Medical Surgical Chapters 16-24

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| By Giselle912
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Giselle912
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 123
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 123

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Medical Surgical Chapters 16-24 - Quiz


Assessing Clients with Endocrine Disorders; Nursing Care of Clients w/ Endocrine Disorders; Nursing Care of Clients w/ Diabetes Mellitus;


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is produced by which endocrine gland?

    Explanation
    The pituitary gland produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH plays a crucial role in regulating the body's water balance by controlling the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. It helps to prevent excessive loss of water through urine by increasing water reabsorption, thus concentrating the urine and conserving water in the body.

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  • 2. 

    Excessive amounts of glucocorticoids, produced by the adrenal cortex, result in what pathophysiologic health problem?

    Explanation
    Excessive amounts of glucocorticoids, produced by the adrenal cortex, can lead to an inhibited immune response. Glucocorticoids are known to have immunosuppressive effects, meaning they can reduce the activity of the immune system. This can result in a weakened immune response, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases.

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  • 3. 

    When conductin health history focused on the endocrine system, which of the following questions should be included?

    Explanation
    This question should be included in the health history focused on the endocrine system because menstrual irregularities can be indicative of hormonal imbalances or issues with the endocrine system. Changes in the regularity, duration, or intensity of menstrual periods can provide important information about the functioning of the reproductive hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. This question helps to assess the overall hormonal health of the individual and can provide insights into potential endocrine disorders or conditions affecting the reproductive system.

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  • 4. 

    What assessments are made when palpating the thyroid gland?

    Explanation
    When palpating the thyroid gland, two main assessments are made: size and consistency. Size refers to the evaluation of the gland's dimensions, determining whether it is enlarged or within normal limits. Consistency refers to the texture and firmness of the gland, assessing whether it feels normal, soft, or hard. These assessments are crucial in identifying any abnormalities or potential thyroid disorders such as goiter, nodules, or inflammation.

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  • 5. 

    Decreased calcium levels can be assessed with Chvostek's sign. To conduct this assessment, the nurse:

    Explanation
    Chvostek's sign is a clinical assessment used to detect decreased calcium levels in the body. It involves tapping the facial nerve in front of the client's ear. If the client experiences facial muscle twitching or contraction in response to the tap, it indicates hypocalcemia. This assessment is based on the principle that low calcium levels can cause hyperexcitability of the nerves, leading to muscle spasms. Therefore, tapping the finger in front of the client's ear helps to elicit this response and determine if calcium levels are decreased.

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  • 6. 

    Grave's disease, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, is categorized as what type of disorder?

    Explanation
    Grave's disease is categorized as an immune disorder because it is caused by an autoimmune response, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland. This leads to the overproduction of thyroid hormones, resulting in hyperthyroidism. The immune system plays a central role in the development and progression of Grave's disease, making it a clear example of an immune disorder.

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  • 7. 

    What principle supports the treatments of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine?

    Explanation
    The principle that supports the treatments of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine is that the thyroid gland takes up iodine in any form. This means that when radioactive iodine is administered, the thyroid gland will absorb it just like it would absorb regular iodine. The radioactive iodine then destroys the overactive cells in the thyroid gland, reducing the production of thyroid hormones and treating hyperthyroidism.

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  • 8. 

    You assess a client with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism as having an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter). What physiologic process causes this enlargement?

    Explanation
    When a client is diagnosed with hypothyroidism, it means that their thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroid hormone (TH). In response to this deficiency, the body initiates a compensatory effort to produce more TH. This compensatory effort leads to the enlargement of the thyroid gland, known as a goiter. The enlargement occurs as the thyroid gland tries to increase its production of TH to meet the body's needs.

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  • 9. 

    Mrs. Jonah has taken cortisone for her rheumatoid arthritis for several years. What endocrine is she most at risk for developing?

    Explanation
    Mrs. Jonah is most at risk for developing Cushing's syndrome. Cortisone is a synthetic form of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Long-term use of cortisone can disrupt the body's natural cortisol production, leading to an excess of cortisol in the body. This excess cortisol can cause a variety of symptoms associated with Cushing's syndrome, such as weight gain, high blood pressure, thinning skin, and muscle weakness. Therefore, Mrs. Jonah, who has been taking cortisone for her rheumatoid arthritis, is most at risk for developing Cushing's syndrome.

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  • 10. 

    Which statement illustrates that the client w/ Addison's disease udnerstands your teaching?

    Explanation
    This statement demonstrates that the client with Addison's disease understands the teaching because they have taken the necessary step of purchasing an emergency kit and keeping it with them at all times. This shows that they are prepared for any potential emergencies related to their condition and are taking responsibility for their own health and well-being.

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  • 11. 

    Increased susceptability to the development of type 1 diabetes is indicated by?

    Explanation
    The development of type 1 diabetes is influenced by genetic factors, particularly genetic markers that determine the immune response. These markers can indicate an increased susceptibility to developing the disease. The immune system plays a critical role in the development of type 1 diabetes, as it mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Therefore, identifying genetic markers that determine immune response can help in understanding the risk factors and potential for developing type 1 diabetes.

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  • 12. 

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is the result of which pathologic process?

    Explanation
    Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when there is a deficit of insulin in the body. Without enough insulin, the body is unable to properly use glucose for energy. As a result, fat stores are broken down and used as an alternative energy source. This process leads to the production of ketones, which can build up in the blood and cause a dangerous imbalance in the body.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following clients would be most at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    Explanation
    The woman over age 70 who is overweight and sedentary is most at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Age is a risk factor for diabetes, and being overweight and sedentary further increases the risk. Physical inactivity and excess weight contribute to insulin resistance, which is a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, as people age, their risk of developing diabetes increases due to decreased insulin sensitivity and other age-related changes in the body.

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  • 14. 

    You note that your assigned client has a nursing diagnosis of Peripheral neurovascular dysfunction involving both feet. Which of the following assessments would support this diagnosis?

    Explanation
    The client stating "I can't feel my feet anymore" supports the nursing diagnosis of Peripheral neurovascular dysfunction involving both feet. This statement indicates a loss of sensation in the feet, which is a common symptom of peripheral neurovascular dysfunction. It suggests that there may be impaired blood flow or nerve damage in the feet, leading to the loss of sensation. This assessment finding aligns with the client's diagnosis and helps confirm the presence of the condition.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following statements would indicate your client understands teaching about foot care at home?

    Explanation
    The answer indicates that the client understands teaching about foot care at home because they have stated that they will check their feet for cuts and bruises every night. This shows that they are aware of the importance of regularly examining their feet for any injuries or abnormalities, which is a crucial aspect of foot care at home.

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  • 16. 

    What is the digestive function of the liver?

    Explanation
    The liver's digestive function is to secrete bile. Bile is a substance produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. It is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine when needed. Bile contains bile salts, which emulsify fats and aid in their digestion and absorption. Without bile, the digestion and absorption of fats would be impaired. Therefore, the liver plays a crucial role in the digestive process by secreting bile.

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  • 17. 

    The breakdown of carbohydrates to produce ATP is an example of:

    Explanation
    The breakdown of carbohydrates to produce ATP is an example of catabolism. Catabolism refers to the metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones, releasing energy in the process. In this case, carbohydrates are broken down through various biochemical reactions, such as glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell. This catabolic process allows the cell to obtain energy for various cellular activities.

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  • 18. 

    During a health history for nutritional problems, it is important to ask the client to describe:

    Explanation
    During a health history for nutritional problems, asking the client to describe their usual food and fluid intake for a 24-hour period is important because it provides valuable information about their dietary habits and patterns. This information helps healthcare professionals assess the client's overall nutritional status, identify any deficiencies or excesses in their diet, and determine if their current intake is appropriate for their health needs. It also helps in identifying any potential nutritional problems or areas for improvement in their diet.

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  • 19. 

    In which quadrant of the abdomen would you palpate to assess the liver?

    Explanation
    To assess the liver, you would palpate in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The liver is located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, just below the diaphragm. Palpation in this area allows for the detection of any abnormalities or tenderness in the liver.

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  • 20. 

    Clients w/ ascites are assessed for changes in what type of percussion sounds?

    Explanation
    Clients with ascites are assessed for changes in percussion sounds such as shifting dullness. Ascites is the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can cause dullness to percussion due to the presence of fluid. Shifting dullness refers to a change in the percussion sound when the client changes positions, indicating the movement of fluid within the abdomen. This assessment technique helps to identify the presence and extent of ascites in the client.

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  • Current Version
  • Feb 05, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 28, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Giselle912
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