Lecture 14: Reproduction In Invertebrates

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Lecture 14: Reproduction In Invertebrates - Quiz


Lecture 14: Reproduction in Invertebrates


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these are characteristics of Kingdom Animalia?

    • A.

      Multicellular

    • B.

      Contain organs with specialized tissues and complex cells

    • C.

      Heterotrophic

    • D.

      All of the Above

    • E.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the Above
    Explanation
    The characteristics of Kingdom Animalia include being multicellular, having organs with specialized tissues and complex cells, and being heterotrophic. Being multicellular means that animals are made up of more than one cell. Having organs with specialized tissues and complex cells means that animals have different organs that perform specific functions, and their cells are more specialized compared to other organisms. Being heterotrophic means that animals obtain their energy by consuming other organisms. Therefore, all of the above options accurately describe the characteristics of Kingdom Animalia.

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  • 2. 

    _____ lack a backbone and include animals such as sponges, worms, insects, and crustaceans.

    Correct Answer
    Invertebrates
    invertebrates
    Explanation
    Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone and include a wide range of species such as sponges, worms, insects, and crustaceans. The term "invertebrates" refers to any animal that does not possess a vertebral column or spine. This group of animals exhibits a diverse range of characteristics and adaptations, and they play crucial roles in various ecosystems.

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  • 3. 

    _____ have a backbone and include animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

    Correct Answer
    Vertebrates
    vertebrates
    Explanation
    Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The term "vertebrates" refers to this specific group of animals, and it is always capitalized when used as a noun. It encompasses a wide range of species that share the common characteristic of having a backbone or spinal column.

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  • 4. 

    What is the only animal that does not reproduce sexually?

    • A.

      Frogs

    • B.

      Coral

    • C.

      Worms

    Correct Answer
    B. Coral
    Explanation
    Coral is the correct answer because it is the only animal that does not reproduce sexually. Coral reproduces asexually through a process called budding, where new coral polyps grow and detach from the parent colony to form new colonies. This method of reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes from two separate individuals, which is characteristic of sexual reproduction. Frogs and worms, on the other hand, reproduce sexually through the fertilization of eggs by sperm.

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  • 5. 

    This type of tissue includes any tissue that lines the external environment such as skin, the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, and the urinary tract. 

    Correct Answer
    Epithelial
    Epithelial Tissue
    Explanation
    Epithelial tissue is the correct answer because it is the type of tissue that lines the external environment, including the skin, digestive tract, respiratory tract, and urinary tract. Epithelial tissue acts as a protective barrier and helps in the absorption and secretion of substances. It is made up of closely packed cells with little to no intercellular matrix. Epithelial tissue is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of these body surfaces.

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  • 6. 

    This type of tissue is usually found under the epithelial tissue for support, protection, or elasticity. (Ex. Blood, fat, bones, and ligaments)

    Correct Answer
    Connective
    Connective Tissue
    Explanation
    Connective tissue is a type of tissue that is typically found beneath the epithelial tissue and serves various functions such as support, protection, and elasticity. Examples of connective tissues include blood, fat, bones, and ligaments. Connective tissue provides structural support to different organs and tissues in the body, helps in the transportation of nutrients and waste products, and plays a crucial role in the body's defense mechanisms.

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  • 7. 

    _____ symmetry is symmetrical on the left and right sides.

    Correct Answer
    Bilateral
    bilateral
    Explanation
    Bilateral symmetry refers to the arrangement of body parts in an organism in such a way that it can be divided into two equal halves along a central axis. This means that the left and right sides of the organism are mirror images of each other. Therefore, the correct answer is "bilateral" or "bilateral" as both spellings refer to the same concept of symmetrical left and right sides.

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  • 8. 

    Which of these is not true of sponges?

    • A.

      They are grouped in the Phylum Porifera.

    • B.

      They are sessile (immobile).

    • C.

      They have only simple connective tissue and no organs.

    • D.

      They only reproduce sexually.

    • E.

      They can reproduce sexually and asexually.

    Correct Answer
    D. They only reproduce sexually.
    Explanation
    Sponges are a type of animal that belongs to the Phylum Porifera. They are sessile, meaning they are immobile and attached to a surface. Sponges have simple connective tissue and lack organs. Unlike the statement suggests, sponges are capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. Therefore, the correct answer is "They only reproduce sexually."

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  • 9. 

    The Class Hydrozoa (Hydras), Class Scyphozoa (Jellyfish), Class Anthozoa (Corals and Sea Anemones), and Class Cubozoa (like Jellyfish) belong to the Phylum _____.

    Correct Answer
    Cnidaria
    cnidaria
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Cnidaria. Cnidaria is a phylum that includes organisms such as hydras, jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones. These organisms share common characteristics such as radial symmetry, tentacles with stinging cells called cnidocytes, and a simple body structure.

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  • 10. 

    In the Phylum Cnidaria, which body plan resembles a column?

    Correct Answer
    Polyp
    polyp
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Polyp". In the Phylum Cnidaria, the body plan that resembles a column is called a polyp. A polyp is a cylindrical, sessile (non-moving) form of cnidarian that attaches to a surface and has a mouth surrounded by tentacles facing upwards. This body plan is characteristic of organisms like sea anemones and coral polyps. The repetition of the word "polyp" in the answer is likely a duplication error.

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  • 11. 

    In the Phylum Cnidaria, which body plan resembles a the typical jellyfish shape?

    Correct Answer
    Medusa
    medusa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Medusa". In the Phylum Cnidaria, the body plan that resembles the typical jellyfish shape is called a medusa. Medusae are free-swimming, bell-shaped organisms with tentacles hanging down from their body. They are a key characteristic of the Cnidaria phylum, which includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals.

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  • 12. 

    In the Phylum Cnidaria, the Hydra is the only animal that lives in freshwater.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hydra is indeed the only animal in the Phylum Cnidaria that is known to live in freshwater. Cnidarians are a group of aquatic animals that include jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals, most of which are found in marine environments. However, the Hydra is a unique species within this phylum that has adapted to freshwater habitats such as lakes, ponds, and rivers. Its ability to survive in freshwater distinguishes it from other cnidarians, making the statement "True".

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  • 13. 

    What are the stinging cells on the animals in the Phylum Cnidaria called?

    Correct Answer
    Nematocyts
    nematocyts
    Explanation
    The stinging cells on the animals in the Phylum Cnidaria are called nematocytes. These specialized cells contain a coiled thread-like structure called a cnidocyst, which is used to inject venom into prey or potential threats. Nematocytes are found in various forms in different species of Cnidaria, such as jellyfish, sea anemones, and coral. They play a crucial role in capturing and immobilizing prey, as well as defending against predators.

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  • 14. 

    The animals in the Phylum Cnidaria  can reproduce only sexually.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because animals in the Phylum Cnidaria can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Some cnidarians, such as jellyfish, reproduce sexually by releasing eggs and sperm into the water, while others can reproduce asexually through a process called budding, where a new individual grows out of the parent organism. Therefore, the statement that they can only reproduce sexually is incorrect.

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  • 15. 

    Cnidarians are radial animals.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cnidarians are radial animals because their body structure is organized around a central axis, with body parts arranged in a circular or radial pattern. This radial symmetry allows them to have multiple planes of symmetry and enables them to capture food from any direction. Examples of cnidarians include jellyfish, sea anemones, and coral.

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  • 16. 

    The animals in the Phylum Ctenophores are also called _____.

    Correct Answer
    comb jellies
    Comb Jellies
    Explanation
    The animals in the Phylum Ctenophores are commonly known as comb jellies. This name is derived from the rows of cilia or "combs" that they possess, which they use for locomotion. Comb jellies are gelatinous marine organisms that are characterized by their transparent bodies and bioluminescent properties. They are not true jellyfish but belong to a separate phylum. The name "comb jellies" is used to distinguish them from other gelatinous marine creatures like jellyfish.

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  • 17. 

    The Phylum Ctenophores are _____.

    • A.

      Bilateral

    • B.

      Radial

    Correct Answer
    B. Radial
    Explanation
    Ctenophores are a phylum of marine animals that are characterized by their radial symmetry. Unlike animals with bilateral symmetry, such as humans, ctenophores have a body plan that is symmetrical around a central axis, with multiple planes of symmetry. This means that if you were to draw a line through the center of a ctenophore's body, the two halves would be mirror images of each other. This radial symmetry allows ctenophores to move and capture prey efficiently from any direction.

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  • 18. 

    This Phylum is broken up into three groups (Class Turbellaria, Class Trematoda, and Class Cestoda) and includes flatworms and many other parasites.

    • A.

      Ctenophores

    • B.

      Cnidaria

    • C.

      Platyhelminthes

    • D.

      Annelida

    Correct Answer
    C. Platyhelminthes
    Explanation
    Platyhelminthes is the correct answer because it is the phylum that includes flatworms and many other parasites. This phylum is further divided into three classes: Turbellaria, Trematoda, and Cestoda. Ctenophores and Cnidaria are incorrect options as they belong to different phyla. Annelida is also incorrect as it refers to the phylum that includes segmented worms, not flatworms.

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  • 19. 

    The Class Turbellaria (in the Phylum Platyhelminthes) can reproduce _____.

    • A.

      Sexually

    • B.

      Asexually

    • C.

      Both Sexually & Asexually

    Correct Answer
    C. Both Sexually & Asexually
    Explanation
    The Class Turbellaria, which belongs to the Phylum Platyhelminthes, is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. This means that they have the ability to reproduce through the fusion of gametes (sexual reproduction) as well as through the production of offspring without the involvement of gametes (asexual reproduction). This dual reproductive capability allows them to adapt to different environmental conditions and maximize their reproductive success.

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  • 20. 

    The Class Trematoda (in the Phylum Platyhelminthes) can reproduce _____. (All parasitic Flukes)

    • A.

      Sexually

    • B.

      Asexually

    • C.

      Both Sexually & Asexually

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexually
    Explanation
    The Class Trematoda, which consists of all parasitic flukes, can reproduce sexually. This means that they require the fusion of male and female gametes in order to produce offspring. Sexual reproduction allows for genetic diversity and the creation of new combinations of genes, which can be advantageous for the adaptation and survival of the species.

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  • 21. 

    The Class Cestoda (in the Phylum Platyhelminthes) can reproduce _____. (Tape Worms)

    • A.

      Sexually

    • B.

      Asexually

    • C.

      Both Sexually & Asexually

    Correct Answer
    C. Both Sexually & Asexually
    Explanation
    The Class Cestoda, which includes tape worms, can reproduce both sexually and asexually. They have complex life cycles that involve both sexual reproduction, with the production of eggs that are released into the environment, and asexual reproduction, through a process called budding. In budding, new individuals form as small outgrowths from the parent worm. This ability to reproduce in multiple ways allows tape worms to adapt to different environments and increase their chances of survival and spreading.

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  • 22. 

    The head of a tapeworm is called the _____.

    Correct Answer
    scolex
    Scolex
    Explanation
    The head of a tapeworm is called the scolex. The scolex is a specialized structure at the anterior end of the tapeworm that contains hooks and suckers, which the parasite uses to attach itself to the host's intestine. This allows the tapeworm to absorb nutrients from the host's digestive system. The term "scolex" is derived from the Latin word for "head."

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  • 23. 

    The segments of a tapeworm are called _____.

    Correct Answer
    Proglottids
    proglottids
    Explanation
    Proglottids are the segments of a tapeworm. These segments contain reproductive organs and are responsible for producing eggs. As the tapeworm grows, new proglottids are continuously formed at the neck region of the worm, pushing the older ones towards the tail. Each proglottid is capable of releasing thousands of eggs, which are then passed out of the host's body through feces. Therefore, proglottids play a crucial role in the life cycle and reproduction of tapeworms.

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  • 24. 

    The Phylum Mollusca is _____.

    • A.

      Bilateral

    • B.

      Radial

    Correct Answer
    A. Bilateral
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Bilateral." This is because the phylum Mollusca is characterized by bilateral symmetry, meaning that the body can be divided into two equal halves along a central axis. This symmetry is evident in various mollusks such as snails, clams, and squid, where the left and right sides of their bodies are mirror images of each other.

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  • 25. 

    The animals in the Phylum Mollusca can reproduce _____.

    • A.

      Sexually

    • B.

      Asexually

    • C.

      Both Sexually & Asexually

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexually
    Explanation
    Animals in the Phylum Mollusca can reproduce sexually. This means that they have separate male and female individuals that produce gametes, such as eggs and sperm, which combine to form offspring. Sexual reproduction allows for genetic variation and the potential for adaptation to changing environments. In contrast, asexual reproduction involves the production of offspring without the involvement of gametes or the mixing of genetic material, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. However, in the case of Mollusca, they primarily reproduce sexually.

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  • 26. 

    The only animal in the Phylum Mollusca that uses internal fertilization is the _____.

    Correct Answer
    snail
    Snail
    Explanation
    The snail is the only animal in the Phylum Mollusca that uses internal fertilization. This means that the snail's eggs are fertilized inside its body, rather than externally. Other animals in the Phylum Mollusca, such as clams and octopuses, typically use external fertilization, where the eggs and sperm are released into the water for fertilization to occur.

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  • 27. 

    Cephlapods (in the Phylum Mollusca) have the most complex nervous systems of all invertebrates.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cephalopods, which include creatures like octopuses and squids, have the most complex nervous systems among all invertebrates. This is because they have a highly developed brain and a network of nerves that allows them to have advanced sensory perception, problem-solving abilities, and even some level of learning and memory. Their nervous systems are more advanced compared to other invertebrates like insects or worms, which have simpler nervous systems. Therefore, the statement that cephalopods have the most complex nervous systems among invertebrates is true.

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  • 28. 

    The Phylum _____ contains earthworms, live in moist environments, and have complex organ systems.

    • A.

      Cnidaria

    • B.

      Annelida

    • C.

      Mollusca

    • D.

      Platyhelminthes

    Correct Answer
    B. Annelida
    Explanation
    Annelida is the correct answer because it is the phylum that contains earthworms. Earthworms are known to live in moist environments, and they have complex organ systems. Cnidaria is a different phylum that includes animals like jellyfish and coral, which do not fit the description given. Mollusca is another phylum that includes animals like snails and clams, but they do not match the given characteristics. Platyhelminthes is yet another phylum that includes animals like flatworms, which also do not fit the given description.

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  • 29. 

    The animals in the Phylum Annelida reproduce _____.

    • A.

      Sexually

    • B.

      Asexually

    • C.

      Both Sexually & Asexually

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexually
    Explanation
    Annelids, which include segmented worms like earthworms and leeches, reproduce sexually. They have separate male and female individuals that produce gametes, which then fuse during fertilization to form zygotes. This sexual reproduction allows for genetic variation and adaptation to changing environments.

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  • 30. 

    The Phylum _____ contains roundworms, can be found in a variety of environments, and are mostly parasitic.

    • A.

      Annelida

    • B.

      Platyhelminthes

    • C.

      Nematode

    • D.

      Cnidaria

    Correct Answer
    C. Nematode
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Nematode. Nematodes, also known as roundworms, are a phylum of animals that can be found in a variety of environments. They are mostly parasitic, meaning they live off other organisms. Annelida refers to segmented worms, Platyhelminthes refers to flatworms, and Cnidaria refers to jellyfish and other similar organisms.

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  • 31. 

    The animals in the Phylum Nematode reproduce _____.

    • A.

      Sexually

    • B.

      Asexually

    • C.

      Both Sexually & Asexually

    Correct Answer
    A. Sexually
    Explanation
    The animals in the Phylum Nematode reproduce sexually. This means that they require a male and a female to mate and produce offspring. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of gametes (sperm and egg) from two parents, resulting in genetic diversity in the offspring. This allows for variations in the population, which can be advantageous for adaptation and survival in changing environments.

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  • 32. 

    The Phylum _____ contains Crustaceans, Insects, and Arachnids, has an exoskeleton made of Chitin, and is the largest Animal Phyla.

    • A.

      Annelida

    • B.

      Cnidaria

    • C.

      Arthropoda

    • D.

      Nematode

    Correct Answer
    C. Arthropoda
    Explanation
    Arthropoda is the correct answer because it encompasses a diverse group of organisms including crustaceans, insects, and arachnids. These organisms have an exoskeleton made of chitin, which provides support and protection. Arthropoda is the largest animal phylum, with over a million known species. Annelida, Cnidaria, and Nematode are not correct answers because they do not fit the given characteristics. Annelida refers to segmented worms, Cnidaria includes jellyfish and corals, and Nematode refers to roundworms.

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