Internet Engineering 2 Midterm

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Internet Engineering 2 Midterm - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What version of IP supports 128 bit addresses

    • A.

      IPv1

    • B.

      IPv2

    • C.

      IPv4

    • D.

      IPv6

    Correct Answer
    D. IPv6
    Explanation
    IPv6 is the correct answer because it is the version of IP that supports 128-bit addresses. IPv6 was developed as a successor to IPv4 to address the issue of address exhaustion. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, allowing for a significantly larger number of unique addresses compared to the 32-bit addresses used in IPv4. This increase in address space is necessary to accommodate the growing number of devices connected to the internet.

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  • 2. 

    According to the text, what is the protocol most commonly used by ISP's to link their customers to the Internet

    • A.

      Ethernet

    • B.

      Frame relay

    • C.

      Point to Point (PPP)

    • D.

      Token ring

    Correct Answer
    C. Point to Point (PPP)
    Explanation
    The text states that the protocol most commonly used by ISP's to link their customers to the Internet is Point to Point (PPP).

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following organizations develops and maintains RFCs?

    • A.

      ISOC

    • B.

      IAB

    • C.

      IRTF

    • D.

      IETF

    Correct Answer
    D. IETF
    Explanation
    The IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) is the organization responsible for developing and maintaining RFCs (Request for Comments). RFCs are documents that define standards and protocols for the internet. ISOC (Internet Society) is a separate organization that promotes and supports the development of the internet, but it does not directly develop or maintain RFCs. IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is an oversight committee for the IETF, and IRTF (Internet Research Task Force) focuses on long-term research related to the internet. Therefore, the correct answer is IETF.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following organizations manages Internet domain names and network addresses?

    • A.

      ICANN

    • B.

      IETF

    • C.

      IRTF

    • D.

      ISOC

    Correct Answer
    A. ICANN
    Explanation
    ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the correct answer because it is the organization responsible for managing domain names and network addresses on the Internet. ICANN coordinates the allocation and assignment of unique identifiers, such as domain names and IP addresses, to ensure the stable and secure operation of the Internet's naming system. The other options, IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), IRTF (Internet Research Task Force), and ISOC (Internet Society), are also involved in various aspects of Internet governance and development, but they do not specifically manage domain names and network addresses like ICANN does.

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  • 5. 

    What is the title of RFC 5000? 

    • A.

      Index of official protocols

    • B.

      Index of internet official protocols

    • C.

      Internet official protocol standards

    • D.

      The Internet standards Process

    Correct Answer
    C. Internet official protocol standards
    Explanation
    The title of RFC 5000 is "Internet official protocol standards".

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is a TCP/IP Transport layer protocol?

    • A.

      IP

    • B.

      DNS

    • C.

      TCP

    • D.

      Frame Relay

    Correct Answer
    C. TCP
    Explanation
    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a TCP/IP Transport layer protocol. It provides reliable, connection-oriented communication between devices over an IP network. TCP ensures that data packets are delivered in the correct order and without errors. It also handles congestion control and flow control to optimize network performance. IP (Internet Protocol) is a Network layer protocol responsible for addressing and routing packets, while DNS (Domain Name System) is an application layer protocol used to translate domain names into IP addresses. Frame Relay is a data link layer protocol used for wide area networks.

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  • 7. 

    Which OSI model layer handles the conversion of outgoing data from bits that computers use in the signals that network use

    • A.

      Network

    • B.

      Presentation

    • C.

      Physical

    • D.

      Data Link

    Correct Answer
    C. Physical
    Explanation
    The Physical layer of the OSI model handles the conversion of outgoing data from bits that computers use into signals that the network uses. This layer is responsible for the transmission and reception of raw data bits over a physical medium, such as cables or wireless signals. It defines the electrical, mechanical, and procedural aspects of the physical connection between devices, ensuring that data can be transmitted and received accurately.

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  • 8. 

    What to most analyzers have the indicate unusual network events or errors?

    • A.

      Sessions

    • B.

      Sockets

    • C.

      Alarms

    • D.

      Ports

    Correct Answer
    C. Alarms
    Explanation
    Alarms are the correct answer because they are typically used by analyzers to indicate unusual network events or errors. Analyzers monitor network traffic and analyze data packets to detect any abnormal or suspicious activities. When such events or errors are detected, analyzers generate alarms to alert network administrators or operators. These alarms provide valuable information about the nature and severity of the network issue, allowing for prompt investigation and resolution.

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  • 9. 

    What is the common name for PDUs at the Data Link Layer?

    • A.

      Frames

    • B.

      Packets

    • C.

      Segments

    • D.

      Data Link PDUs

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Frames
    Explanation
    Frames are the common name for PDUs at the Data Link Layer. In networking, a frame is a unit of data that includes both the data being transmitted and the necessary control information. At the Data Link Layer, frames are used to encapsulate packets of data received from the Network Layer. Frames contain the source and destination MAC addresses, as well as other control information required for reliable transmission over the physical medium. Therefore, frames are the correct answer for the common name of PDUs at the Data Link Layer.

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  • 10. 

    What functions does the session layer provide?

    • A.

      Segmentation and reassembly

    • B.

      Session set up, maintenance and teardown

    • C.

      Check point controls

    • D.

      Data format converions

    Correct Answer
    B. Session set up, maintenance and teardown
    Explanation
    The session layer provides functions for session set up, maintenance, and teardown. This means that it is responsible for establishing a session between two communicating devices, maintaining the session while data is being exchanged, and finally tearing down the session once the communication is complete. This layer ensures that both devices are synchronized and can effectively communicate with each other.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following TCP/IP network model layers maps most nearly to single layers in the ISO/OSI model network reference model.

    • A.

      TCP/IPNetwork Access Layer

    • B.

      TCP/IP Internet Layer

    • C.

      TCP/IP Transport Layer

    • D.

      TCP/IP Application layer

    Correct Answer
    C. TCP/IP Transport Layer
    Explanation
    The TCP/IP Transport Layer maps most nearly to the Transport layer in the ISO/OSI model network reference model. This layer is responsible for end-to-end communication between hosts and ensures reliable and error-free delivery of data. It establishes connections, manages flow control, and handles segmentation and reassembly of data. Similarly, the Transport layer in the ISO/OSI model performs similar functions, including segmenting and reassembling data, error detection and correction, and flow control.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following statements represents benefits of a layered approach to networking?

    • A.

      Takes a big problem and breaks it into a series of smaller interrelated probelms

    • B.

      Allows individual layer to be insulated from one another

    • C.

      Permits expertise to be applied from different disciplines for different layers

    • D.

      Permits hardware issues to be kept separate from software issues

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Takes a big problem and breaks it into a series of smaller interrelated probelms
    B. Allows individual layer to be insulated from one another
    C. Permits expertise to be applied from different disciplines for different layers
    D. Permits hardware issues to be kept separate from software issues
    Explanation
    A layered approach to networking provides several benefits. Firstly, it takes a big problem and breaks it into a series of smaller interrelated problems, making it more manageable and easier to solve. Secondly, it allows each layer to be insulated from one another, ensuring that changes or issues in one layer do not affect the others. Thirdly, it permits expertise from different disciplines to be applied to different layers, maximizing efficiency and effectiveness. Lastly, it enables hardware issues to be kept separate from software issues, simplifying troubleshooting and maintenance.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following terms represent parts of a PDU that are alway present in any PDU

    • A.

      Header

    • B.

      Payload

    • C.

      Checksum

    • D.

      Trailer

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Header
    B. Payload
    Explanation
    The header and payload are always present in any PDU. The header contains important information about the PDU, such as the source and destination addresses. The payload contains the actual data being transmitted. The checksum and trailer, on the other hand, are not always present in a PDU. The checksum is used to verify the integrity of the data, while the trailer is used to mark the end of the PDU. However, not all protocols or PDUs require a checksum or trailer, so they are not always present.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following components operate at the physical layer?

    • A.

      Network interface controllers (NIC)

    • B.

      Segmentation and reassembly

    • C.

      Connectors

    • D.

      Cables

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Network interface controllers (NIC)
    C. Connectors
    D. Cables
    Explanation
    The components that operate at the physical layer are the network interface controllers (NIC), connectors, and cables. The NIC is responsible for connecting a device to a network and transmitting and receiving data at the physical layer. Connectors are used to physically connect cables to devices and ensure a reliable connection. Cables are used to transmit data signals between devices. These components are all essential for establishing and maintaining physical connections in a network.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following protocols operate at the TCP/IP Transport layer?

    • A.

      ARP

    • B.

      PPP

    • C.

      TCP

    • D.

      UDP

    • E.

      Xnet

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. TCP
    D. UDP
    Explanation
    TCP and UDP are both protocols that operate at the TCP/IP Transport layer. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable and ordered delivery of data packets. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol that provides faster, but less reliable, delivery of data packets. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) operates at the Data Link layer, PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) operates at the Network layer, and Xnet is not a recognized protocol.

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  • 16. 

    In UNIX terminology, a listener process that operates on a service to handle incoming requests for service is called ?

    • A.

      Listener

    • B.

      Monitor

    • C.

      Daemon

    • D.

      Service

    Correct Answer
    C. Daemon
    Explanation
    A listener process that operates on a service to handle incoming requests for service in UNIX terminology is called a daemon. A daemon is a background process that runs continuously, waiting for requests and responding to them. It operates independently of user interaction and typically performs tasks related to system maintenance or providing services to other processes or users. Daemons are often started during system boot and run in the background, performing their tasks silently without any direct user intervention.

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  • 17. 

    The process of combining multiple outgoing protocol streams at the Transport layer and the Network layers in TCP/IP is called?

    • A.

      Folding

    • B.

      Multiplexing

    • C.

      Unfolding

    • D.

      Demulitplexing

    Correct Answer
    B. Multiplexing
    Explanation
    Multiplexing is the process of combining multiple outgoing protocol streams at the Transport layer and the Network layers in TCP/IP. It allows multiple data streams to be transmitted simultaneously over a single communication channel, thereby increasing the efficiency of data transmission. Multiplexing involves assigning different identifiers to each data stream and then interleaving the data from these streams into a single stream for transmission. This enables multiple applications or protocols to share the same network resources and ensures that the data from each stream can be properly demultiplexed at the receiving end.

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  • 18. 

    On any system, only those protocol numbers for protocols that are actually in use must be defined on that system.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because it is a standard practice for systems to only define protocol numbers for protocols that are actually in use. Defining protocol numbers for unused protocols would be unnecessary and could potentially create confusion or conflicts within the system. Therefore, it is logical for systems to only define protocol numbers for protocols that are actively being used.

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  • 19. 

    The purpose of a TCP/IP port numbe is to identify which aspect of a systems oepration for incoming and out going protocol data?

    • A.

      Network layer Protocol in use

    • B.

      Transport layer protocol in use

    • C.

      Sending or receiving application process

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Sending or receiving application process
    Explanation
    The purpose of a TCP/IP port number is to identify the sending or receiving application process for incoming and outgoing protocol data.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following terms is and a synonym for a dynamically assigned port address, used to service a temporary TCP/IP connection for data exchange?

    • A.

      Protocol number

    • B.

      Well-known port address

    • C.

      Registered port address

    • D.

      Socket address

    Correct Answer
    D. Socket address
    Explanation
    A socket address is a term that refers to a dynamically assigned port address used for temporary TCP/IP connections. It is a synonym for a dynamically assigned port address because it represents the combination of an IP address and a port number that allows data exchange between two devices. This address is temporary and is assigned dynamically by the operating system when a connection is established. Therefore, the correct answer is socket address.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following activities may occur during the protocol analysis process?

    • A.

      Tapping into network connections

    • B.

      Capturing packets " of the wire"

    • C.

      Gathering statistics

    • D.

      Decoding packets into readable form

    • E.

      Retransmitting captured packets for testing

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tapping into network connections
    B. Capturing packets " of the wire"
    C. Gathering statistics
    D. Decoding packets into readable form
    E. Retransmitting captured packets for testing
    Explanation
    During the protocol analysis process, several activities may occur. These include tapping into network connections to gain access to the data being transmitted, capturing packets "of the wire" to analyze their content, gathering statistics to analyze network performance, decoding packets into a readable form to understand their contents, and retransmitting captured packets for testing purposes. These activities are essential in understanding and troubleshooting network protocols.

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  • 22. 

    A packet filter that's applied to incoming data in a protocol analyzer may be called a:

    • A.

      Capture filter

    • B.

      Data filter

    • C.

      Pre filter

    • D.

      Post-filter

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Capture filter
    B. Data filter
    C. Pre filter
    Explanation
    A packet filter that is applied to incoming data in a protocol analyzer may be called a capture filter, data filter, or pre-filter. These filters are used to selectively capture and analyze specific network traffic based on predefined criteria. A capture filter allows only certain packets to be captured and displayed, while a data filter allows for the filtering of specific data within captured packets. A pre-filter is applied before capturing packets and helps to reduce the amount of data that needs to be captured and analyzed.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following items represent design goals that motivated the development of TCP/IP?

    • A.

      Robust network architecture

    • B.

      Reliable delivery mechanisms

    • C.

      Ability of dissimilar systems to exchange data

    • D.

      Support for long haul connections

    • E.

      High performance

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Robust network architecture
    B. Reliable delivery mechanisms
    C. Ability of dissimilar systems to exchange data
    D. Support for long haul connections
    Explanation
    The development of TCP/IP was motivated by several design goals. One of these goals was to create a robust network architecture that could effectively handle various network conditions and failures. Another goal was to provide reliable delivery mechanisms, ensuring that data sent over the network would be received accurately and in the correct order. TCP/IP was also designed to enable dissimilar systems to exchange data, allowing for interoperability between different types of computers and networks. Additionally, TCP/IP aimed to support long haul connections, enabling data transmission over long distances. Lastly, high performance was also a design goal, aiming to optimize the efficiency and speed of data transmission.

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  • 24. 

    Which address is used to identify the send and receiver in an IP packet header

    • A.

      Domain name

    • B.

      Symbolic name

    • C.

      Numeric IP

    • D.

      Return

    Correct Answer
    C. Numeric IP
    Explanation
    The numeric IP address is used to identify the sender and receiver in an IP packet header. The IP address is a unique numerical identifier assigned to each device connected to a network. It allows the sender and receiver to be identified and ensures that the packet is delivered to the correct destination. The domain name and symbolic name are not used for this purpose, as they are simply human-readable labels that are mapped to the corresponding numeric IP address.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is an 8-bit number that denotes various portions of an IPv4 address?

    • A.

      Byte

    • B.

      Dotted decimal

    • C.

      Octet

    • D.

      Bit string

    Correct Answer
    C. Octet
    Explanation
    An octet is an 8-bit number that denotes various portions of an IPv4 address. In IPv4, an IP address is represented by four octets separated by periods, with each octet ranging from 0 to 255. Each octet represents a portion of the IP address, allowing for a total of 2^32 unique addresses in the IPv4 address space. Therefore, an octet is the correct answer as it accurately represents the 8-bit number used in IPv4 addressing.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following protocols translates a numeric IP address to a physical address? 

    • A.

      ICMP

    • B.

      IP

    • C.

      ARP

    • D.

      RARP

    Correct Answer
    C. ARP
    Explanation
    ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is the correct answer because it is a protocol used to translate a numeric IP address to a physical address. It is responsible for mapping an IP address to a corresponding MAC address in a local network. When a device wants to communicate with another device on the same network, it uses ARP to obtain the MAC address of the destination device based on its IP address. This mapping is necessary for data to be properly transmitted at the physical layer of the network.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following types of IPv4 addresses includes the most host addresses?

    • A.

      Class A

    • B.

      Class B

    • C.

      Class C

    • D.

      Class D

    • E.

      Class E

    Correct Answer
    A. Class A
    Explanation
    Class A IPv4 addresses include the most host addresses because they have a very large network portion and a small host portion. The first octet of a Class A address is reserved for the network ID, allowing for 126 possible networks. The remaining three octets are used for the host ID, providing for approximately 16 million possible host addresses per network. This makes Class A addresses suitable for large organizations or internet service providers that require a large number of host addresses.

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  • 28. 

    which of the following address types are supported by IPv6? 

    • A.

      Anycast

    • B.

      Broadcast

    • C.

      Multicast

    • D.

      Unicast

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anycast
    C. Multicast
    D. Unicast
    Explanation
    IPv6 supports three types of addresses: anycast, multicast, and unicast. Anycast addresses allow a packet to be sent to the nearest node in a group of potential receivers. Multicast addresses allow a packet to be sent to a group of nodes that have joined a multicast group. Unicast addresses allow a packet to be sent to a specific node on a network. Therefore, all three address types (anycast, multicast, and unicast) are supported by IPv6.

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  • 29. 

    How large are IPv6 adresses?

    • A.

      32 bit

    • B.

      64 bits

    • C.

      128 bits

    • D.

      256 bits

    Correct Answer
    C. 128 bits
    Explanation
    IPv6 addresses are 128 bits in size. This is a significant increase compared to IPv4 addresses, which are only 32 bits. The larger address space of IPv6 allows for a much greater number of unique addresses, which is necessary to accommodate the growing number of devices connected to the internet. The 128-bit address space provides approximately 3.4×10^38 unique addresses, ensuring that there will be enough addresses for the foreseeable future.

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  • 30. 

    A class A network address of 12.0.0.0 is written as 12.0.0.0/8 in prefix notation?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. In prefix notation, the /8 indicates that the first 8 bits of the IP address are the network address, while the remaining bits are available for host addresses. In this case, the class A network address 12.0.0.0 has the first 8 bits as the network address, making it 12.0.0.0/8.

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  • 31. 

    Zero compression is a method that allows a word containing contiguous zeros in an IPv6 address to be replaced by double colons>

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Zero compression is a method used in IPv6 addressing to replace contiguous zeros with double colons. This helps in simplifying and shortening the address. For example, instead of writing 2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:1428:57ab, we can write it as 2001:0db8::1428:57ab. Therefore, the statement "Zero compression is a method that allows a word containing contiguous zeros in an IPv6 address to be replaced by double colons" is true.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following address types are used for local network communications in IPv6

    • A.

      Link-layer

    • B.

      Link-local

    • C.

      Local use

    • D.

      Site-local

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Link-local
    D. Site-local
    Explanation
    Link-local and site-local are the two address types used for local network communications in IPv6. Link-local addresses are automatically assigned to interfaces on a local network and are only valid within that network. They are used for communication between devices on the same network segment. Site-local addresses, on the other hand, are used for communication within a specific site or organization. They are similar to private IPv4 addresses and are not meant to be globally routable.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following IPv6 addresses are the same based on the correct use of zero compression

    • A.

      Fe80::2d57:c4f8::80d7

    • B.

      Fe80:0000:2d57:c4f8:0000:80d7

    • C.

      Fe8::2df7:c4f8::8d7

    • D.

      Fe80:0:2d57:c4f8:0:80d7

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Fe80::2d57:c4f8::80d7
    B. Fe80:0000:2d57:c4f8:0000:80d7
    Explanation
    The correct use of zero compression in IPv6 allows for consecutive blocks of zeros to be replaced with a double colon (::). In the given answer, both "fe80::2d57:c4f8::80d7" and "fe80:0000:2d57:c4f8:0000:80d7" have consecutive blocks of zeros that can be compressed to "::". Therefore, these two IPv6 addresses are the same. The other options, "fe8::2df7:c4f8::8d7" and "fe80:0:2d57:c4f8:0:80d7", do not have consecutive blocks of zeros that can be compressed, so they are not the same as the first two addresses.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following represents an improvement of IPv6 over IPv4

    • A.

      Larger address space

    • B.

      Better security

    • C.

      Improved broadcast support

    • D.

      Better support for mobile IP

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Larger address space
    B. Better security
    D. Better support for mobile IP
    Explanation
    IPv6 represents an improvement over IPv4 in terms of a larger address space, better security, and better support for mobile IP. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, providing a significantly larger address space compared to IPv4's 32-bit addresses, which allows for more unique IP addresses. Additionally, IPv6 incorporates improved security features, such as IPsec, which provides authentication and encryption for network communications. Furthermore, IPv6 includes better support for mobile IP, enabling seamless connectivity as devices move between different networks without losing their IP address.

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  • 35. 

    A default gateway is :

    • A.

      Any IP router

    • B.

      An IP router attached to the Internet

    • C.

      An IP configuration element that names the router/gateway for a particular subnet

    • D.

      An IP configuration element that names the boundary router to the Internet

    Correct Answer
    C. An IP configuration element that names the router/gateway for a particular subnet
    Explanation
    A default gateway is an IP configuration element that names the router/gateway for a particular subnet. It is the IP address that a device uses to send data to another network or the internet. When a device wants to communicate with a device on a different network, it sends the data to the default gateway, which then forwards the data to the appropriate destination. The default gateway acts as the intermediary between the local network and external networks, allowing devices to connect and communicate with devices outside of their own subnet.

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  • 36. 

    Native IP addresses in a URL use which of the following characters to ebcolose the literal IPv6 address, according to RFC 2732 and later by 3986

    • A.

      Two colons

    • B.

      Two braces

    • C.

      Two brackets

    • D.

      Two forward slashes

    Correct Answer
    C. Two brackets
    Explanation
    According to RFC 2732 and later by 3986, native IP addresses in a URL use two brackets to enclose the literal IPv6 address.

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  • 37. 

    Which RFC originally proposed CIDR?

    • A.

      1519

    • B.

      1878

    • C.

      1918

    • D.

      2700

    Correct Answer
    A. 1519
    Explanation
    RFC 1519 originally proposed CIDR. CIDR stands for Classless Inter-Domain Routing, which is a method used for IP address allocation and routing. It was introduced as a solution to the problem of IP address exhaustion. RFC 1519 defines the concept of supernetting, which allows multiple IP networks to be aggregated into a single larger network. This helps in efficient utilization of IP addresses and simplifies routing tables.

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  • 38. 

    The loopback address for a network interface using  IPv4 is 127.0.0.1 and lets the computer user test the interface. What is the loopback address using IPv6?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      ::1

    • C.

      ::1::1

    • D.

      :1:

    Correct Answer
    B. ::1
    Explanation
    The loopback address for a network interface using IPv6 is "::1". This address is equivalent to the IPv4 loopback address 127.0.0.1 and is used to test the network interface on the computer.

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  • 39. 

    The first byte or 8 bits of an IPv6 multicast address must be set to the following?

    • A.

      0000

    • B.

      1111

    • C.

      1010

    • D.

      Ffff

    Correct Answer
    B. 1111
    Explanation
    The first byte or 8 bits of an IPv6 multicast address must be set to "1111" because this is the reserved prefix for multicast addresses in IPv6. Multicast addresses are used to send data from one sender to multiple receivers in a network. The "1111" prefix ensures that the address is recognized as a multicast address by network devices.

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  • 40. 

    An IPv6 unicast address is made up of which of the following?

    • A.

      A 32 bit interface ID and a 96 bit network ID

    • B.

      A 64 bit interface ID and a 64 but network portion

    • C.

      A 96 bit interface and a 32 bit network portion

    • D.

      A 64 bit interface ID, a 32 bit network portions and a 32 bit broadcast address

    Correct Answer
    B. A 64 bit interface ID and a 64 but network portion
    Explanation
    An IPv6 unicast address is made up of a 64 bit interface ID and a 64 bit network portion. This means that the address consists of two parts: the first 64 bits represent the network portion, which identifies the network to which the device belongs, and the second 64 bits represent the interface ID, which is unique to each device within that network. This addressing scheme allows for a larger number of unique addresses compared to IPv4, which uses a 32 bit addressing scheme.

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  • 41. 

    For an IPv6 aggregatable global unicast address, the FP or Format Prefix field contains how many bits in the identifier

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      8

    • C.

      13

    • D.

      24

    Correct Answer
    A. 3
    Explanation
    The FP or Format Prefix field in an IPv6 aggregatable global unicast address contains 3 bits in the identifier. This field is used to indicate the format of the address and is always set to 001 for aggregatable global unicast addresses. The remaining bits in the address are used for the Top-Level Aggregator (TLA) ID, Next-Level Aggregator (NLA) ID, and Site-Level Aggregator (SLA) ID. Therefore, the correct answer is 3.

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  • 42. 

    For IPv6 multicast address, how bits are assigned to the group ID?

    • A.

      32

    • B.

      64

    • C.

      96

    • D.

      112

    Correct Answer
    D. 112
    Explanation
    In IPv6 multicast address, the group ID is assigned 112 bits. This means that out of the 128 bits of an IPv6 address, the first 112 bits are used to identify the multicast group. The remaining 16 bits are reserved for the flags and scope of the multicast address.

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  • 43. 

    To which of the following limitations are private IP address subject to?

    • A.

      May not be routed on the internet

    • B.

      May not be used without permission from ICANN or an ISP

    • C.

      Will not work with NAT software

    • D.

      May not work with protocols that require secure end to end connections

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. May not be routed on the internet
    D. May not work with protocols that require secure end to end connections
    Explanation
    Private IP addresses are subject to the limitations of not being routable on the internet and not working with protocols that require secure end-to-end connections. Private IP addresses are reserved for use within private networks and are not intended to be used for communication over the internet. Therefore, they cannot be routed on the internet. Additionally, protocols that require secure end-to-end connections, such as VPN or TLS, may not function properly with private IP addresses as they are not publicly accessible.

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  • 44. 

    which of the following service perform address hiding

    • A.

      Email

    • B.

      FTP

    • C.

      NAT

    • D.

      Proxy

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. NAT
    D. Proxy
    Explanation
    NAT (Network Address Translation) and Proxy services both perform address hiding. NAT hides the private IP addresses of devices within a local network behind a single public IP address when communicating with the internet. This adds a layer of security and privacy. On the other hand, a proxy server acts as an intermediary between a client and the internet, making requests on behalf of the client. It masks the client's IP address, providing anonymity and hiding the client's actual location. Both NAT and Proxy services are commonly used to enhance security and protect the identity of users.

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  • 45. 

    Which kinds of devices require public IP address?

    • A.

      Any device attached to directly to the Internet

    • B.

      Any server whose service should be available to the Internet

    • C.

      Every client on the internal network

    • D.

      Every server on the internal network

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Any device attached to directly to the Internet
    B. Any server whose service should be available to the Internet
    Explanation
    Devices that require public IP addresses are those that are directly connected to the internet and servers whose services need to be accessible to the internet. This is because public IP addresses are globally unique and allow devices to communicate with other devices on the internet. Devices on the internal network do not require public IP addresses as they can communicate with each other using private IP addresses.

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  • 46. 

    In an IPv4 packet header, what does the value in the Internet Header Length signify?

    • A.

      The length of the IPv4 packet

    • B.

      The length of the IPv4 header

    • C.

      The length of the IPv4 header minus options

    • D.

      The length of the IPv4 packet minus the options

    Correct Answer
    A. The length of the IPv4 packet
    Explanation
    The value in the Internet Header Length field in an IPv4 packet header signifies the length of the IPv4 header. This field specifies the length of the header in 32-bit words, so multiplying the value by 4 gives the actual length in bytes. It does not include any options that may be present in the header. The length of the entire IPv4 packet, including both the header and the data, is determined by the Total Length field in the header.

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  • 47. 

    What is the purpose of the Precedence bits in an IPv4 header's DSCP field?

    • A.

      Precedence is used by routers to prioritize traffic through router queues

    • B.

      Precedence is used by MTU Discovery to adjust packet size for link MTU's

    • C.

      Precedence is used by routers to follow a specified path type

    • D.

      Precedence is used by upper layer protocols for error checking

    Correct Answer
    A. Precedence is used by routers to prioritize traffic through router queues
    Explanation
    The purpose of the Precedence bits in an IPv4 header's DSCP field is to prioritize traffic through router queues. By assigning different levels of precedence to packets, routers can determine the order in which packets are processed and transmitted, ensuring that higher priority traffic is given preferential treatment and is sent more quickly through the network. This helps to optimize network performance and ensure that critical or time-sensitive data is delivered efficiently.

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  • 48. 

    Using the DSCP identifier, IPv4 traffic can be prioritized by an end node or boundary device, such as a router, and queued and forwarded according to this value DSCP EF ensures that routers expedite the packet forwarding and don't lower the priority value. Of the following, which service most requires DSCP EF?

    • A.

      E-mail

    • B.

      Instant messaging

    • C.

      VoIP

    • D.

      Web Browsing

    Correct Answer
    C. VoIP
    Explanation
    DSCP EF (Differentiated Services Code Point Expedited Forwarding) is a value used to prioritize and expedite packet forwarding in IP networks. VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a service that requires real-time communication and low latency. By using DSCP EF, routers can prioritize VoIP packets and ensure that they are forwarded quickly and with high priority, resulting in a better quality of voice communication. Therefore, VoIP is the service that most requires DSCP EF.

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  • 49. 

    In an IPv4 Packet Header, the identification field contains a unique identifier for each packet; however, packet are sometimes fragmented further by routers to transverse a network that supports a smaller packet size. What happens to the value of the identification field  in a packet header if the packet is further fragmented 

    • A.

      The unique ID for the packet is maintained, but for each fragment a suffix is added to the original value.

    • B.

      The unique ID for the packet is maintained, but for each fragment a prefix is added to the original value

    • C.

      The unique ID is discarded , and completely new IDs are inserted in the identification field for each of the fragments of the the original packet

    • D.

      Each fragment of the original packet maintains the original ID value in the header identification field.

    Correct Answer
    D. Each fragment of the original packet maintains the original ID value in the header identification field.
    Explanation
    Each fragment of the original packet maintains the original ID value in the header identification field. This means that even though the packet is further fragmented by routers, the unique identifier for the packet remains the same for each fragment. This allows the fragments to be reassembled correctly at the destination.

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  • 50. 

    The Flags field in an IPv4 header can be set to different values, depending on fragmentation requirements. Of the following, which is correct about the options that can be set in this field?

    • A.

      The values can be set to allow more fragmentation but not prohibit fragmentation

    • B.

      The values can be set to prohibit more fragmentation but not allow further fragmentation

    • C.

      The values can be set to allow more fragmentation or prohibit more fragmentation, depending on the networks requirements

    • D.

      The value can only be set to Reserved (bit 0), with no other available options

    Correct Answer
    C. The values can be set to allow more fragmentation or prohibit more fragmentation, depending on the networks requirements
    Explanation
    The Flags field in an IPv4 header can be set to allow more fragmentation or prohibit more fragmentation, depending on the network's requirements. This means that the sender can choose whether to allow the packet to be fragmented into smaller pieces or to prohibit further fragmentation. The decision to allow or prohibit fragmentation is based on factors such as the network's capabilities and the desired performance.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Oct 04, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 03, 2018
    Quiz Created by
    Bengill
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