Leptospirosis Exam (Practice Mode) By Rnpedia.Com

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Leptospirosis Exam (Practice Mode) By Rnpedia.Com - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these is not an alternative name for Leptospirosis?    

    • A.

      Icterohemorrhagic fever

    • B.

      Rice-field fever

    • C.

      Mud fever

    • D.

      Cattle fever

    Correct Answer
    D. Cattle fever
    Explanation
    Cattle fever is not an alternative name for Leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated water. It is commonly known as Icterohemorrhagic fever, Rice-field fever, or Mud fever, but not as Cattle fever.

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  • 2. 

     Leptospirosis in human rarely occurs through:  

    • A.

      Direct contact with contaminated animal urine

    • B.

      Indirect contact with contaminated animal urine

    • C.

      Contact with contaminated human urine

    • D.

      Contact with contaminated soil

    Correct Answer
    C. Contact with contaminated human urine
    Explanation
    Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that is primarily transmitted through direct or indirect contact with contaminated animal urine. However, it rarely occurs through contact with contaminated human urine. This is because the bacteria that cause leptospirosis are typically found in animals such as rats, mice, and livestock, and humans are not considered a common source of infection. Therefore, contact with contaminated human urine is not a significant risk factor for contracting leptospirosis.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these groups is at increased risk of Leptospirosis?

    • A.

      Swimmers

    • B.

      Sewer workers

    • C.

      Farmers

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    All the above groups are at an increased risk of Leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that is commonly transmitted through contact with water or soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals. Swimmers can be at risk if they come into contact with contaminated water, while sewer workers can be exposed to the bacteria through their occupation. Farmers are also at risk as they often work in environments where they may come into contact with infected animals or contaminated soil. Therefore, all three groups mentioned are at an increased risk of contracting Leptospirosis.

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  • 4. 

    Incubation period for leptospirosis is:

    • A.

      2 - 6 days

    • B.

      2 - 16 days

    • C.

      2 - 26 days

    • D.

      2 - 36 days

    Correct Answer
    B. 2 - 16 days
    Explanation
    The incubation period for leptospirosis is the time between being exposed to the bacteria and the onset of symptoms. The correct answer is 2 - 16 days because this is the most commonly reported range for the incubation period of leptospirosis. During this time, the bacteria can multiply and spread throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and vomiting. It is important to note that the incubation period can vary depending on factors such as the individual's immune system and the strain of the bacteria.

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  • 5. 

    Ocular manifestations common in anicteric leptospirosis are:  

    • A.

      Conjunctival suffusion

    • B.

      Retro orbital pain

    • C.

      Photophobia

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All the above
    Explanation
    In anicteric leptospirosis, which is a form of leptospirosis without jaundice, ocular manifestations are common. These include conjunctival suffusion, which is redness and inflammation of the conjunctiva, retro orbital pain, which is pain behind the eyes, and photophobia, which is sensitivity to light. Therefore, all of the above options are correct.

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  • 6. 

    Leptospirosis disease is maintained in infected animals by:  

    • A.

      Chronic infection of renal tubules

    • B.

      Chronic infection of intestinal tract

    • C.

      Chronic infection of blood

    • D.

      Chronic infection of cerebrospinal fluid

    Correct Answer
    A. Chronic infection of renal tubules
    Explanation
    Leptospirosis disease is maintained in infected animals through chronic infection of renal tubules. This means that the bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, called Leptospira, can persist and reproduce in the renal tubules of infected animals. This allows the bacteria to continue to be present in the animal's body and potentially be shed in urine, which can then infect other animals or humans. In contrast, chronic infection of the intestinal tract, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid is not known to be a major mechanism for the maintenance of leptospirosis in infected animals.

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  • 7. 

    Which of these statements is not true with regard to leptospires?  

    • A.

      They are straight spirochetes

    • B.

      They are obligate aerobes

    • C.

      Optimum growth temperature is 28-300 C

    • D.

      May be stained using carbol fuchsin counterstain

    Correct Answer
    A. They are straight spirochetes
    Explanation
    Leptospires are not straight spirochetes. Spirochetes are long, helically coiled bacteria, but leptospires have a unique spiral shape with a hooked or bent end. They are also not obligate aerobes, as they can survive and grow in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The optimum growth temperature for leptospires is indeed 28-30°C. Leptospires can be stained using carbol fuchsin counterstain.

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  • 8. 

     In humans leptospires can be detected in:  

    • A.

      Urine

    • B.

      Blood

    • C.

      Cerebrospinal fluid

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Leptospires can be detected in humans through various bodily fluids including urine, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. This is because leptospires are bacteria that can infect different organs and systems in the body, leading to the presence of the bacteria in these fluids. Detecting leptospires in these fluids is important for diagnosing and treating leptospirosis, a bacterial infection caused by leptospires.

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  • 9. 

     Which of these is not true regarding laboratory findings in anicteric phase of Leptospirosis?  

    • A.

      Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is reduced

    • B.

      White blood cells (WBC) range from below normal to moderately elevated

    • C.

      Aminotransferases are elevated

    • D.

      Alkaline phosphatases are elevated

    Correct Answer
    A. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is reduced
    Explanation
    In the anicteric phase of Leptospirosis, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not reduced. The ESR is a measure of how quickly red blood cells settle at the bottom of a tube, which can indicate inflammation or infection in the body. In Leptospirosis, the ESR is typically elevated due to the inflammatory response caused by the infection. Therefore, it is not true that the ESR is reduced in the anicteric phase of Leptospirosis.

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  • 10. 

    How many days after infection with leptospires do the urine cultures become positive?    

    • A.

      First week of illness

    • B.

      Second week of illness

    • C.

      Third week of illness

    • D.

      Fourth week of illness

    Correct Answer
    B. Second week of illness
    Explanation
    After infection with leptospires, it takes approximately two weeks for the urine cultures to become positive. This means that during the second week of illness, the presence of leptospires can be detected in the urine through culture testing. It is important to note that this timing may vary depending on the individual and the severity of the infection.

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  • 11. 

    For isolation of leptospires, blood culture should be taken:  

    • A.

      As soon as possible after patient’s presentation

    • B.

      Second week after patient’s presentation

    • C.

      Third week after patient’s presentation

    • D.

      Fourth week after patient’s presentation

    Correct Answer
    A. As soon as possible after patient’s presentation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "As soon as possible after patient's presentation" because leptospires can be detected in the blood during the early stages of infection. Delaying the blood culture to the second, third, or fourth week may result in a false negative result as the bacteria may no longer be present in the bloodstream. Therefore, it is important to take the blood culture as soon as possible after the patient's presentation to increase the chances of detecting leptospires.

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  • 12. 

    Cultures for leptospires should be examined for how many weeks before being discarded?  

    • A.

      Upto 3 weeks

    • B.

      Upto 7 weeks

    • C.

      Upto 11 weeks

    • D.

      Upto 13 weeks

    Correct Answer
    D. Upto 13 weeks
    Explanation
    Cultures for leptospires should be examined for up to 13 weeks before being discarded. This is because leptospires are slow-growing bacteria and may take several weeks to grow in culture. By examining the cultures for up to 13 weeks, it allows enough time for the bacteria to grow and be detected if present. Discarding the cultures before this time may result in false-negative results.

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  • 13. 

    Antibodies in blood can be detected how many days after onset of symptoms?

    • A.

      1 - 2 days

    • B.

      5 - 7 days

    • C.

      9 - 11 days

    • D.

      13 - 15 days

    Correct Answer
    B. 5 - 7 days
    Explanation
    Antibodies in blood can be detected 5-7 days after the onset of symptoms. This is because it takes some time for the body to produce antibodies in response to an infection. The immune system needs time to recognize the virus and mount an immune response, which includes the production of antibodies. Therefore, it is typically around 5-7 days after symptoms appear that enough antibodies have been produced and can be detected in a blood test.

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  • 14. 

    Antibiotic given to prevent leptospirosis is:  

    • A.

      Doxycycline

    • B.

      Ampicillin

    • C.

      Penicillin

    • D.

      Erythromycin

    Correct Answer
    A. Doxycycline
    Explanation
    Doxycycline is the correct answer because it is a commonly prescribed antibiotic for the prevention of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Leptospira bacteria, and doxycycline is effective in treating and preventing this infection. It is often used as a prophylactic treatment for individuals at high risk of exposure to the bacteria, such as those working in environments with contaminated water or animals. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the growth and spread of the bacteria, preventing the onset of leptospirosis.

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  • 15. 

    Anicteric leptospirosis is treated with:  

    • A.

      Doxycycline 100 mg bid

    • B.

      Ampicillin 500-750 mg bid

    • C.

      Amoxicillin 500 mg bid

    • D.

      Any of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Any of the above
    Explanation
    Anicteric leptospirosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Leptospira bacteria. It is typically treated with antibiotics. Doxycycline 100 mg bid, Ampicillin 500-750 mg bid, and Amoxicillin 500 mg bid are all effective antibiotics for treating this infection. Therefore, any of the above antibiotics can be used to treat anicteric leptospirosis.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 19, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    RNpedia.com
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