Large Animal Clinics Theory 2 - Bovine

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Large Animal Clinics Theory 2 - Bovine - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Calf production starts ________ weeks before calving with vaccines against scours and deworming. Calving then occurs from ________ to ________. After this, the next round of vaccines begin (bulls=BSE/footrot, rest of herd with the 5/8 way) and another round of deworming. Breeding season begins again from ________ to ________, and then cows are preg checked in the ________, calves are weaned, and vaccines are boosted and given another round of deworming. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Explanation
    Calf production starts 4 weeks before calving with vaccines against scours and deworming. Calving then occurs from February to March. After this, the next round of vaccines begin (bulls=BSE/footrot, rest of herd with the 5/8 way) and another round of deworming. Breeding season begins again from May to June, and then cows are preg checked in the fall, calves are weaned, and vaccines are boosted and given another round of deworming.

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  • 2. 

    Cattle are typically kept in the feedlot until they are ________ months  of age (1300-1600 lbs finishing weight). 

    Explanation
    Cattle are typically kept in the feedlot until they are 16-24 months of age. This is because during this time period, they reach their desired finishing weight of 1300-1600 lbs. Keeping them in the feedlot for this duration allows them to gain the necessary weight and ensure they are ready for market.

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  • 3. 

    For dairy cattle, cows spend ________ months open, ________ months being bred and milked, and ________ months dry. This means that there are ________ months with milk. (answer ___/___/___/___)

    Explanation
    Dairy cattle spend 3 months open, which means they are not bred or milked during this time. They then spend 7 months being bred and milked, which is the period when they are producing milk. After that, they spend 2 months dry, which means they are not milked in preparation for calving. Overall, there are 10 months with milk, which includes the 7 months of being bred and milked, as well as the 3 months of being dry.

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  • 4. 

    For herd health management programs, it is important that a valid ________ exists. It is based on maximizing animal health through disease ________ and control (biosecurity), animal welfare, well-being and comfort, and optimal animal production. Optimal health and production means optimal financial returns for the producer! (answer ___/___)

    Explanation
    A Valid Client-Patient-Veterinarian Relationship (VCPR) is important for herd health management programs. It ensures that the veterinarian has sufficient knowledge of the herd and can make informed decisions regarding disease prevention and control measures. By establishing a VCPR, the veterinarian can provide guidance on biosecurity, animal welfare, well-being, and comfort, which ultimately leads to optimal animal health and production. Prevention of diseases plays a crucial role in maintaining herd health and maximizing financial returns for the producer.

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  • 5. 

    Check all that apply for important factors in a dairy herd health program.

    • A.

      Vaccination protocols

    • B.

      Observation of all animals for injury or signs of disease

    • C.

      Complete, accurate, and reliable record keeping

    • D.

      Protocols for the prevention, detection, and treatment of disease or injury, including lameness

    • E.

      Protocols for pest control

    • F.

      Training programs and protocols for animal handlers

    • G.

      Individual animal ID and treatment records to ensure no animal is shipped prior to withdrawal times

    • H.

      Ability to isolate new arrivals to the herd

    • I.

      Calving protocols

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Vaccination protocols
    B. Observation of all animals for injury or signs of disease
    C. Complete, accurate, and reliable record keeping
    D. Protocols for the prevention, detection, and treatment of disease or injury, including lameness
    E. Protocols for pest control
    F. Training programs and protocols for animal handlers
    G. Individual animal ID and treatment records to ensure no animal is shipped prior to withdrawal times
    H. Ability to isolate new arrivals to the herd
    I. Calving protocols
    Explanation
    In a dairy herd health program, it is important to have vaccination protocols to prevent the spread of diseases. Observation of all animals for injury or signs of disease is crucial for early detection and treatment. Complete, accurate, and reliable record keeping helps in monitoring the health and treatment history of each animal. Protocols for the prevention, detection, and treatment of disease or injury, including lameness, are essential for maintaining the overall health of the herd. Pest control protocols are necessary to prevent infestation. Training programs and protocols for animal handlers ensure proper care and handling of the animals. Individual animal ID and treatment records are important to avoid shipping animals before withdrawal times. The ability to isolate new arrivals helps prevent the introduction of diseases. Calving protocols ensure the safety and health of both the mother and the newborn.

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  • 6. 

    Bull breeding soundness exams (BSEs) include a physical and internal exam, a microscopic semen evaluation, and a libido evaluation. These exams are important in order to reduce ________ losses and optimize ________. For example, for evaluating the libido, we evaluate the bull's desire to ________, ease of ________, ability to achieve ________, and the successful vaginal intromission and ejaculation. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer(s)
    economic/production/breed/mounting/erection
    Explanation
    Bull breeding soundness exams (BSEs) are important in order to reduce economic losses and optimize production. These exams include a physical and internal exam, a microscopic semen evaluation, and a libido evaluation. For evaluating the libido, we assess the bull's desire to breed, ease of mounting, ability to achieve erection, and successful vaginal intromission and ejaculation. By ensuring that the bull is in good breeding condition, these exams help to maximize the economic benefits and production outcomes in the breeding process.

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  • 7. 

    Bulls reach puberty around ________ months (average is ________ months), and a BSE should take place ________, at least ________ days before turn-out on every breeding bull in the herd. (answer ___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer(s)
    7-18/12/annually/60-75
    Explanation
    Bulls reach puberty around 7-18 months (average is 12 months), and a BSE (Breeding Soundness Examination) should take place annually, at least 60-75 days before turn-out on every breeding bull in the herd.

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  • 8. 

    All bulls should have a standard physical examination completed, along with examination of the ________, ________, ________, and ________, as well as should be seen for signs of any ________. Testicles/epidiymi are palpated fo symmetry, consistency, heat, excessive fat, lumps, and so on and the scrotum is evaluated for any abnormalities. We must also evaluate the prepuce for any abnormalities. Often, the penis cannot be examined until it is protruding during collection. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer(s)
    feet/legs/sheath/eyes/lameness
    Explanation
    During a standard physical examination of bulls, it is important to examine the feet, legs, sheath, eyes, and look for any signs of lameness. The testicles and epididymis are checked for symmetry, consistency, heat, excessive fat, and lumps. The scrotum is evaluated for any abnormalities. The prepuce is also examined for any abnormalities. Sometimes, the examination of the penis can only be done when it is protruding during collection.

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  • 9. 

    How long does it take to get from germ cells to mature sperm in a bull?

    • A.

      2.5 weeks

    • B.

      6 weeks

    • C.

      2.5 months

    • D.

      6 months

    Correct Answer
    C. 2.5 months
    Explanation
    It takes approximately 2.5 months for germ cells to develop into mature sperm in a bull. This process involves several stages of cell division and maturation within the testes. The germ cells undergo mitosis and meiosis to produce haploid cells, which then undergo further maturation to become fully functional sperm cells. This entire process takes around 2.5 months to complete in bulls.

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  • 10. 

    A ________ examination is used to evaluate the health of secondary sex organs. The most common abnormality is ________ of the seminal vesicles (seminal vesiculitis) which can result in ________. Infections or abnormalities of the other organs are periodically encountered. (answer ___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    transrectal/inflammation/infertility
    Explanation
    A transrectal examination is used to evaluate the health of secondary sex organs. The most common abnormality is inflammation of the seminal vesicles (seminal vesiculitis) which can result in infertility. Infections or abnormalities of the other organs are periodically encountered.

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  • 11. 

    For bulls, the penis must be checked to make sure that it extends in a ________ line, and that there aren't any ________ lesions of the prepuce or glans, growths and ________, or ________ lesions, or for any other abnormalities. (answer ___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    straight/skin/tumours/parasitic
    Explanation
    Bulls need to have their penis checked to ensure that it extends in a straight line, without any skin lesions on the prepuce or glans, growths or tumors, and without any parasitic lesions or other abnormalities.

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  • 12. 

    The scrotal circumference can predict the ________ of the testes and provide an accurate estimate of daily sperm production and quality (fertility). Bulls with ________ than minimum scrotal circumference should be classified as questionable or unsatisfactory, regardless of semen quality. Keep in mind that it will vary between ________ and ________ of the bull. The most significant growth occurs from the ages of ________ months, but selection is often done at ________ months, with most not reaching maximum size until ________ years, but after this time, the measurements are not as accurate.  (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    weight/less/breed/age/6-36/12-14/4-6
    Explanation
    The scrotal circumference can predict the weight of the testes and provide an accurate estimate of daily sperm production and quality (fertility). Bulls with less than minimum scrotal circumference should be classified as questionable or unsatisfactory, regardless of semen quality. Keep in mind that it will vary between breed and age of the bull. The most significant growth occurs from the ages of 6-36 months, but selection is often done at 12-14 months, with most not reaching maximum size until 4-6 years, but after this time, the measurements are not as accurate.

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  • 13. 

    Semen is collected via ________-ejaculation, ________ (trans-rectal) stimulation, or by use of an ________ vagina (rarely). Semen is evaluated based on ________  (volume and number), and ________ (motility, morphology, and absence of disease.) It is important to keep the sperm warm and alive (________ degrees C!) (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    electro/manual/artificial/quantity/quality/37
    Explanation
    The correct answer is electro/manual/artificial/quantity/quality/37. Semen can be collected through electro-ejaculation, manual stimulation, or artificial vagina. It is then evaluated based on quantity (volume and number) and quality (motility, morphology, and absence of disease). It is important to keep the sperm warm and alive at 37 degrees Celsius.

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  • 14. 

    For semen evaluation, semen should be scored as good or better in all categories to be satisfactory.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In semen evaluation, the semen is assessed based on various categories such as sperm count, motility, morphology, and vitality. To be considered satisfactory, the semen should score as good or better in all these categories. If any category falls below the acceptable range, it may indicate fertility issues or problems with the semen quality. Therefore, the statement "semen should be scored as good or better in all categories to be satisfactory" is true.

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  • 15. 

    The acceptable ratio of bulls:cows in an average beef cattle herd should be ________ bulls to ________ cows. (answer ___/___)

    Correct Answer
    1/20-30
    Explanation
    The acceptable ratio of bulls to cows in an average beef cattle herd should be 1 bull to 20-30 cows. This ratio is important for maintaining genetic diversity and ensuring successful reproduction in the herd. It allows for effective breeding management and helps to prevent inbreeding.

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  • 16. 

    A heifer reaches puberty roughly around ________ months old, breed dependent. The goal is to have them calf at ________ months, so they need to be bred at ________ months. (answer ___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    8-15/24/14-15
    Explanation
    A heifer reaches puberty roughly around 8-15 months old, breed dependent. The goal is to have them calf at 24 months, so they need to be bred at 14-15 months.

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  • 17. 

    A cow's gestation period ranges roughly ________ days, with the average being ________ days. A cow's reproductive lifespan begins upon conception of the first calf as a heifer until ~5-7 years. Cattle are ________ polyestrous, with a ________ day cycle, have ________ follicular waves, and exhibit behaviours such as being ________, restlessness, vocalizing, ________ licking/sniffing, and vulvar swelling. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    279-287/283/year round/21/2-3/mounted/persistent
  • 18. 

    Estrus in cattle lasts ________ hours. It is easy to tell when a cow is in this state, because she goes into a standing heat (AKA ________). One or multiple follicles finish maturing within the ovary due to ________ release from the anterior pituitary. The follicles secrete ________ which causes a surge of ________ which causes the follicle ovulation and releases the ovum. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    12-18/lordosis/FSH/estradiol/LH
    Explanation
    Estrus in cattle lasts 12-18 hours. It is easy to tell when a cow is in this state, because she goes into a standing heat (AKA lordosis). One or multiple follicles finish maturing within the ovary due to FSH release from the anterior pituitary. The follicles secrete estradiol which causes a surge of LH which causes the follicle ovulation and releases the ovum.

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  • 19. 

    Metestrus lasts approximately ________ days and the cow becomes no longer sexually receptive. The mature follicle is now lysed and estradiol and LH levels ________. The newly ruptured follicle undergoes luteinization and gradually becomes a corpus luteum which then produces ________. (answer ___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    5/decrease/progesterone
    Explanation
    During metestrus, which lasts approximately 5 days, the cow becomes no longer sexually receptive. The mature follicle is now lysed and as a result, estradiol and LH levels decrease. The newly ruptured follicle undergoes luteinization and gradually becomes a corpus luteum. The corpus luteum then produces progesterone.

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  • 20. 

    Diestrus lasts approximately ________ days until approximately day ________ or ________. The CL is now mature and progesterone levels are at their highest. If pregnant, progesterone continues to dominate until end of gestation, with occasional FSH surges. If the embryo does not send out pregnancy signals, or if no pregnancy takes place, the endometrial lining of the uterus releases ________. (answer ___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    10/16/17/prostaglandin
  • 21. 

    After prostaglandin is released due to lack of pregnancy, diestrus transitions into proestrus which lasts approximately ________ days. This is where the cycle starts over. ________ is no longer suppressed and is released to trigger the release of FSH and LH to cause a new follicle to grow. Once estradiol levels peak, the cow enters estrus again. (answer ___/___)

    Correct Answer
    5/GnRH
    Explanation
    After prostaglandin is released due to lack of pregnancy, diestrus transitions into proestrus which lasts approximately 5 days. This is where the cycle starts over. GnRH is no longer suppressed and is released to trigger the release of FSH and LH to cause a new follicle to grow. Once estradiol levels peak, the cow enters estrus again.

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  • 22. 

    Calving should take, on average, ________ hours. ________ will generally take longer. (answer ___/___)

    Correct Answer
    8-22/heifers
    Explanation
    Calving should take, on average, 8-22 hours. Heifers will generally take longer. This means that the process of calving, which is the giving birth of a calf, typically lasts between 8 and 22 hours. However, heifers, which are female cows that have not yet given birth, may take longer than this average range.

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  • 23. 

    If a cow is having trouble calving, you will see ________ with no sign of a water bag, a ________ posture with front and back legs stretched out, no calf within ________ hours of the bag appearing, any part protruding that isn't the ________ and ________ legs together, ________ stained fluid at the vulva, depression, or an unwillingness to eat. It is important to call the vet if there is no progress made after ________ hour(s) of straining, or if there is any ________ positioning of the calf. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    straining/rigid/1-2/head/front/blood/1/abnormal
    Explanation
    If a cow is having trouble calving, you will see straining with no sign of a water bag, a rigid posture with front and back legs stretched out, no calf within 1-2 hours of the bag appearing, any part protruding that isn't the head and front legs together, blood stained fluid at the vulva, depression, or an unwillingness to eat. It is important to call the vet if there is no progress made after 1 hour of straining, or if there is any abnormal positioning of the calf.

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  • 24. 

    Check all that apply for what you may need for cases involving a dystocia.

    • A.

      History/physical examination

    • B.

      Restraint

    • C.

      Epidural

    • D.

      Tail tie

    • E.

      Vulvar scrub

    • F.

      Arm wash/OB gloves + lube

    • G.

      Vaginal examination

    • H.

      Obstetrical operation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. History/physical examination
    B. Restraint
    C. Epidural
    D. Tail tie
    E. Vulvar scrub
    F. Arm wash/OB gloves + lube
    G. Vaginal examination
    H. Obstetrical operation
    Explanation
    For cases involving dystocia, several factors may be needed. A history/physical examination is necessary to gather information about the patient's medical background and current condition. Restraint is important to ensure the safety of both the patient and the medical staff during the procedure. An epidural may be required for pain management during the process. A tail tie may be used to prevent the cow from swatting her tail and potentially injuring the medical staff. A vulvar scrub is necessary to maintain hygiene and minimize the risk of infection. Arm wash/OB gloves + lube are essential for a sterile examination. Vaginal examination is performed to assess the progress of labor and identify any complications. Lastly, an obstetrical operation may be needed to assist with the delivery if natural methods are unsuccessful.

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  • 25. 

    Obstetrical operations include things such as ________ (moving/adjusting fetal limb or head position), forced ________ (pull), ________ (if calf is deceased), or a c-section. (answer ___/___/___)

    Correct Answer(s)
    mutation/extraction/fetotomy
    Explanation
    Obstetrical operations involve various procedures such as mutation, extraction, and fetotomy. Mutation refers to the act of moving or adjusting the position of a fetal limb or head. Extraction is the process of forcibly pulling the fetus. Fetotomy is performed when the calf is deceased, and it involves the surgical removal of the fetus. These operations are carried out to facilitate the delivery of a calf in difficult or complicated cases.

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  • 26. 

    ________ provides maternal antibodies and must be received within the first ________ hours after birth, but ideally within ________ hours. A high quality product is tan to yellow in colour with a thick and creamy consistency. (answer ___/___/___)

    Correct Answer(s)
    colostrum/6/2
    Explanation
    Colostrum provides maternal antibodies that are crucial for the newborn's immune system. It must be received within the first 6 hours after birth, but ideally within 2 hours. A high-quality colostrum product is tan to yellow in color with a thick and creamy consistency.

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  • 27. 

    When the calf is born, it is super important to clear their ________ using a bulb syringe. The newborn should begin breathing within ________ seconds at ________ RPM. The pulse should be between ________ BPM. For colostrum, ________% of the calf's body weight should be ingested within the first 12-24 hours. Calves are also prone to ________, so heat should be readily available and should be kept on appropriate bedding. ________ should be passed within the first 24 hours of life. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer(s)
    airway/30/45-60/90-110/10-15/hypothermia/meconium
    Explanation
    When the calf is born, it is super important to clear their airway using a bulb syringe. The newborn should begin breathing within 30 seconds at 45-60 RPM. The pulse should be between 90-110 BPM. For colostrum, 10-15% of the calf's body weight should be ingested within the first 12-24 hours. Calves are also prone to hypothermia, so heat should be readily available and should be kept on appropriate bedding. Meconium should be passed within the first 24 hours of life.

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  • 28. 

    A neonate's umbilical chord should rupture naturally, but if there is excessive bleeding, we should place hemostats. Topical treatment of dilute chlorhexidine should be applied.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because a neonate's umbilical cord should rupture naturally. However, if there is excessive bleeding, it is necessary to use hemostats to stop the bleeding. Additionally, topical treatment of dilute chlorhexidine should be applied to the area to prevent infection.

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  • 29. 

    Cows can experience a variety of post-partum problems such as uterine ________, retained ________ (RP), milk fever, ________, displaced ________, and fatty ________ (fat cow syndrome). A lot of these issues occur within the ________ month of calving and can be linked. Proper nutrition/energy requirements and body condition are important. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    prolapse/placenta/ketosis/abomasum/liver/first
    Explanation
    Cows can experience a variety of post-partum problems such as uterine prolapse, retained placenta (RP), milk fever, ketosis, displaced abomasum, and fatty liver (fat cow syndrome). A lot of these issues occur within the first month of calving and can be linked. Proper nutrition/energy requirements and body condition are important.

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  • 30. 

    Uterine prolapse in cattle usually occurs right after ________. It is important that the farmer does not ________ this cow! Do not force the cow to stand, place in a 'frog leg' position if down. To treat this, we use an ________, gently scrub the uterus with warm water and scrub and knead the uterus back into place completely and suture any tears. A purse string suture with a Hauptner needle and umbilical tape to three fingers width. ________ and ________ are used to help with uterine contraction and involution. ________ are commonly given. It ________ (does/does not) seem to be a heritable condition. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    calving/transport/epidural/oxytocin/calcium/antibiotics/does not
    Explanation
    Uterine prolapse in cattle usually occurs right after calving. It is important that the farmer does not transport this cow! Do not force the cow to stand, place in a 'frog leg' position if down. To treat this, we use an epidural, gently scrub the uterus with warm water and scrub and knead the uterus back into place completely and suture any tears. A purse string suture with a Hauptner needle and umbilical tape to three fingers width. Oxytocin and calcium are used to help with uterine contraction and involution. Antibiotics are commonly given. It does not seem to be a heritable condition.

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  • 31. 

    Vaginal prolapse in cattle usually occurs in the last ________ weeks of gestation. Treatment is the same as for a uterine prolapse, but the sutures need to be removed just before ________. This condition is ________ and affected females are usually culled or removed from the breeding herd. (answer ___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    2-3/parturition/heritable
    Explanation
    Vaginal prolapse in cattle typically occurs in the last 2-3 weeks of gestation. The treatment for vaginal prolapse is similar to that of uterine prolapse, but the sutures used to correct the prolapse need to be removed just before parturition (the act of giving birth). This condition is heritable, meaning it can be passed down from one generation to the next. Due to the heritability and potential complications associated with vaginal prolapse, affected females are usually culled or removed from the breeding herd.

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  • 32. 

    The placenta in ruminants should be passed within ________ hours from parturition. If the female shows no sign of systemic illness, it is safe to wait ________ hours before contacting a vet. A retained placenta is usually treated with ________ and ________ to stimulate contractions and involution. ________ are often given systemically. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    4-6/12-24/oxytocin/prostaglandin/antibiotics
    Explanation
    The placenta in ruminants should be passed within 4-6 hours from parturition. If the female shows no sign of systemic illness, it is safe to wait 12-24 hours before contacting a vet. A retained placenta is usually treated with oxytocin and prostaglandin to stimulate contractions and involution. Antibiotics are often given systemically.

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  • 33. 

    The most common type of dairy housing used in today's industry is the ________ stall barn and the most common type of milking parlour is the ________. The milking unit consists of 4 parts: the ________ cup assembly, the ________/suspension cup, connecting ________, and the milk ________. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    tree/herringbone/teat/claw/air/tubes
    Explanation
    The most common type of dairy housing used in today's industry is the tree stall barn and the most common type of milking parlour is the herringbone. The milking unit consists of 4 parts: the teat cup assembly, the claw/suspension cup, connecting tubes, and the milk tubes.

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  • 34. 

    A typical dairy cow produces ________ pounds of milk every year; or 6-7 gallons per day in a 305 day milking cycle.

    Correct Answer
    19825
    Explanation
    A typical dairy cow produces 19825 pounds of milk every year, which is equivalent to 6-7 gallons per day in a 305 day milking cycle.

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  • 35. 

    The beef industry is divided into 4 production systems: 1) seed stock/pure bred ________, 2) cow/calf ________, 3) stocker feeder/________, and 4) ________ house. Most heifers will calve in the ________ and feeder calves are sold in the ________. The process of keeping the calves in the fall and feeding them is called ________. ________ will weigh 1000-1250lbs and ________ will be 900-1050lbs before shipping. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___/___/___)

    Correct Answer
    breeders/producers/feedlot/slaughter/spring/fall/backgrounding/steers/heifers
    Explanation
    The beef industry is divided into four production systems: 1) seed stock/pure bred breeders, 2) cow/calf producers, 3) stocker feeder/backgrounding, and 4) feedlot/slaughter house. Most heifers will calve in the spring and feeder calves are sold in the fall. The process of keeping the calves in the fall and feeding them is called backgrounding. Steers will weigh 1000-1250lbs and heifers will be 900-1050lbs before shipping.

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  • 36. 

    With respect to BCS, prompt corrective action must be taken to improve the BCS of cattle with a score of 2 or less.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prompt corrective action must be taken to improve the body condition score (BCS) of cattle with a score of 2 or less. This means that if a cattle has a BCS of 2 or lower, immediate steps should be taken to improve its condition. BCS is a measure of the amount of body fat an animal has, and a low BCS indicates poor nutrition and potential health issues. Taking prompt corrective action in such cases is important to prevent further deterioration of the animal's health and to ensure its well-being.

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  • 37. 

    Check all that apply for situations in which an electric prod is unacceptable.

    • A.

      Repeatedly on the same animal

    • B.

      Used on the genitals, face, or udder

    • C.

      Calves less than 3 months old

    • D.

      No clear path for the animal to move

    • E.

      First resort

    • F.

      Risk to human or animal safety

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Repeatedly on the same animal
    B. Used on the genitals, face, or udder
    C. Calves less than 3 months old
    D. No clear path for the animal to move
    E. First resort
    F. Risk to human or animal safety
    Explanation
    An electric prod is considered unacceptable in situations where it is repeatedly used on the same animal, used on sensitive areas such as the genitals, face, or udder, used on calves less than 3 months old, used when there is no clear path for the animal to move, used as a first resort rather than as a last resort, and when there is a risk to human or animal safety.

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  • 38. 

    In 2016, changes for pain medications included use in consult with vet to mitigate pain associated with dehorning after horn bud attachment, and when castrating a bull older than 9 months. In 2018, an addition was made to say that pain control is important to use when castrating bulls over 6 months.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because it states that in 2016, changes were made regarding the use of pain medications for dehorning and castrating bulls older than 9 months. It also mentions that in 2018, an additional requirement was added for pain control when castrating bulls over 6 months. This indicates that there have been updates and regulations regarding the use of pain medications for these procedures, making the statement true.

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