Large Animal Clinics Theory 2 - Bovine

44 Questions | Total Attempts: 58

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Large Animal Clinics Theory 2 - Bovine

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Calf production starts [Blank] weeks before calving with vaccines against scours and deworming. Calving then occurs from [Blank] to [Blank]. After this, the next round of vaccines begin (bulls=BSE/footrot, rest of herd with the 5/8 way) and another round of deworming. Breeding season begins again from [Blank] to [Blank], and then cows are preg checked in the [Blank], calves are weaned, and vaccines are boosted and given another round of deworming. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___)
  • 2. 
    Cattle are typically kept in the feedlot until they are [Blank] months  of age (1300-1600 lbs finishing weight). 
  • 3. 
    For dairy cattle, cows spend [Blank] months open, [Blank] months being bred and milked, and [Blank] months dry. This means that there are [Blank] months with milk. (answer ___/___/___/___)
  • 4. 
    For herd health management programs, it is important that a valid [Blank] exists. It is based on maximizing animal health through disease [Blank] and control (biosecurity), animal welfare, well-being and comfort, and optimal animal production. Optimal health and production means optimal financial returns for the producer! (answer ___/___)
  • 5. 
    Check all that apply for important factors in a dairy herd health program.
    • A. 

      Vaccination protocols

    • B. 

      Observation of all animals for injury or signs of disease

    • C. 

      Complete, accurate, and reliable record keeping

    • D. 

      Protocols for the prevention, detection, and treatment of disease or injury, including lameness

    • E. 

      Protocols for pest control

    • F. 

      Training programs and protocols for animal handlers

    • G. 

      Individual animal ID and treatment records to ensure no animal is shipped prior to withdrawal times

    • H. 

      Ability to isolate new arrivals to the herd

    • I. 

      Calving protocols

  • 6. 
    Bull breeding soundness exams (BSEs) include a physical and internal exam, a microscopic semen evaluation, and a libido evaluation. These exams are important in order to reduce [Blank] losses and optimize [Blank]. For example, for evaluating the libido, we evaluate the bull's desire to [Blank], ease of [Blank], ability to achieve [Blank], and the successful vaginal intromission and ejaculation. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)
  • 7. 
    Bulls reach puberty around [Blank] months (average is [Blank] months), and a BSE should take place [Blank], at least [Blank] days before turn-out on every breeding bull in the herd. (answer ___/___/___/___)
  • 8. 
    All bulls should have a standard physical examination completed, along with examination of the [Blank], [Blank], [Blank], and [Blank], as well as should be seen for signs of any [Blank]. Testicles/epidiymi are palpated fo symmetry, consistency, heat, excessive fat, lumps, and so on and the scrotum is evaluated for any abnormalities. We must also evaluate the prepuce for any abnormalities. Often, the penis cannot be examined until it is protruding during collection. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)
  • 9. 
    How long does it take to get from germ cells to mature sperm in a bull?
    • A. 

      2.5 weeks

    • B. 

      6 weeks

    • C. 

      2.5 months

    • D. 

      6 months

  • 10. 
    A [Blank] examination is used to evaluate the health of secondary sex organs. The most common abnormality is [Blank] of the seminal vesicles (seminal vesiculitis) which can result in [Blank]. Infections or abnormalities of the other organs are periodically encountered. (answer ___/___/___)
  • 11. 
    For bulls, the penis must be checked to make sure that it extends in a [Blank] line, and that there aren't any [Blank] lesions of the prepuce or glans, growths and [Blank], or [Blank] lesions, or for any other abnormalities. (answer ___/___/___/___)
  • 12. 
    The scrotal circumference can predict the [Blank] of the testes and provide an accurate estimate of daily sperm production and quality (fertility). Bulls with [Blank] than minimum scrotal circumference should be classified as questionable or unsatisfactory, regardless of semen quality. Keep in mind that it will vary between [Blank] and [Blank] of the bull. The most significant growth occurs from the ages of [Blank] months, but selection is often done at [Blank] months, with most not reaching maximum size until [Blank] years, but after this time, the measurements are not as accurate.  (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___)
  • 13. 
    Semen is collected via [Blank]-ejaculation, [Blank] (trans-rectal) stimulation, or by use of an [Blank] vagina (rarely). Semen is evaluated based on [Blank]  (volume and number), and [Blank] (motility, morphology, and absence of disease.) It is important to keep the sperm warm and alive ([Blank] degrees C!) (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___)
  • 14. 
    For semen evaluation, semen should be scored as good or better in all categories to be satisfactory.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    The acceptable ratio of bulls:cows in an average beef cattle herd should be [Blank] bulls to [Blank] cows. (answer ___/___)
  • 16. 
    A heifer reaches puberty roughly around [Blank] months old, breed dependent. The goal is to have them calf at [Blank] months, so they need to be bred at [Blank] months. (answer ___/___/___)
  • 17. 
    A cow's gestation period ranges roughly [Blank] days, with the average being [Blank] days. A cow's reproductive lifespan begins upon conception of the first calf as a heifer until ~5-7 years. Cattle are [Blank] polyestrous, with a [Blank] day cycle, have [Blank] follicular waves, and exhibit behaviours such as being [Blank], restlessness, vocalizing, [Blank] licking/sniffing, and vulvar swelling. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___)
  • 18. 
    Estrus in cattle lasts [Blank] hours. It is easy to tell when a cow is in this state, because she goes into a standing heat (AKA [Blank]). One or multiple follicles finish maturing within the ovary due to [Blank] release from the anterior pituitary. The follicles secrete [Blank] which causes a surge of [Blank] which causes the follicle ovulation and releases the ovum. (answer ___/___/___/___/___)
  • 19. 
    Metestrus lasts approximately [Blank] days and the cow becomes no longer sexually receptive. The mature follicle is now lysed and estradiol and LH levels [Blank]. The newly ruptured follicle undergoes luteinization and gradually becomes a corpus luteum which then produces [Blank]. (answer ___/___/___)
  • 20. 
    Diestrus lasts approximately [Blank] days until approximately day [Blank] or [Blank]. The CL is now mature and progesterone levels are at their highest. If pregnant, progesterone continues to dominate until end of gestation, with occasional FSH surges. If the embryo does not send out pregnancy signals, or if no pregnancy takes place, the endometrial lining of the uterus releases [Blank]. (answer ___/___/___/___)
  • 21. 
    After prostaglandin is released due to lack of pregnancy, diestrus transitions into proestrus which lasts approximately [Blank] days. This is where the cycle starts over. [Blank] is no longer suppressed and is released to trigger the release of FSH and LH to cause a new follicle to grow. Once estradiol levels peak, the cow enters estrus again. (answer ___/___)
  • 22. 
    Calving should take, on average, [Blank] hours. [Blank] will generally take longer. (answer ___/___)
  • 23. 
    If a cow is having trouble calving, you will see [Blank] with no sign of a water bag, a [Blank] posture with front and back legs stretched out, no calf within [Blank] hours of the bag appearing, any part protruding that isn't the [Blank] and [Blank] legs together, [Blank] stained fluid at the vulva, depression, or an unwillingness to eat. It is important to call the vet if there is no progress made after [Blank] hour(s) of straining, or if there is any [Blank] positioning of the calf. (answer ___/___/___/___/___/___/___/___)
  • 24. 
    Check all that apply for what you may need for cases involving a dystocia.
    • A. 

      History/physical examination

    • B. 

      Restraint

    • C. 

      Epidural

    • D. 

      Tail tie

    • E. 

      Vulvar scrub

    • F. 

      Arm wash/OB gloves + lube

    • G. 

      Vaginal examination

    • H. 

      Obstetrical operation

  • 25. 
    Obstetrical operations include things such as [Blank] (moving/adjusting fetal limb or head position), forced [Blank] (pull), [Blank] (if calf is deceased), or a c-section. (answer ___/___/___)