Mass Society And Democracy, 1870-1914 B

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Mass Society and Democracy, 1870-1914 B


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

    • A.

      Triple Entente

    • B.

      Social Darwinism

    • C.

      The Communist Manifesto

    Correct Answer
    C. The Communist Manifesto
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The Communist Manifesto" because it was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. This book, published in 1848, outlines the principles of communism and critiques the capitalist system. It argues for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie and the establishment of a classless society. The Communist Manifesto has had a significant impact on political and social movements worldwide, making it a key text in the history of socialism and communism.

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  • 2. 

    The working class

    • A.

      New elite

    • B.

      Proletariat

    • C.

      Duma

    Correct Answer
    B. Proletariat
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "proletariat". The term "proletariat" refers to the working class, particularly those who do not own the means of production and must sell their labor to survive. This term is commonly associated with Marxist theory, which divides society into two main classes: the bourgeoisie, who own the means of production, and the proletariat, who provide labor. The proletariat is often seen as being in opposition to the bourgeoisie and has historically been associated with movements for workers' rights and social change.

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  • 3. 

    Helped workers achieve better working conditions

    • A.

      Social Darwinism

    • B.

      Trade unions

    • C.

      Duma

    Correct Answer
    B. Trade unions
    Explanation
    Trade unions have played a crucial role in helping workers achieve better working conditions. They have historically fought for fair wages, reasonable working hours, and improved safety standards in the workplace. By organizing and collectively bargaining, trade unions have been able to secure important rights and protections for workers. This has led to significant improvements in working conditions, ensuring that workers are treated fairly and have a voice in their workplaces.

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  • 4. 

    Made up 5 percent of the population, but controled 30 to 40 percent of the wealth

    • A.

      New elite

    • B.

      Triple Entente

    • C.

      Trade union

    Correct Answer
    A. New elite
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that a "new elite" emerged within the population, who controlled a disproportionate amount of wealth compared to their population size. This implies that a small group of individuals gained significant economic power and influence, possibly through various means such as inheritance, business ventures, or political connections. This new elite could potentially have a significant impact on the social and economic dynamics of the society they belong to.

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  • 5. 

    German nursing pionier

    • A.

      Amalie Sieveking

    • B.

      Joseph Swan

    • C.

      Guglielmo Marconi

    Correct Answer
    A. Amalie Sieveking
    Explanation
    Amalie Sieveking is the correct answer because she was a German nursing pioneer. She is known for her contributions to the field of nursing and for establishing the first nursing school in Germany. Sieveking dedicated her life to improving the care and treatment of the sick and vulnerable, and her work had a significant impact on the development of nursing as a profession.

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  • 6. 

    Russian legislative assembly created by Nicholas II 

    • A.

      Social Soviets

    • B.

      Unionist

    • C.

      Duma

    Correct Answer
    C. Duma
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Duma. The Duma was a legislative assembly created by Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia. It was established in 1905 as a result of the Russian Revolution and was intended to be a representative body that would address the demands of the people and help modernize the country. However, the Duma had limited power and was often overshadowed by the Tsar's autocratic rule.

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  • 7. 

    Great Britain, France, and Russia

    • A.

      Eastern Power

    • B.

      Triple Entente

    • C.

      Revisionist

    Correct Answer
    B. Triple Entente
    Explanation
    The Triple Entente refers to the alliance formed between Great Britain, France, and Russia before World War I. This alliance was formed as a response to the growing power of Germany and the Central Powers. The Triple Entente was aimed at maintaining a balance of power in Europe and protecting the interests of the member countries. This alliance played a significant role in shaping the events leading up to World War I and eventually became one of the main opposing forces against the Central Powers during the war.

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  • 8. 

    Developed the special theory of relativity

    • A.

      Albert Einstein

    • B.

      Alexander Graham Bell

    • C.

      Thomas Edison

    Correct Answer
    A. Albert Einstein
    Explanation
    Albert Einstein is the correct answer because he developed the special theory of relativity. This theory revolutionized our understanding of space, time, and the relationship between matter and energy. Einstein's theory proposed that the laws of physics are the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion. It introduced the famous equation E=mc², which shows the equivalence of energy and mass. Einstein's work on the special theory of relativity laid the foundation for modern physics and had a profound impact on our understanding of the universe.

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  • 9. 

    Applied to human society in a radical way by nationalists

    • A.

      Social Soviets

    • B.

      Social Dawinism

    • C.

      Eastern Powers

    Correct Answer
    B. Social Dawinism
    Explanation
    Social Darwinism is the correct answer because it refers to the application of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society. Nationalists, who advocate for the interests of a particular nation, can apply this concept in a radical way by promoting competition, survival of the fittest, and the idea that certain groups or nations are superior to others. This ideology has been used to justify imperialism, racism, and social inequality, making it a relevant explanation for the given statement.

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  • 10. 

    Created the style of painting called cubism

    • A.

      Monet

    • B.

      Picasso

    • C.

      Van Gogh

    Correct Answer
    B. Picasso
    Explanation
    Picasso is the correct answer because he is known for creating the style of painting called cubism. Cubism is an art movement that emerged in the early 20th century and is characterized by fragmented and abstracted forms, multiple viewpoints, and a focus on geometric shapes. Picasso's groundbreaking works, such as "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" and "Guernica," are prime examples of the cubist style. Monet and van Gogh, on the other hand, were not associated with cubism but were prominent figures in the impressionist and post-impressionist movements, respectively.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following sent the first radio wave across the Atlantic in 1901?

    • A.

      Alexander Graham Bell

    • B.

      Thomas Edison

    • C.

      Guglielmo Marconi

    • D.

      Joseph Swan

    Correct Answer
    C. Guglielmo Marconi
    Explanation
    Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio wave across the Atlantic in 1901. Alexander Graham Bell is known for inventing the telephone, not for sending radio waves. Thomas Edison is famous for his contributions to the development of the light bulb and the phonograph, not for radio transmission. Joseph Swan is known for his work on the incandescent light bulb, not for radio communication. Therefore, Marconi is the correct answer as he is credited with successfully transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic Ocean.

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  • 12. 

    The internal-combustion engine gave rise to

    • A.

      Conveyor belts and factory lights.

    • B.

      Automobiles, airplanes,and improved ocean liners.

    • C.

      Streetcars and subways powered by electricity.

    • D.

      A true American economy.

    Correct Answer
    B. Automobiles, airplanes,and improved ocean liners.
    Explanation
    The internal-combustion engine revolutionized transportation by providing a more efficient and reliable power source. This led to the development of automobiles, airplanes, and improved ocean liners, which greatly impacted the way people and goods could be transported. These advancements in transportation played a significant role in shaping modern society and the global economy.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following were Marxists who rejected the revolutionary approach in favor of a more political approach?

    • A.

      Social Soviets

    • B.

      Unionist

    • C.

      Proletariat

    • D.

      Revisionists

    Correct Answer
    D. Revisionists
    Explanation
    The revisionists were Marxists who rejected the revolutionary approach and instead advocated for a more political approach. They believed in using the existing political system to bring about gradual social and economic change, rather than overthrowing it through revolution. The revisionists argued for reforms within the capitalist system to improve the conditions of the working class, rather than seeking to establish a socialist society. This approach was seen as a departure from traditional Marxist ideology and sparked significant debate and controversy within the socialist movement.

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  • 14. 

    During the Second Inductrial Revolution, how much of the European population belonged to the working class?

    • A.

      40 percent

    • B.

      62.5 percent

    • C.

      80 percent

    • D.

      98 percent

    Correct Answer
    C. 80 percent
    Explanation
    During the Second Industrial Revolution, a significant majority of the European population belonged to the working class. This period, characterized by rapid industrialization and urbanization, saw a massive increase in factory jobs and a decline in agricultural employment. As a result, a large proportion of the population found themselves working in factories, mines, and other manual labor-intensive industries. The 80 percent option accurately reflects this high percentage of Europeans who were part of the working class during this transformative period in history.

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  • 15. 

    Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters founded the

    • A.

      Women's Social and Political Union.

    • B.

      Red Cross.

    • C.

      Young Women's Christian Association.

    • D.

      Society for the Advancement of Women.

    Correct Answer
    A. Women's Social and Political Union.
    Explanation
    Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters founded the Women's Social and Political Union. This organization was a prominent women's suffrage movement in the early 20th century in the United Kingdom. It aimed to achieve voting rights for women through direct action and civil disobedience, such as protests, demonstrations, and hunger strikes. The Women's Social and Political Union played a crucial role in advancing women's rights and was instrumental in securing the right to vote for women in the UK.

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  • 16. 

    The Principle of ministerial responsibility is the idea that

    • A.

      Church minsters should be responsible for a portion of the legislative process.

    • B.

      The prime minister is reponsible to the poplarity elected legislative body and not to the excutive officer.

    • C.

      High-ranking government officials are legally accountable for the actions of the president and his family.

    • D.

      Ecected officials are responsible to the people and should act in the people's best interest.

    Correct Answer
    A. Church minsters should be responsible for a portion of the legislative process.
  • 17. 

    The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungrary, and Italy was known as the

    • A.

      Autstro-GermanyEmpire.

    • B.

      Axis Curie's

    • C.

      Triple Alliance.

    • D.

      Eastern Powers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Triple Alliance.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Triple Alliance. The Triple Alliance was a military alliance formed in 1882 between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. It was created to counterbalance the growing power of France and Russia in Europe. The alliance aimed to maintain peace and stability in the region and to provide mutual support in case of an attack from any other country. This alliance played a significant role in shaping the geopolitical landscape of Europe leading up to World War I.

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  • 18. 

    Whose  discovery of radium  changed the world's view of the atom?

    • A.

      Albert Einstein's

    • B.

      Marie Curie's

    • C.

      Fiedrich von Bernhardi's

    • D.

      Houston Stewart Chamberlain's

    Correct Answer
    B. Marie Curie's
    Explanation
    Marie Curie's discovery of radium changed the world's view of the atom because it provided evidence of the existence of subatomic particles and challenged the prevailing belief that atoms were indivisible. Her research on radioactivity led to the development of new theories and technologies in the field of atomic physics, paving the way for advancements in nuclear energy, medicine, and other scientific disciplines. Curie's groundbreaking work not only expanded our understanding of the atom but also revolutionized the way we harness and utilize its power.

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  • 19. 

    According to Sigmund Freud, human behavior was  

    • A.

      Ruled by two related emotions: love and pity.

    • B.

      Determined by the physical makeup of the brain and could not be altered.

    • C.

      The one factor that made human beings superior to all other animals.

    • D.

      Strongly determined by repressed experiences.

    Correct Answer
    A. Ruled by two related emotions: love and pity.
    Explanation
    According to Sigmund Freud, human behavior was ruled by two related emotions: love and pity. Freud believed that these emotions played a significant role in shaping human behavior and motivations. Love, as a positive emotion, drove individuals to seek connection and intimacy, while pity, as a negative emotion, drove individuals to feel empathy and compassion towards others. Freud argued that these emotions were deeply rooted in the unconscious mind and influenced our thoughts, feelings, and actions. Therefore, he believed that understanding and acknowledging these emotions were essential for understanding human behavior.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following was a postimpression ist painter for whom art was a spiritual experience?

    • A.

      Vincent van Gogh

    • B.

      Claude Monet

    • C.

      Pierre-August Renoir

    • D.

      Berthe Morisot

    Correct Answer
    D. Berthe Morisot
    Explanation
    Berthe Morisot was a postimpressionist painter who believed that art was a spiritual experience. She was one of the few female artists of her time and was known for her intimate, domestic scenes and portraits. Morisot's work often focused on capturing the fleeting moments of everyday life, and she had a unique ability to convey emotion and atmosphere in her paintings. Her belief in the spiritual power of art is evident in her sensitive and introspective approach to her subjects.

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  • 21. 

    Which is a true statements is TRUE ?

    • A.

      A premier leads the govern,ent in the Unitred States.

    • B.

      The legislative is appointed in France.

    • C.

      A representive democracy is characteristic of both France and the United States.

    • D.

      There are two major political parties in France.

    Correct Answer
    C. A representive democracy is characteristic of both France and the United States.
    Explanation
    A representative democracy is a form of government where the people elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. This system is characteristic of both France and the United States, as both countries have elected representatives who make laws and govern the country.

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  • 22. 

    What old view in physics was replaced with Einstein's relative universe?

    • A.

      Newton's relative universe

    • B.

      Freud's unconscious mind

    • C.

      Newton's mechanical universe

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Newton's mechanical universe
    Explanation
    Newton's mechanical universe was the old view in physics that was replaced with Einstein's relative universe. Newton's mechanical universe was based on the idea that space and time were absolute and separate entities, and that the laws of physics were the same for all observers. However, Einstein's theory of relativity showed that space and time were interconnected and could change depending on the observer's motion. This revolutionary concept replaced Newton's mechanical universe and led to a new understanding of the nature of space, time, and the laws of physics.

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