit at a time, and that system’s signal is the only one that can occupy the communication channel or medium. Broadband technology, not baseband technology, can carry more than one signal at a time. An example of this is the cable television (CATV) network, which provides many channels over a single cable installation.

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  • 2. 

    What type of network connects local area networks (LANs) in distant locations?

    • A.

      WAN

    • B.

      LAN

    • C.

      MAN

    • D.

      CAN

    Correct Answer
    A. WAN
    Explanation
    WANs (wide area networks) connect LANs that are geographically distant. A LAN, as the name implies, comprises a group of computers, not other LANs, and it is contained within a small geographic area. MANs (metropolitan area networks) connect LANs in a single metropolitan area; they are not confined to a small area. A MAN is typically larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. There is no type of network called a CAN.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following best describes the function of the network medium?

    • A.

      It provides the physical connection between networked computers.

    • B.

      It provides the protocol used to transmit data between end systems.

    • C.

      It passes data between two routers.

    • D.

      It processes electrical or light signals and converts them to data.

    Correct Answer
    A. It provides the physical connection between networked computers.
    Explanation
    The network medium provides the physical connection between networked computers. This connection can be made through copper-based, fiber-optic, or wireless technologies. The network medium is not a protocol, and only routing protocols and routers forward data packets. The network medium does not process electrical or light pulses and convert them to data; it carries only the signals generated by transceivers.

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  • 4. 

    Use your understanding of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and of protocol layers and their functions to answer the following question. Assume that you have a small internetwork consisting of three separate network segments. One of these segments is an Ethernet segment, and the other two are Token Ring segments. Identify the layer of the OSI model and the device that are concerned with connecting these segments and passing information from the Token Ring segment to the Ethernet segment, and identify the function that this layer might need to perform before transmitting across different networks.

    • A.

      Transport layer; Internet Protocol (IP) addressing and acknowledgments

    • B.

      Application layer; hub and Media Access Control (MAC) addressing

    • C.

      Data-link layer; hub and Media Access Control (MAC) addressing

    • D.

      Session layer; router and Internet Protocol (IP) addressing

    • E.

      Network layer; router and fragmentation

    Correct Answer
    E. Network layer; router and fragmentation
    Explanation
    The network layer is responsible for connecting networks. A router is required to connect different data-link layer architectures such as Ethernet and Token Ring. A router is a network layer device. Routers use routing protocols to route datagrams across an internetwork. Fragmentation might need to be performed before the transmission of datagrams between different networks to accommodate the smallest acceptable datagram size of any link in the path. No other layers of the OSI model use routers to connect networks.

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  • 5. 

    What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is responsible for the translation and formatting of information?

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Network

    • C.

      Transport

    • D.

      Session

    • E.

      Presentation

    Correct Answer
    E. Presentation
    Explanation
    Presentation layer protocols are responsible for the formatting, translation, and presentation of information. No other layers of the OSI model translate and format application data.

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  • 6. 

    You are a network administrator for a company that is planning to open a small branch office in Idaho. The company has engaged a consultant to design the local area network (LAN) for the new office, and your supervisor has asked you to review the design submitted by the consultant. The documentation for the new network calls for the installation of 20 Ethernet workstations, all of which will be connected to a single Ethernet LAN. The consultant states in the document that “a broadband network is necessary, to enable all of the workstations to coexist on the same packet switching network,” and then calls for the installation of coaxial cable, “a broadband medium that is more than capable of supporting the communications of 20 workstations, as demonstrated in any home with cable television.” After reading the document, you immediately call your supervisor and recommend that the company find a new consultant. Which of the following are valid reasons for this conclusion?

    • A.

      Ethernet does not run on coaxial cable.

    • B.

      A broadband medium is not necessary to support multiple workstations on a packet switching network.

    • C.

      Cable television networks do not use broadband signaling.

    • D.

      Coaxial cable does not support broadband signaling.

    Correct Answer
    B. A broadband medium is not necessary to support multiple workstations on a packet switching network.
    Explanation
    LANs are packet switching networks, meaning that all communications are split into multiple packets that are individually transmitted over the network medium. As a result, multiple workstations can share the medium using baseband signaling; broadband is not necessary. Ethernet does run on coaxial cable, although this implementation is obsolete. Cable television networks do use broadband signaling on coaxial cable.

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  • 7. 

    What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is responsible for dialog control between two communicating end systems?

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Data-link

    • C.

      Transport

    • D.

      Session

    • E.

      Application

    Correct Answer
    D. Session
    Explanation
    The session layer protocols are responsible for creating and maintaining a dialog between end systems. This dialog can be a two-way alternate dialog that requires end systems to take turns transmitting, or it can be a two-way simultaneous dialog where either end system can transmit at will. No other layers of the OSI model perform dialog control between communicating end systems.

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  • 8. 

    Identify the layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that controls the transmission, reception, and addressing of frames. Also identify the channel access method that Ethernet uses.

    • A.

      Physical layer; Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

    • B.

      Data-link layer; token passing

    • C.

      Physical layer; token passing

    • D.

      Data-link layer; Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

    Correct Answer
    D. Data-link layer; Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
    Explanation
    Data-link layer protocols define the transmission and reception of frames. Hardware level addresses are included in each frame to identify the local sending and receiving systems. Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD channel access method. Physical layer specifications include the transmission of electrical or light pulses to represent 1s and 0s, not frames. Token passing is a data-link layer channel access method used exclusively by Token Ring.

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  • 9. 

    The transmission of a return message by the recipient to verify the receipt of a packet or packets.

    • A.

      Segmentation

    • B.

      Packet acknowledgment

    • C.

      Error correction

    • D.

      Flow control

    • E.

      Error detection

    Correct Answer
    B. Packet acknowledgment
    Explanation
    Packet acknowledgment refers to the process of the recipient sending a return message to confirm that a packet or packets have been successfully received. This is an important aspect of communication protocols, as it allows the sender to ensure that the intended recipient has received the transmitted data. Without packet acknowledgment, there would be no way to verify if the data has been successfully delivered, leading to potential errors and data loss.

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  • 10. 

    The division of lengthy data streams into segments sufficiently small enough for transmission over the network.

    • A.

      Segmentation

    • B.

      Packet acknowledgment

    • C.

      Error correction

    • D.

      Flow control

    • E.

      Error detection

    Correct Answer
    A. Segmentation
    Explanation
    Segmentation refers to the process of dividing lengthy data streams into smaller segments that can be transmitted over a network. This is necessary because large data streams may exceed the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size, causing network congestion or data loss. By segmenting the data, it becomes more manageable and can be efficiently transmitted across the network.

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  • 11. 

    The generation, by a receiving system, of messages that instruct the sending system to speed up or slow down its transmission.

    • A.

      Segmentation

    • B.

      Packet acknowledgment

    • C.

      Error correction

    • D.

      Flow control

    • E.

      Error detection

    Correct Answer
    D. Flow control
    Explanation
    Flow control refers to the process of managing the rate of data transmission between a sender and a receiver. In this context, flow control involves the generation of messages by a receiving system to instruct the sending system to either speed up or slow down its transmission. This ensures that the receiver can handle the incoming data at a pace it can handle, preventing data loss or overload. Flow control is crucial in maintaining efficient and reliable communication between systems.

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  • 12. 

    The inclusion in a packet of special codes used by the receiving system to verify that the content of the packet wasn’t damaged in transit.

    • A.

      Segmentation

    • B.

      Packet acknowledgment

    • C.

      Error correction

    • D.

      Flow control

    • E.

      Error detection

    Correct Answer
    E. Error detection
    Explanation
    Error detection refers to the process of identifying and detecting errors in data transmission. In this context, the inclusion of special codes in a packet helps the receiving system verify whether the content of the packet has been damaged during transit. These special codes, often referred to as checksums or error detection codes, allow the receiving system to compare the received data with the calculated code to determine if any errors have occurred. This ensures the integrity and reliability of the transmitted data.

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  • 13. 

    The retransmission of packets that have been garbled or lost in transit.

    • A.

      Segmentation

    • B.

      Packet acknowledgment

    • C.

      Error correction

    • D.

      Flow control

    • E.

      Error detection

    Correct Answer
    C. Error correction
    Explanation
    Error correction refers to the process of identifying and correcting errors that occur during data transmission. When packets are garbled or lost in transit, error correction techniques are used to detect and fix these errors. This ensures that the transmitted data is received accurately and without any corruption. Error correction mechanisms such as forward error correction (FEC) or error correcting codes (ECC) are commonly used in network protocols to ensure reliable data transmission.

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  • 14. 

    You are a software developer. You have the task of creating an application that provides guaranteed delivery of information between end system applications. What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and what type of protocol must you implement?

    • A.

      Data-link layer; connectionless

    • B.

      Network layer; connection-oriented

    • C.

      Transport layer; connection-oriented

    • D.

      Application layer; connection-oriented

    Correct Answer
    C. Transport layer; connection-oriented
    Explanation
    A connection-oriented transport layer protocol provides guaranteed delivery of information for upper-layer applications. Connectionless services do not guarantee delivery of information and therefore are not a good choice. Guaranteed delivery of information is generally not a function of the data-link, network, or application layer.

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  • 15. 

    What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model provides an entrance point to the protocol stack for applications?

    • A.

      Data-link

    • B.

      Network

    • C.

      Session

    • D.

      Presentation

    • E.

      Application

    Correct Answer
    E. Application
    Explanation
    The application layer provides an entry point for applications to access the protocol stack and prepare information for transmission across a network. All other layers of the OSI model reside below this layer and rely on this access point.

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  • 16. 

    What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is responsible for the logical addressing of end systems and the routing of datagrams on a network?

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Data-link

    • C.

      Network

    • D.

      Transport

    • E.

      Application

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Network
    D. Transport
    Explanation
    Network layer protocols identify logical addresses for communicating end systems and routing datagrams across a network. The physical layer defines standards for physical and mechanical characteristics of a network. The data-link layer uses Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, not logical addresses. The transport layer uses port addresses, not logical addresses. Session layer protocols create and maintain a dialog between end systems. The application layer provides an entry point for applications to access the protocol stack and prepare information for transmission across a network.

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  • 17. 

    What type of signal is typically used over copper cable?

    • A.

      Fiber-optic

    • B.

      Microwave

    • C.

      Infrared

    • D.

      Electrical

    Correct Answer
    D. Electrical
    Explanation
    Electrical signals transmit data over copper cable. Fiber-optic is a cable type, not a signal type. Microwave signals can’t be transmitted over copper cable. Infrared signals are used only for wireless networks.

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  • 18. 

    What type of network is typically confined to a small geographic area, such as a single room, floor, or building?

    • A.

      WAN

    • B.

      LAN

    • C.

      MAN

    • D.

      CAN

    Correct Answer
    B. LAN
    Explanation
    A LAN (local area network), as the name implies, comprises a group of computers contained within a small geographic area. WANs (wide area networks) connect LANs that are geographically distant. MANs (metropolitan area networks) are not confined to a small area; they are typically larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. There is no type of network called a CAN.

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  • 19. 

    You have been hired to design a small network for a private company. The network has 10 users who all need to share data and resources. The network you choose should support baseband signaling and a star topology and should use a collision-free Media Access Control (MAC) method. Based on this information, identify the appropriate data-link layer protocol and the channel access method that should be used by this protocol.

    • A.

      Fiber-optic

    • B.

      Token Ring

    • C.

      Ethernet

    • D.

      Internet Protocol (IP)

    Correct Answer
    B. Token Ring
    Explanation
    Token Ring is a local area network (LAN) technology that uses baseband signaling (one signal on the channel) over a physical star topology, providing collision-free access to the medium. There are no collisions because Token Ring uses a token passing channel access method. Only the system holding the token has permission to transmit; all others must wait for the token. Fiber-optic is a cable type. Ethernet also uses baseband signaling and can operate in a physical star configuration; however, it is subject to collisions. IP is a connectionless network layer protocol responsible for logical source and destination addressing of hosts.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following statements describes the process of data encapsulation?

    • A.

      Protocols perform data encapsulation when they add specific codes within the datagram that are used for error checking.

    • B.

      Protocols perform data encapsulation when they embed protocol identification information within the datagram.

    • C.

      Protocols within the stack perform data encapsulation by adding a header—and, in some cases, a footer—to the information received from an upper-layer protocol.

    • D.

      Data encapsulation is the process of including only the user data in a packet.

    Correct Answer
    C. Protocols within the stack perform data encapsulation by adding a header—and, in some cases, a footer—to the information received from an upper-layer protocol.
    Explanation
    Data encapsulation occurs when the transmitting system’s protocol stack packages information as it’s passed down from one layer to the next, preparing it for transmission across the network. The encapsulation process is performed by the sending host’s protocol stack. Each protocol layer on the sending host adds a header with control information as it’s passed down the stack in preparation for transmission on the network. Protocols use special codes, like a cyclical redundancy check (CRC), to allow for error checking. Protocol identification specifies the protocol that’s carried in a frame. Both the CRC and the protocol identification are included in the fields of information that are added during the encapsulation process. User data is the original raw information that must be encapsulated prior to transmission across the network.

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  • 21. 

    Which layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model adds both a header and footer (creating a frame) to the information that is passed down from an upper layer?

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Data-link

    • C.

      Network

    • D.

      Transport

    • E.

      Session

    Correct Answer
    B. Data-link
    Explanation
    The only layer that adds both a header and a footer (or trailer) is the data-link layer. The process of adding the headers and footers is referred to as data encapsulation. All other protocol layers add just a header (control information) as data is passed down to the next layer within the model. (

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following organizations is responsible for developing the 802 series of standards for data-link layer and physical layer protocols?

    • A.

      Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T)

    • B.

      Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique (CCITT)

    • C.

      American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

    • D.

      Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

    • E.

      International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    Correct Answer
    D. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Explanation
    IEEE is responsible for developing and publishing standards that define data-link and physical layer standards. The ITU-T, formerly known as the CCITT, coordinates the development and advancement of international telecommunication networks and services. ANSI is a private organization that administers and coordinates a United States–based standardization and conformity assessment system. ISO developed and published the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model to serve as a conceptual model for software and hardware developers.

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  • 23. 

    What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model typically provides either connectionless or connection-oriented services to applications?

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Data-link

    • C.

      Network

    • D.

      Transport

    • E.

      Session

    Correct Answer
    D. Transport
    Explanation
    There are two types of transport layer protocols: connection-oriented and connectionless. Connection-oriented protocols guarantee the delivery of datagrams from source to destination by creating a connection between the sender and receiver before any data is transmitted. Connectionless protocols do not require a connection between end systems in order to pass datagrams. The physical layer does not use connectionless or connection-oriented protocols; it defines standards for transmitting and receiving information over a network. The network layer is responsible for logical addressing and routing. The session layer is responsible for creating and maintaining a dialog between end systems. The presentation layer is responsible for the formatting, translation, and presentation of information.

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  • 24. 

    What layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines the medium, network interfaces, connecting hardware, and signaling methods used on a network?

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Data-link

    • C.

      Network

    • D.

      Transport

    • E.

      Session

    Correct Answer
    A. Physical
    Explanation
    The physical layer of the OSI model defines the standards for physical and mechanical characteristics of a network, such as cabling (copper and fiber), connecting hardware (hubs), and signaling methods (analog and digital). All other protocols reside above the physical layer of the OSI model.

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  • 25. 

    Which type of network typically uses point-to-point links to connect networks, as shown in the following illustration?

    • A.

      WAN

    • B.

      LAN

    • C.

      VAN

    • D.

      CAN

    Correct Answer
    A. WAN
    Explanation
    A WAN (wide area network) uses point-to-point connections between two systems to connect LANs (local area networks) that are geographically distant. A LAN connects a group of computers, not whole networks, over a common shared medium. There is no type of network called a VAN or a CAN.

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  • 26. 

    You are a network administrator designing a local area network (LAN). You need to determine the type of cabling and network architecture to implement in your network. Which layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model apply to cabling and network architecture elements?

    • A.

      Data-link and network layers

    • B.

      Network and transport layers

    • C.

      Transport and application layers

    • D.

      Physical and data-link layers

    Correct Answer
    D. Physical and data-link layers
    Explanation
    The physical layer defines specific mechanical and electrical characteristics of a network. The data-link layer defines specific network—LAN or wide area network (WAN)—architectures and their characteristics. The physical layer standards you implement are dependent on the data-link layer protocol you select. All other layers reside above the physical and data-link layers.

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  • 27. 

    What networking concept is shown in the following illustration?

    • A.

      Packet switching

    • B.

      Data encapsulation

    • C.

      Media access control

    • D.

      Dialog separation

    Correct Answer
    B. Data encapsulation
    Explanation
    The illustration shows the process by which protocols at successive layers of the OSI model add headers to the data they receive from the layer above. This process is called data encapsulation. Packet switching is the process by which a system splits data into separate units called packets, which it individually transmits over the network. Media access control is the mechanism that specifies which computer is able to use the network at a particular time. Dialog separation is a session-layer process that calls for the creation of checkpoints that networked systems use to synchronize their activities.

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